Razavi Khorasan province

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Razavi Khorasan Province
استان خراسان رضوی
1 (معماری حرم امام رضا (ع.jpg
آرامگاه شیخ فرید الدین عطار نیشابوری.jpg
کاخ خورشید واقع در کلات نادر 03.jpg
Radkan Tower 2015-01-26.jpg
Mulla Hadi Sabzevari Tomb (ADI3475-05).jpg
آرامگاه بابا لقمان.jpg
Tomb of Hassan Modarres2021-03-23 36.jpg
From top to bottom and from left to right: Mashhad, Nishapur, Kalat, Chenaran, Sabzevar, Sarakhs, and Kashmar
Location of Khorasan-e Razavi province in Iran
Location of Khorasan-e Razavi province in Iran
Coordinates: 36°17′53″N 59°36′21″E / 36.2980°N 59.6057°E / 36.2980; 59.6057Coordinates: 36°17′53″N 59°36′21″E / 36.2980°N 59.6057°E / 36.2980; 59.6057
CountryIran
RegionRegion 5
CapitalMashhad
Counties33
Government
 • Governor-generalYaghob-Ali Nazari
Area
 • Total118,884 km2 (45,901 sq mi)
Highest elevation3,211 m (10,535 ft)
Lowest elevation299 m (981 ft)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total6,434,501
 • Estimate 
(2020)
6,871,000[1]
 • Density54/km2 (140/sq mi)
DemonymKhorasani (Persian: خراسانی)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Area code051
Main language(s)Persian
HDI (2017)0.781[3]
high · 19th
Websitehttp://ostandari.khorasan.ir/

Razavi Khorasan Province (Persian: استان خراسان رضوی, Ostân-e Xorâsân-e Razavi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in northeastern Iran. The city of Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5[4] with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.

At the time of the National Census of 2006, the province had a population of 5,515,980 in 1,426,187 households.[5] The following census in 2011 counted 5,994,402 people in 1,716,314 households.[6] At the latest census conducted in 2016, the population had risen to 6,434,501 in 1,938,703 households.[2]

History[edit]

The Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Kurds,[7] Turkmens, and Mongols brought changes to the region time and time again.

Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Ērānshahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran.

The Parthian Empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. During the Sassanid dynasty, the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgošban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province.

Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia, each section being named after the four largest cities, Nishapur, Merv, Herat, and Balkh.

In the year 651, the army of the Rashidun Caliphate conquered Khorasan. The territory remained under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Tahirid dynasty until 873, and the Samanid dynasty in 900.

Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994, and Tuğrul in the year 1037.

In 1507, Khorasan was occupied by the Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, it was occupied by the Afghan Durrani Empire centered in Qandahar.

In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan Empire was split between the Durranis and Barakzais. The Persians sieged the city in 1837, but the British assisted the Afghans in repelling them. In 1856, the Persians launched another invasion and briefly managed to recapture the city; it led directly to the Anglo-Persian War. In 1857 hostilities between the Persians and the British ended after the Treaty of Paris was signed, and the Persian troops withdrew from Herat.[8] Afghanistan reconquered Herat in 1863 under Dost Muhammad Khan, two weeks before his death.[9]

Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on 29 September 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on 18 May 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on 29 May 2004) were Khorasan-e Razavi, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan.

Archaeological sites[edit]

Among the archeological sites discovered in this province:

Kohandezh hills[edit]

Excavations conducted by an American team between 1935 and 1940 in Nishapur discovered museum-worthy objects, which were shared with the government of the Shah. The Metropolitan Museum of Art's publications[citation needed] document its own Nishapur ceramics from those excavations. For half a century after 1945 the site of Nishapur was ransacked to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art. Nowadays, the Kohandezh hills reveal the remains from those excavations.[citation needed]

Shadiyakh[edit]

Shadiyakh was an important palace in old Nishapur up to the 7th century, and became more important and populated after that. The palace was completely ruined in the 13th century. It was the home of notables such as Farid al-Din Attar, whose tomb is found in Shadiyakh.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Razavi Khorasan.svg

Razavi Khorasan Province Population History
Administrative Divisions 2006[5] 2011[6] 2016[2]
Bajestan County1 30,664 31,207
Bakharz County2 53,582 54,615
Bardaskan County 68,392 72,626 75,631
Chenaran County 108,533 125,601 155,013
Dargaz County 73,439 74,326 72,355
Davarzan County3 21,911
Fariman County 86,428 93,930 99,001
Firuzeh County4 42,739 37,539
Golbahar County5
Gonabad County 106,158 80,783 88,753
Joghatai County3 47,920 49,175
Joveyn County3 54,139 54,488
Kalat County 39,560 38,232 36,237
Kashmar County 146,536 157,149 168,664
Khaf County 108,964 121,859 138,972
Khalilabad County 44,993 49,111 51,701
Khoshab County3 37,914 37,181
Kuhsorkh County6
Mahvelat County 47,068 48,900 51,409
Mashhad County 2,848,637 3,069,941 3,372,660
Nishapur County 441,184 433,105 451,780
Quchan County 179,613 179,714 174,495
Roshtkhar County 57,247 60,632 60,689
Sabzevar County 429,187 319,893 306,310
Salehabad County7
Sarakhs County 85,524 89,956 97,519
Sheshtamad County3
Taybad County 143,205 108,424 117,564
Torbat-e Heydarieh County 261,917 210,390 224,626
Torbat-e Jam County 239,395 262,712 267,671
Torqabeh and Shandiz County8 58,483 69,640
Zaveh County9 71,677 67,695
Zeberkhan County4
Total 5,515,980 5,994,402 6,434,501
1Separated from Gonabad County
2Separated from Taybad County
3Separated from Sabzevar County
4Separated from Nishapur County
5Separated from Chenaran County
6Separated from Kashmar County
7Separated from Torbat-e Jam County
8Separated from Mashhad County
9Separated from Torbat-e Heydarieh County

Cities[edit]

According to the 2016 census, 4,700,924 people (over 73% of the population of Razavi Khorasan province) live in the following cities: Ahmadabad-e Sowlat 8,326 ,Anabad 6,186, Bajestan 11,741, Bajgiran 594, Bakharz 9,044, Bar 3,765, Bardaskan 28,233, Bayg 3,545, Bidokht 5,501, Chapeshlu 2,374, Chekneh 1,381, Chenaran 53,879, Dargaz 36,762, Darrud 5,717, Davarzan 2,744, Dowlatabad 9,329, Eshqabad 1,993, Farhadgerd 8,442, Fariman 39,515, Feyzabad 18,120, Firuzeh 5,884, Golbahar 36,877, Golmakan 8,373, Gonabad 40,773, Hemmatabad 1,274, Jangal 6,650, Joghatai 9,268, Kadkan 3,719, Kakhk 4,625, Kalat 7,687, Kariz 11,102, Kashmar 102,282, Khaf 33,189, Khalilabad 12,751, Kharv 13,535, Kondor 6,460, Lotfabad 1,865, Mashhad 2,987,323, Mashhad Rizeh 10,105, Mashhad Zhaman 13,861, Mazdavand 1,241, Molkabad 2,056, Nashtifan 9,176, Nasrabad 7,460, Neqab 14,783, Nilshahr 7,371, Nishapur 264,375, Now Khandan 2,634, Qadamgah 3,010, Qalandarabad 4,880, Qasemabad 5,145, Quchan 101,604, Razaviyeh 8,850, Rivash 5,687, Robat-e Sang 1,551, Roshtkhar 7,514, Rud Ab 4,028, Sabzevar 243,700, Salami 7,555, Salehabad 8,625, Sangan 12,443, Sarakhs 42,179, Sefid Sang 6,129, Shadmehr 3,825, Shahrabad 2,083, Shahr-e Zow 3,745, Shandiz 13,987, Sheshtomad 3,108, Soltanabad 5,932, Taybad 56,562, Torbat-e Heydarieh 140,019, Torbat-e Jam 100,449, Torqabeh 20,998, and Yunesi 3,426.[2]

The following sorted table lists the most populous cities in Razavi Khorasan according to 2016 Census results announced by Statistical Center of Iran.[2] After Mashhad, Fariman, Nishapur, Sabzevar, and Torbat-e Heydarieh are the most populous cities of the province.

Most Populous Urban Areas in Razavi Khorasan Province[2]
Mashhad

Mashhad

Nishapur

Nishapur

Rank City County Population Sabzevar

Sabzevar

Torbat-e Heydarieh

Torbat-e Heydarieh

1 Mashhad Mashhad 2,987,323
2 Nishapur Nishapur 264,375
3 Sabzevar Sabzevar 243,700
4 Torbat-e Heydarieh Torbat-e Heydarieh 140,019
5 Kashmar Kashmar 102,282
6 Quchan Quchan 101,604
7 Torbat-e Jam Torbat-e Jam 100,449
8 Taybad Taybad 56,562
9 Chenaran Chenaran 53,879
10 Sarakhs Sarakhs 42,179

Culture[edit]

Attractions[edit]

This province contains many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves and protected regions, and various hiking areas.

Besides these, Khorasan encompasses numerous religious buildings and places of pilgrimage, including the shrine of Imam Reza, Goharshad mosque and many other mausoleums and Imamzadehs which attract visitors to this province.

The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.

Some of the popular attractions of Khorasan-e Razavi are:

Mashhad[edit]

Nishapur[edit]

Sabzevar[edit]

Kashmar[edit]

Khalilabad[edit]

Torbat-e Jam[edit]

Gonabad[edit]

Sarakhs[edit]

Bardaskan[edit]

Bajestan[edit]

Taybad[edit]

Rivash[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "جمعیت". amar.org.ir.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2 April 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. ^ "همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  7. ^ "CSKK - Kurds in Khorasan". cskk.org.
  8. ^ Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles, eds. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 7): From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 183, 394–395. ISBN 978-0521200950.
  9. ^ Ewans (2002). Afghanistan: A short History of its People and Politics. Perennial. pp. 77. ISBN 006-050508-7.
  10. ^ "Home". asrar.ac.ir.
  11. ^ "مؤسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی بهار مشهد – مؤسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی بهار مشهد – دانشگاه بهار مشهد".
  12. ^ "Welcome to ISATC 1". 11 February 2005. Archived from the original on 11 February 2005.
  13. ^ "دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد - دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد". www.um.ac.ir.
  14. ^ "دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی گناباد". www.gmu.ac.ir.
  15. ^ "دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری – دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری پویا در عرصه ملی پیشرو در مسیر توسعه".
  16. ^ "دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا (علیه السلام)". دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا (علیه السلام).
  17. ^ "دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی گناباد". iau-gonabad.ac.ir.
  18. ^ "دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی سبزوار". www.iaus.ac.ir.
  19. ^ "دانشگاه علوم پزشكي سبزوار - صفحه اصلی". www.medsab.ac.ir.
  20. ^ "دانشگاه صنعتی سجاد". www.sadjad.ac.ir.

External links[edit]

Media related to Razavi Khorasan Province at Wikimedia Commons