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|Raymond Arthur Dart|
Raymond Dart with the Taung Child skull
4 February 1893|
|Died||22 November 1988
Johannesburg, South Africa
|Alma mater||Ipswich Grammar School, University of Queensland, University of Sydney|
|Known for||Australopithecus africanus|
|Notable awards||Viking Fund Medal (1957)|
Raymond Arthur Dart (4 February 1893 – 22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist and anthropologist, best known for his involvement in the 1934 discovery of the first fossil ever found of Australopithecus africanus, an extinct hominin closely related to humans, at Taung in the North of South Africa in the province Northwest.
Raymond Dart was born in Toowong, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, the fifth of nine children and son of a farmer and tradesman. His birth occurred during the 1893 flood which filled his parents' home and shop in Toowong. The family moved alternately between their country property near Laidley and their shop in Toowong. The young Dart attended Toowong State School, Blenheim State School and earnt a scholarship to Ipswich Grammar School from 1906-1909. Dart considered becoming a medical missionary to China and wished to study medicine at the University of Sydney, but his father argued that he should accept the scholarship he won to the newly established University of Queensland and study science. He was a member of the first intake of students to the University in 1911 and studied geology under H.C. Richards and zoology, taking his B.Sc. in 1913. Dart became the first student to graduate with honours from the University of Queensland in 1914 and took his M.Sc. with honours from UQ in 1916. He studied medicine at the University of Sydney taking his MB and M.Surgery in 1917, and conducting his residency at St Andrews College, University of Sydney. He would be awarded his M.D. from the University of Sydney in 1927.
Following the war, he took up a position as a senior demonstrator at the University College, London in 1920 at the behest of Grafton Elliot Smith, famed anatomist, anthropologist and fellow Australian. This would be followed by a year on a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri. Returning to England and work at the University College, London, he then reluctantly took up the position of Professor at the newly established department of anatomy at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1922, after encouragement from Elliot Smith and Sir Arthur Keith.
In 1924, Dart discovered the first Australopithecus africanus fossil, an extinct hominin closely related to humans. His colleague, Professor Robert Burns Young from the Buxton Limeworks, had sent Dart two crates of fossils from the small town of Taung in the North West Province of South Africa. Upon seeing the fossils, Dart immediately recognized one as being an early human because its brain dimensions were too large for a baboon or chimpanzee. Blasting had exposed a breccia-filled cave and the child's skull had come to light together with several fossilized monkeys and hyraxes. M. de Bruyn had noticed their unusual nature in November 1924 and informed the Limeworks manager, Mr. A.E. Spiers.
As Dart was not part of the scientific establishment, and because he found the fossil in Africa, and not Europe or Asia, where the establishment supposed man's origins, his findings were initially dismissed.
Dart's closest ally was Robert Broom whose discoveries of further Australopithecines (as well as Wilfrid Le Gros Clark's support) eventually vindicated Dart, so much so that in 1947 Sir Arthur Keith said "...Dart was right, and I was wrong". Keith made this statement referring to his dismissal and skepticism of Dart's analysis of the 'Taung Child' as an early human ancestor; Keith thought that it was more likely to be an ape, yet later research by Broom confirmed Dart's theories. Dart's theories were also popularized by playwright, screenwriter, and science writer Robert Ardrey, first in an article published in The Reporter and reprinted in Science Digest, and later in Ardrey's influential four-book Nature of Man Series.:41:20
Not all of Dart's theories would in the end be vindicated. A number of his theories including that of the Killer Ape, have been called into question. His work was clearly influenced by the mentors he worked with in his early career, in particular Grafton Elliot Smith.
Raymond Dart proposed the idea of dual evolutionary origins of the neocortex. During his research in 1930s in Africa, he studied the architecture of reptilian brains. He was able to identify a "premordial neocortex" (paraphrased), the oldest structure that can be considered as a neocortex, in a reptile. He identified a distinction between the cytoarchitecture in an area which split it into a Para-Hippocampal and a Para-Pyriform region.
Dart married Dora Tyree, a medical student from Virginia, in 1921 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and they divorced in 1934. He married Marjorie Frew, head librarian at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1936 and they had two children, Diana and Galen.
The Institute for the Study of Man in Africa was established in 1956 at Witwatersrand in his honor.
Dart was director of the School of Anatomy at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg until 1958. There he worked with Phillip Tobias (1925-2012), who continued his work in the study of the Cradle of Humankind and other paleoanthropological sites. In 1959, an autobiographical account of Dart's discoveries, Adventures with the Missing Link, was published (with Dennis Craig as co-author). In the book he acknowledges the crucial role played by his first female student and Demonstrator, Josephine Salmons. She brought to his attention the existence of a fossilised baboon skull at the house of Mr E.G. Izod, director of the Northern Lime Company and proprietor of a quarry in Taung. The skull was kept as an ornament on the mantlepiece above the fireplace at his home. In bringing the skull to show Prof. Raymond Dart, she set in motion a chain of events that led to the discovery of the 'Child skull of Taung' She later became wife of Prof. Cecil Jackson, Professor of Anatomy at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, University of Pretoria.
At the age of 73, Dart began dividing his time between South Africa and The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential (IAHP), an organization founded by Glenn Doman. Dart spent much of the next twenty years working with the IAHP, an organization that treats brain injured children. His son, Galen Dart had suffered motor damage during birth in 1941. Raymond Dart died in Johannesburg in 1988, and was survived by his wife and children.
- Dart R.A. (1925): Australopithecus africanus: The Man-Ape of South Africa. Nature, Vol.115, No.2884 (1925) 195-9 (the original paper communicating the Taung finding, in PDF format).
- Dart, R.A. (1953): "The Predatory Transition from Ape to Man." International Anthropological and Linguistic Review, 1, pp. 201–217.
- Dart, Raymond A. and Craig, Dennis (1959): Adventures with the Missing Link. New York: Harper & Brothers (autobiography).
- Fagan, Brian. The Passion of Raymond Dart. Archaeology v. 42 (May–June 1989): p. 18.
- Johanson, Donald & Maitland Edey. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990 ISBN 0-671-25036-1
- Alexander Murray, ed. (1996): Skill and Poise: Articles on skill, poise and the F. M. Alexander Technique. Collection of Raymond Dart's papers. Hardcover, 192+xiv pages, b/w illustrations, 234 x 156 mm, index, UK, STAT Books.
- Wheelhouse, Frances and Smithford, Kathaleen (2001). Dart: scientist and man of grit. University of Queensland Library: Transpareon Press. pp. 1–17. ISBN 0908021275.
- Tobias, Phillip V. Dart, Raymond Arthur (1893–1988). Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Wheelhouse, Frances (1983). Raymond Arthur Dart: a pictorial profile. University of Queensland Library: Transpareon Press. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0908021046.
- "Dart, Raymond Arthur - Faculty of Medicine Online Museum and Archive". sydney.edu.au. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- "Biographies: Raymond Dart". www.talkorigins.org. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- Falk, Dean (2011). The fossil chronicles. University of Queensland Library: University of California Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780520266704.
- Dart, Raymond (1982). Adventures with the Missing Link. Better Baby Pr. ISBN 0936676299.
- Brain, C.K. "Raymond Dart and our African origins". A Century of Nature. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Ape to Man, History, 16 February 2011
- Townsley, Graham (Director) (10 September 2015). Dawn of Humanity (Documentary). Nova, PBS.
- Webster, Bayard. "Robert Ardrey Dies; Writer on Behavior." New York: The New York Times. January 16, 1980. Print
- Selig, Ruth Osterweis (Spring–Summer 1999). "Human Origins: One Man's Search for the Causes in Time". Anthronotes. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Derricort, Robin (2009). "The enigma of Raymond Dart". International Journal of African Historical Studies. 42 (2): 257–282. JSTOR 40282388.
- Strkalj, Goran. "Where was Raymond Dart wrong?". African Studies. 57 (1): 107–111. doi:10.1080/00020189808707888.
- Derricort, Robin (2010). "Raymond Dart and the danger of mentors". Antiquity. 84 (323): 230–235. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Pandya, Deepak; Petrides, Michael; Seltzer, Benjamin; Cipolloni, Patsy Benny (2014). Cerebral Cortex: Architecture, Connections, and the Dual Origin Concept. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538515-1.
- Wilford, John Noble (1988-11-23). "Raymond A. Dart Is Dead at 95; Leader in Study of Human Origins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- Institute for the Study of Man in Africa. "Objectives & Vision, Background Information". ISMA website.
- Review by Jean Clark of "Dart: Man of Science and Grit" by Frances Wheelhouse and Kathaleen S. Smithford. Review was published in STATNews vol. 6, issue 11, September 2003. http://www.mouritz.co.uk/8.33.22.Wheelhouse.Dart.html
- Essay by C.K. Brain, "Raymond Dart and our African origins," accompanying the reprint of Raymond Dart's 1925 Nature article in A Century of Nature: Twenty-One Discoveries that Changed Science and the World, Laura Garwin and Tim Lincoln, eds.
- Biography of Raymond Dart on Minnesota State University, Mankato EMuseum website
- Biography of Raymond Dart in the TalkOrigins Archive.