Raymond Greene was born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire. He qualified as a doctor in 1927. In 1931 he was part of the team which climbed Kamet (at the time, the highest mountain to have been climbed), and in 1933 he was the senior doctor on the fourth British expedition to Mount Everest led by Hugh Ruttledge (in 1953 when the mountain was finally climbed, it was Greene who made the announcement on the BBC). During World War II he worked as a doctor with Special Operations Executive (SOE) and as advisor to the armed forces on the effects of high altitude and cold on the human body.
He went on to become an expert in the treatment of thyroid and other endocrine diseases, migraine, and frostbite. He was credited with coining the term "pre-menstrual tension" and his research into the subject was apparently used in a criminal case by counsel defending a woman accused of murder. Between 1960 and 1980 he was chairman of Heinemann Medical Books. He was a fellow of the Royal Zoological Society and diagnosed and treated thyroid problems in Guy the gorilla at the London Zoo. He was also medical advisor to President Charles de Gaulle during his State Visit to England in 1960 and was awarded the Legion of Honour of France. His autobiography, Moments of Being, was published in 1974.