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Raymond Martini, or Ramon Martí was a 13th-century Catalan Dominican friar and theologian. He is remembered for his polemic work Pugio Fidei (c. 1270). In 1250 he was one of eight friars appointed to make a study of oriental languages with the purpose of carrying on a mission to Jews and Moors. He worked in Spain as a missionary, and also for a short time in Tunis. A document bearing his signature and dated July 1284 shows that he was at that time still living.
He was born in the first half of the 13th century at Subirats in Catalonia; and died after 1284. It is speculated that he could have been of Jewish origin. In 1250 he was selected by the provincial chapter, sitting in Toledo, to study Oriental languages at a Dominican school which had been founded for the express purpose of preparing its pupils to engage in polemics against Jews and Moors. Subsequently he lived for a long time in a monastery at Barcelona.
Censorship of the Talmud
In March 1264, he was commissioned, with the Bishop of Barcelona, Raymond of Penyafort, and two other Dominicans, Arnau de Segarra and Pere Gener, to examine the Hebrew manuscripts and books which the Jews, by order of the king, were to submit to them, and to cancel passages deemed offensive to the Christian religion. This is the first instance of Dominican censorship of the Talmud in Spain.
Their report was not severe, however, since Martí declared that many passages were confirmatory of the truth of Christianity, and that the Talmud should not be burned entirely (Pugio Fidei, ii.14, §8).
There is at Bologna a manuscript of his Capistrum Judaeorum, aimed at the errors of the Jews; and at Tortosa a manuscript containing Explanatio simboli apostolorum ad institutionem fidelium which has a marginal note that it was edited "a fratre Ro Martini de ordine predicatorum".
Martí's work was for a long time the chief source for Dominican polemics.
The Pugio Fidei
His chief work, the Pugio Fidei, was lost for a long time, but was finally brought to light by Justus Scaliger, and edited by Joseph de Voisin of the Sorbonne (d. 1685), with many notes, under the title Pugio Fidei Raymundi Martini Ordinis Prædicatorum Adversus Mauros et Judæos (Paris, 1651).
The work treats of God's omniscience, the Creation, immortality, and the resurrection of the dead, and attempts to show the falsity of the Jewish religion; the latter part of the work is valuable on account of its extracts from the Talmud, the Midrash, and other sources.
This work was used by Porchetus de Salvaticis at the beginning of the 14th century in his Victoria Porcheti adversus impios Hebreos  (printed 1520), by Hieronymus de Sancta Fide in his Hebraeomastix and elsewhere, and was plagiarized by Petrus Galatinus.
About 1620 François Bosquet discovered in the Collegium Fuxense (the Collège de Foix in Toulouse) a manuscript of the Pugio, and it was from this and three other manuscripts that de Voisin edited the work. Better known than this edition is its reprint by J. B. Carpzov (Leipzig and Frankfurt, 1687), with the anti-Jewish preface Introduction in Theologiam Judaicam.
Knowledge of Hebrew literature
Martí has been accused of forgery because of his quotations from Genesis Rabbah, which were not otherwise known; but Leopold Zunz defends him against this charge (Gottesdienstliche Vorträge der Juden p. 300).
Martí was widely read in Hebrew literature, quoting not only from Talmudic and Midrashic works, but from Rashi, Abraham ibn Ezra, Maimonides, and Ḳimḥi. His fundamental views, which he attempts to substantiate by his citations, are that Jesus is announced in rabbinical literature as the Messiah and Son of God; that the Jewish laws, although revealed by God, are abrogated by the advent of the Messiah; and that the Talmudists corrupted the text of the Bible, as is indicated by the tikkune soferim.
Another prominent aspect of his contribution was the enumeration and rejection of the "Tikkun Sopherim", alleged corrections made by Jewish scribes on the Biblical text. Martí directly and publicly charged these emendations upon the Hebrew scribes as "willful corruptions and perversions introduced by them into the sacred text."
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer and Gotthold Weil (1901–1906). "Martin, Raymond". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography
- Antoine Touron, Histoire des Hommes Illustres de l'Ordre de St. Dominique, i.489-504, (Paris, 1743)
- Jacob Quétif and J. Echard, Scriptores Ordinis Prædicatorum, i.396-398, ib. (1719)
- Johann Christoph Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebræa, i.1016-1018, iii.989-991;
- Johann Jakob Herzog, G.L. Plitt, Real-Encyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche;
- Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte, vii.124, 150.
- Philippe Bobichon, « Ramón Martí (XIIIe siècle) : un ‘Maître orientaliste’ ?, dans : Portraits de Maîtres offerts à Olga Weijers, Porto 2012, p. 405-414.
- Philippe Bobichon, « Quotations, Translations, and Uses of Jewish Texts in Ramon Martí, s Pugio Fidei », dans The Late Medieval Hebrew Book in the Western Mediterranean. Hebrew Manuscripts and Incunabula in Context, Brill, 2015, p. 266-293.
- Philippe Bobichon, « La ‘bibliothèque’ de Raymond Martin au couvent Sainte-Catherine de Barcelone : sources antiques et chrétiennes du Pugio fidei (ca 1278) », in Entre stabilité et itinérance. Livres et culture des ordres mendiants, XIIIe-XVe siècle, Turnhout 2014, p. 329-366.
- Philippe Bobichon,« [Ramon Martí, Pugio fidei] Le manuscrit Latin 1405 de la Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (Paris), autographe et œuvre d’un converti », dans Görge K. Hasselhoff et Alexander Fidora (éd), Ramon Martí’s Pugio Fidei. Studies and Texts, volume introductif à l’édition complète du Pugio fidei, Santa Coloma de Queralt : Obrador Edendum [Exemplaria Scholastica, 8], 2017, p. 39-101.
- Richard Harvey, Raymundus Martini and the Pugio Fidei: The Life and Work of a Medieval Controversialist (London, 1991, available at lulu.com/content/1385305);
- Ambrose of Altramum, Bibliotheca Dominicana, ed. Rocaberti, pp. 58, 449-456, Rome, 1677
- J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca theologica selecta, i.609, (Jena, 1757)
- Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, Journal of Philology, xvi (1887), 131-152
- L. Zunz, Die Gottesdienstlichen Vorträge der Juden, pp. 287–293, Berlin, 1832
- E. B. Pusey, Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah, vol. ii, Oxford, 1877
- Adolf Neubauer, Book of Tobit, pp. vii-ix, xx-xxv, ib. 1878
- A. Epstein, Magazin für Wissenschaft des Judenthums, 1888, pp. 65–99,
- I. Levi, Revue des Études Juives, xvii (1888), 313-317.
- Eusebi Colomer i Pous, El pensament als Països Catalans durant l’Edat Mitjana i el Renaixement, (1997), p. 194.
- Ramon Martí (in Catalan), Raimondo Martí, Raimundus Marti, Raymundo Martini, Raymond Martin, Raymund Martin, Raymundus Martini.
- Latin: The Harness of the Jews
- Latin: An explication of the Apostles' Creed for the edification of the Faithful
- Latin: ...by Brother Ró. Martí of the Order of Preachers
- Latin: Ramón Martí, of the Order of Preachers, his Dagger of the Faith against the Moors and Jews
- Latin: Porchetus' Victory against the impious Hebrews
- Latin: Hebrew-cruncher
- Oliver Turnbull Crane, "Tikkun Sopherim", Hebraica, The University of Chicago Press, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Jul., 1887), pp. 233, 234.