Raymond Lindeman

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Raymond Laurel Lindeman
DiedJune 29, 1942
New Haven, CT
ResidenceUnited States
Alma materUniversity of Minnesota
Known forPioneering the concept of trophic dynamics in ecology
Scientific career
FieldsLimnology, paleolimnology, trophic ecology
InstitutionsYale University
Doctoral advisorSamuel Eddy

Raymond Laurel Lindeman (1915 – June 29, 1942) was an ecologist whose graduate research is often credited with being a seminal study in field of ecosystem ecology.

Graduate research work[edit]

Lindeman completed his PhD at the University of Minnesota with his thesis work being concerned with the history and ecological dynamics of Cedar Bog Lake, located in what is known today as the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in central Minnesota.

While a postdoctoral researcher at Yale University with noted limnologist G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Lindeman submitted a chapter of his thesis for publication in the journal Ecology that outlined the Ten percent law. His manuscript was initially rejected for its generalisations but was published after Hutchinson and others were able to convince the editor of the paper's merits. This publication appeared in 1942, shortly after Lindeman's death caused by a rare form of hepatitis.


An annual award in Lindeman's honor is given by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography to the outstanding paper written that year by a young aquatic scientist. Lindeman is also honored today with a lecture series in his name in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, as well as an informative plaque on the same University's Wall of Discovery.


  • Lindeman, RL (1939). Some affinities and varieties of the planktonic rotifer Brachnionus havanaensis Rouss. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 58: 210-221.
  • Lindeman, RL (1941). "The developmental history of Cedar Creek Bog, Minnesota". American Midland Naturalist. 25 (1): 101–112. CiteSeerX doi:10.2307/2420845. JSTOR 2420845.
  • Lindeman, RL (1941). Ecological dynamics in a senescent lake. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Lindeman, RL (1941). "Seasonal food-cycle dynamics in a Senescent Lake". American Midland Naturalist. 26 (3): 636–673. CiteSeerX doi:10.2307/2420739. JSTOR 2420739.
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "Experimental simulation of winter anaerobiosis in a senescent lake". Ecology. 23 (1): 1–13. doi:10.2307/1930867. JSTOR 1930867.
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "Seasonal distribution of midge larvae in a scenescent lake". American Midland Naturalist. 27 (2): 428–444. doi:10.2307/2421011. JSTOR 2421011.
  • Lindeman, RL (1942). "The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology". Ecology. 23 (4): 399–418. doi:10.2307/1930126. JSTOR 1930126.


  • Cook, Robert Edward (1977-10-07). "Raymond Lindeman and the Trophic-Dynamic Concept in Ecology". Science. 198 (4312): 22–26. doi:10.1126/science.198.4312.22. PMID 17741875.
  • Lindsay, AA (1980). "The ecological way". The Naturalist. 31: 1–8.
  • Reif, CB (1986). "Memories of Raymond Laurel Lindeman". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 67 (1): 20–25. JSTOR 20166483. [1]
  • Sobczak, WV (2005). "Lindeman's trophic dynamic aspect of ecology: "Will you still need me when I'm 64?". Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin. 14 (3): 53–57. doi:10.1002/lob.200514353.
  • Sterner RW (2012) Raymond Laurel Lindeman and the Trophic Dynamic Viewpoint. The Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 21(2): in press. Ms. online [2].


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