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- Occam's razor: When faced with competing hypotheses, select the one that makes the fewest assumptions and is thus most open to being tested. Do not multiply entities without necessity.
- Grice's razor: As a principle of parsimony, conversational implications are to be preferred over semantic context for linguistic explanations.
- Hanlon's razor: Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity.
- Hume's razor: "If the cause, assigned for any effect, be not sufficient to produce it, we must either reject that cause, or add to it such qualities as will give it a just proportion to the effect."
- Hitchens's razor: "What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence."
- Newton's flaming laser sword: If something cannot be settled by experiment or observation, then it is not worthy of debate.
- Popper's falsifiability principle: For a theory to be considered scientific, it must be falsifiable.
- Rand's razor: concepts are not to be multiplied beyond necessity—the corollary of which is: nor are they to be integrated in disregard of necessity.
- Sagan standard: Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
- Abductive reasoning
- Duck test
- Explanatory power
- Marcello Truzzi § "Extraordinary claims"
- Razor (disambiguation)
- Garg, A. (17 May 2010). "Occam's razor". A.Word.A.Day. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- Hazlett, A. (2007). "Grice's razor". Metaphilosophy. 38 (5): 669. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2007.00512.x.
- "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Implicature". Implicature, 5. Gricean Theory. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Hanlon's Razor". The Jargon File 4.4.7. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- Miles, M. (2003). Inroads: Paths in Ancient and Modern Western Philosophy. University of Toronto Press. p. 543. ISBN 978-0802037442.
- Forrest, P. (2001). "Counting the cost of modal realism". In Preyer, G.; Siebelt, F. Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Studies in Epistemology and Cognitive Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 978-0742512016.
- Mike Alder (2004). "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword". Philosophy Now. 46: 29–33.
- Leonard Peikoff, Analytic-Synthetic Dicothomy, in: Ayn Rand, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, 96
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