Reading (UK Parliament constituency)

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Reading
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Berkshire
1295–1950
Number of members Two until 1885, then one until 1950
Replaced by Reading North and Reading South
19551974 (1974)
Number of members One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Reading North and Reading South
Created from Reading North and Reading South

Reading was a parliamentary borough, and later a borough constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It comprised the town of Reading in the county of Berkshire.

From 1295, as a parliamentary borough, Reading elected two members of parliament (MPs). When the parliamentary borough was replaced by a borough constituency in 1885, this representation was reduced to a single MP. The constituency was abolished in 1950, re-created in 1955, and finally abolished in 1974.

Boundaries[edit]

1918-1950: The County Borough of Reading.

1955-1974: The County Borough of Reading wards of Abbey, Battle, Castle, Caversham, Christchurch, Katesgrove, Minster, Redlands, Thames, and Whitley.

History[edit]

Reading was one of the boroughs summoned to send members to the Model Parliament. The boundaries (encompassing the whole of one parish and parts of two others) were effectively unchanged from 1295 to 1918. In 1831, the population of the borough was 15,935, and contained 3,307 houses.

The right to vote was exercised by all inhabitants paying scot and lot, a relatively wide franchise for the period, and almost 2,000 votes were cast at the general election of 1826. Despite this high electorate, the corporation of the town was generally considered in practice to control elections to a large extent. In the second half of the 18th century, Reading was notoriously one of the most corrupt constituencies in England, bribery being both routine and expensive: Namier quotes the accounts kept for Prime Minister Newcastle of the 1754 election, which note that John Dodd, the government's candidate there, had already received £1000 and was promised £500 or £600 more to help him win the seat. (Dodd lost by one vote, but had the result overturned on petition by a partisan vote in the House of Commons, and Newcastle's accounts show a continuing trickle of funds to him to nurse the constituency over the next few years.) A few years later, the nomination to one of Reading's seats was advertised for sale in a London newspaper, though Reading was not mentioned by name and no price was specified; the newspaper's printers were charged by the Commons with a breach of privilege, but the sale of seats remained legal if frowned-upon until 1809.

The Great Reform Act left Reading's representation and boundaries unchanged, and the reformed franchise far from increasing its electorate seems to have reduced it: it was estimated that there were 1,250 voters in 1831, but only 1,001 were registered for the first post-Reform election, that of 1832.

The Representation of the People Act 1884, coming into effect at the 1885 general election, caused the parliamentary borough to be replaced by a borough constituency, and reduced Reading's representation to a single MP. The single-member Reading constituency continued to exist until it was split in 1950 into the separate constituencies of Reading North and Reading South. These two constituencies were merged back into a single Reading constituency in 1955, but again split apart in 1974; despite its name, the 1955 constituency contained only ten wards of the County Borough of Reading. Today the area formerly covered by the Reading constituency is within the constituencies of Reading East and Reading West.

Members of Parliament[edit]

1295–1660[edit]

  • Constituency created 1295
Parliament First member Second member
1369 William Catour [1]
1371 William Catour [1]
1378 David atte Hacche [2]
1385 John Doublet [3]
1386 William Stapper Robert atte Lee[4]
1388 (Feb) David atte Hacche Richard Bedull[4]
1388 (Sep) John Balet Nicholas Vachell[4]
1390 (Jan) John Kent Robert Capellade[4]
1390 (Nov)
1391 Henry Barbour John Doublet[4]
1393 William Catour David atte Hacche[4]
1394 William Saville William Tho...[4]
1395 William Shortwade John Ede[4]
1397 (Jan) John White Richard Pernecote[4]
1397 (Sep) Thomas Selham Robert Godewyn[4]
1399 Roger Hay John Hunt[4]
1401
1402
1404 (Jan) John Kent William Derby[4]
1404 (Oct)
1406 John Hunt Philip Richard[4]
1407 John Merehan William Kenelme[4]
1410 John White Alexander Colshull[4]
1411
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) William Wilton Richard Farle[4]
1414 (Apr) John Hastyng John Clerk[4]
1414 (Nov) Stephen Stapper John Pernecote[4]
1415
1416 (Mar) Walter Mustard Thomas Lavyngton 1[4]
1416 (Oct)
1417 Alexander Colshull Thomas Lavyngton[4]
1419 Robert Morys Richard Cross[4]
1420 Thomas Lavyngton John Veyr[4]
1421 (May) Thomas Lavyngton Simon Porter alias Kent[4]
1421 (Dec) John Hunt William Kyng[4]
1422 Simon Porter alias Kent [5]
1425 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1432 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1433 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1435 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1437 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1447 Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1449 (Feb) Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1449 (Nov) Simon Porter alias Kent[5]
1510 Richard Cleche William Justice[6]
1512 William Gifford Richard Smith[6]
1515 Edmund Knightley John Pownsar[6]
1523 Nicholas Hyde William Edmonds[6]
1529 Thomas Vachell I John Raymond[6]
1536 Thomas Vachell I John Raymond[6]
1539 ?Thomas Vachell I ?John Raymond[6]
1542 Thomas Vachell I Richard Justice[6]
1545 Thomas Vachell I Roger Amyce[6]
1547 William Grey, died May 1551
repl. 1552 by Sir John Mason
John Marshe[6]
1553 (Mar) John Bourne John Winchcombe[6]
1553 (Oct) Thomas Vachell I John Bell[6]
1554 (Apr) Robert Bowyer III John Lovelace[6]
1554 (Nov) John Bourne Edmund Plowden[6]
1555 Thomas Vachell II John Bell[6]
1558 Thomas Aldworth John Bell[6]
1558/9 Thomas Aldworth Thomas Turner[7]
1562/3 Henry Knollys Robert Rowbotham[7]
1571 Henry Knollys John Hastings[7]
1572 Robert Knollys Francis Alford[7]
1584 Robert Knollys Robert Harris[7]
1586 Robert Knollys Robert Harris[7]
1588 Robert Knollys, sat for Breconshire,
repl. Feb 1589 by Thomas Egerton
Robert Harris[7]
1593 Humphrey Donatt Charles Wednester[7]
1597 Sir Humphrey Forster Francis Moore[7]
1601 Francis Moore Anthony Blagrave[7]
1604 Francis Moore Jerome Bowes
1614 Francis Moore Robert Knollys
1621–1622 Anthony Barker John Saunders
1624 Francis Knollys III John Saunders
1625 Francis Knollys III John Saunders
1626 Francis Knollys III John Saunders
1628 Francis Knollys III John Saunders
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

1640–1885[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 Francis Knollys III Adm. Francis Knollys[8]
November 1640 Francis Knollys III (died 1643) Adm. Francis Knollys (died 1648)
1645 Daniel Blagrave
1648 Tanfield Vachell
1653 Not represented in Barebones Parliament
1654 Robert Hammond
1656 Daniel Blagrave
1659 Henry Neville Daniel Blagrave
1660 Thomas Rich John Blagrave
1661 Sir Thomas Dolman Richard Aldworth
1679 Nathan Knight John Blagrave
March 1685 Thomas Coates John Breedon
November 1685 William Aldworth
1689 Sir Henry Fane Whig Sir William Rich
1698 Sir Owen Buckingham John Dalby
January 1701 Francis Knollys
November 1701 Anthony Blagrave Tanfield Vachell
1702 Sir Owen Buckingham
1705 Sir William Rich
1708 Owen Buckingham Anthony Blagrave
1710 John Dalby
1713 Robert Clarges Felix Calvert
1716 Charles Cadogan Owen Buckingham
1720 Richard Thompson
1722 Anthony Blagrave Clement Kent
1727 Richard Potenger Richard Thompson
1734 Henry Grey
1739 John Blagrave
1740 William Strode
February 1741 John Dodd
May 1741 William Strode
1747 John Conyers Richard Aldworth
1754 William Strode Charles Fane Opposition Whig
1755 John Dodd Whig
1761 Sir Francis Knollys
1768 Henry Vansittart
1774 Francis Annesley Tory[9]
1782 Richard Aldworth-Neville Whig[9]
1797 John Simeon Tory[9]
1802 Charles Shaw-Lefevre Whig[9]
1806 John Simeon Tory[9]
1818 Charles Fyshe Palmer Whig[9]
1820 John Monck Whig[9]
1826 George Spence Tory[9]
1827 Charles Fyshe Palmer Whig[9]
1830 Charles Russell Tory[9]
1834 Conservative[9]
1835 Thomas Talfourd Radical[10][11][12]
1837 Charles Fyshe Palmer Whig[9]
1841 Charles Russell Conservative[9] Henry Cadogan Conservative[9]
1847 Francis Pigott Whig[13] Thomas Talfourd Radical[10][11][12]
1849 John Frederick Stanford Conservative
1852 Sir Henry Singer Keating Whig[13]
1859 Liberal Liberal
January 1860 Sir Francis Goldsmid Liberal
November 1860 Gillery Pigott Liberal
1863 George Shaw-Lefevre Liberal
1878 George Palmer Liberal
1885 Representation reduced to one member

1885–1950[edit]

Election Member Party
1885 Charles Townshend Murdoch Conservative
1892 George William Palmer Liberal
1895 Charles Townshend Murdoch Conservative
1898 by-election George William Palmer Liberal
1904 by-election Rufus Isaacs Liberal
1913 by-election Leslie Orme Wilson Conservative
1922 Edward Cadogan Conservative
1923 Somerville Hastings Labour
1924 Herbert Williams Conservative
1929 Somerville Hastings Labour
1931 Alfred Howitt Conservative
1945 Ian Mikardo Labour
1950 Constituency divided into Reading North and Reading South

1955–1974[edit]

Election Member Party
1955 Constituency recreated
1955 Ian Mikardo Labour
1959 Peter Emery Conservative
1966 John Lee Labour
1970 Gerard Vaughan Conservative
Feb 1974 Constituency redivided into Reading North and Reading South

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Pigott 753 39.6
Whig Henry Singer Keating 631 33.2
Conservative Samuel Auchmuty Dickson[15] 518 27.2
Majority 113 5.9
Turnout 951 (est) 68.0 (est)
Registered electors 1,399
Whig hold Swing
Whig gain from Radical Swing
General Election 1857: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Francis Pigott Unopposed
Whig Henry Singer Keating Unopposed
Registered electors 1431
Whig hold
Whig hold

Keating was appointed Solicitor General for England and Wales, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 2 June 1857: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Henry Singer Keating Unopposed
Whig hold
General Election 1859: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Pigott 761 38.6 N/A
Liberal Henry Singer Keating 666 33.8 N/A
Conservative Ralph Augustus Benson 544 27.6 N/A
Majority 122 6.2 N/A
Turnout 986 (est) 67.9 (est) N/A
Registered electors 1,451
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A

Keating was appointed Solicitor General for England and Wales, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 27 June 1859: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Henry Singer Keating Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

Keating resigned after being appointed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, causing a by-election.

By-election, 11 January 1860: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Goldsmid 661 54.5 −17.9
Conservative Ralph Augustus Benson[16] 551 45.5 +17.9
Majority 110 9.1 +2.9
Turnout 1,212 80.5 +12.6
Registered electors 1,506
Liberal hold Swing −17.9

Pigott resigned after being appointed Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man, causing a by-election.

By-election, 21 November 1860: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Gillery Pigott 586 57.4 −15.0
Conservative Edward Walter[17] 435 42.6 +15.0
Majority 151 14.8 +8.6
Turnout 1,021 67.8 −0.1
Registered electors 1,506
Liberal hold Swing −15.0

Pigott resigned after being appointed a Judge of the Court of the Exchequer, causing a by-election.

By-election, 17 October 1863: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1865: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Goldsmid 727 38.6 +0.0
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre 714 37.9 +4.1
Conservative Stephen Tucker[18] 444 23.6 −4.0
Majority 270 14.3 +8.1
Turnout 1,165 (est) 65.8 (est) −2.1
Registered electors 1,769
Liberal hold Swing +2.0
Liberal hold Swing +2.1

Shaw-Lefevre was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 5 May 1866: Reading[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1868: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Francis Goldsmid 1,629 38.5 −0.1
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre 1,618 38.3 +0.4
Conservative Robert Carden 979 23.2 −0.4
Majority 639 15.1 +0.8
Turnout 2,603 (est) 80.6 (est) +14.8
Registered electors 3,228
Liberal hold Swing +0.1
Liberal hold Swing +0.3

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre 1,794 26.1 −12.2
Liberal Francis Goldsmid 1,791 26.1 −12.4
Conservative Richard Attenborough[19] 1,652 24.1 +12.5
Conservative William Dalziel Mackenzie[20] 1,631 23.7 +12.1
Majority 139 2.0 −13.1
Turnout 3,434 (est) 83.4 (est) +2.8
Registered electors 4,118
Liberal hold Swing −12.3
Liberal hold Swing −12.4

Goldsmid's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 18 May 1878: Reading (1 seat)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Palmer 2,223 58.7 +6.5
Conservative Richard Attenborough 1,565 41.3 −6.5
Majority 658 17.4 +15.4
Turnout 3,788 80.2 −3.2
Registered electors 4,721
Liberal hold Swing +6.5

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1880: Reading (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Palmer 2,513 36.6 +10.5
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre 2,286 33.3 +7.2
Conservative Albert George Sandeman[21] 2,067 30.1 −17.8
Majority 219 3.2 +1.2
Turnout 4,580 (est) 89.7 (est) +6.3
Registered electors 5,107
Liberal hold Swing +9.7
Liberal hold Swing +8.1

Lefevre was appointed First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 15 Dec 1880: Reading (1 seat)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1885: Reading [22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Townshend Murdoch 3,518 50.9 +20.8
Liberal George Shaw-Lefevre 3,389 49.1 −20.8
Majority 129 1.8 N/A
Turnout 6,907 91.9 +2.2 (est)
Registered electors 7,515
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +20.8
General Election 1886: Reading [23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Townshend Murdoch 3,378 50.9 +0.0
Liberal William Berkeley Monck[24] 3,262 49.1 +0.0
Majority 116 1.8 +0.0
Turnout 6,640 88.4 −3.5
Registered electors 7,515
Conservative hold Swing +0.0

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1892: Reading [25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Palmer 3,990 51.9 +2.8
Conservative Charles Townshend Murdoch 3,700 48.1 −2.8
Majority 290 3.8 N/A
Turnout 7,690 91.1 +2.7
Registered electors 8,438
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.8
General Election 1895: Reading [26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Townshend Murdoch 4,278 52.1 +4.0
Liberal George Palmer 3,927 47.9 −4.0
Majority 351 4.2 N/A
Turnout 8,205 90.1 −1.0
Registered electors 9,104
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.0

Murdoch's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 25 Jul 1898: Reading [27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Palmer 4,600 52.4 +4.5
Conservative Charles Edward Keyser 3,906 44.5 −7.6
Social Democratic Federation Harry Quelch 270 3.1 N/A
Majority 694 7.9 N/A
Turnout 8,776 91.7 +1.6
Registered electors 9,573
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +6.1

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Keyser
General Election 1900: Reading [28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Palmer 4,592 51.3 +3.4
Conservative Charles Edward Keyser 4,353 48.7 −3.4
Majority 239 2.6 N/A
Turnout 8,945 88.1 −2.0
Registered electors 10,152
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +3.4
Isaacs
Reading by-election, 1904 [29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rufus Isaacs 4,770 51.2 -0.1
Conservative Charles Edward Keyser 4,540 48.8 +0.1
Majority 230 2.4 -0.2
Turnout 9,310 83.5 −4.6
Registered electors 11,151
Liberal hold Swing -0.1
General Election 1906: Reading [30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rufus Isaacs 5,407 53.4 +2.1
Conservative George Horace Johnstone 4,710 46.6 -2.1
Majority 697 6.8 + +4.2
Turnout 10,117 91.6 +3.5
Registered electors 11,041
Liberal hold Swing +2.1

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election January 1910[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rufus Isaacs 5,264 51.0 −2.4
Liberal Unionist Leslie Renton 5,057 49.0 +2.4
Majority 207 2.0 −4.8
Turnout 10,321 93.7 +2.1
Registered electors 11,016
Liberal hold Swing −2.4

Isaacs is appointed Solicitor General of England and Wales, requiring a by-election.

By-election, March 1910[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rufus Isaacs Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election December 1910[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rufus Isaacs 5,094 50.5 −0.5
Conservative Leslie Orme Wilson 4,995 49.5 +0.5
Majority 99 1.0 −1.0
Turnout 10,089 91.6 −2.1
Registered electors 11,016
Liberal hold Swing −0.5

Issacs is appointed Lord Chief Justice of England and is elevated to the peerage as Lord Reading, requiring a by-election.

Reading by-election, 1913[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Leslie Orme Wilson 5,144 50.3 +0.8
Liberal George Peabody Gooch 4,013 39.3 −11.2
British Socialist Party Joseph George Butler 1,063 10.4 N/A
Majority 1,131 11.0 N/A
Turnout 10,220 92.2 +0.6
Registered electors 11,088
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +6.0

A General Election was due to take place by the end of 1915. By the summer of 1914, the following candidates had been adopted to contest that election. Due to the outbreak of war, the election never took place.

General Election 14 December 1918: Reading
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Leslie Orme Wilson 15,204 53.9 +4.4
Labour Thomas Charles Morris 8,410 29.8 N/A
Liberal Frederick Thoresby 3,143 11.1 −39.4
National Socialist Party Lorenzo Quelch 1,462 5.2 N/A
Majority 6,794 24.1 N/A
Turnout 28,219 62.2 −29.4
Unionist hold Swing +21.9
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

H.D. Roome
General Election 1922: Reading[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Edward Cadogan 16,082 42.7
Labour Derwent Hall Caine 14,322 38.1
Liberal Henry Delacombe Roome 7,212 19.2
Majority 1,760 4.6
Turnout
Unionist hold Swing
General Election 1923: Reading [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Somerville Hastings 16,657 44.8 +6.7
Unionist Edward Cadogan 15,115 40.7 -2.0
Liberal Frederick Maddison 5,406 14.5 -4.7
Majority 1,542 4.1 -0.5
Turnout 82.1
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +4.3
General Election 1924: Reading [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Herbert Williams 21,338 53.8
Labour Somerville Hastings 18,337 46.2
Majority 3,001 7.6
Turnout 85.8
Unionist gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1929: Reading[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Somerville Hastings 23,281 43.5 -2.7
Unionist Herbert Williams 22,429 42.0 -11.8
Liberal Dugald Macfadyen 7,733 14.5 n/a
Majority 852 1.5 -6.1
Turnout 85.0 -0.8
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +4.5

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1931: Reading[34] Electorate 65,009
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alfred Howitt 34,439 63.1
Labour Somerville Hastings 19,277 35.3
New Party ER Troward 861 1.6
Majority 15,162 27.8
Turnout 54,577 83.9
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1935: Reading[33] Electorate 67,181
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alfred Howitt 27,540 51.8
Labour Somerville Hastings 22,949 43.2
Liberal John William Todd 2,685 5.0
Majority 4,591 8.6
Turnout 53,174 79.1
Conservative hold Swing

General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Reading[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ian Mikardo 30,465 48.8
Conservative WEC McIlroy 24,075 38.6
Liberal Robert Nevill Tronchin James 7,834 12.6
Majority 6,390 10.2
Turnout 73.5
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1955: Reading[36][37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Ian Mikardo 25,228 50.24 N/A
Conservative Frederic Bennett 24,990 49.76 N/A
Majority 238 0.47 N/A
Turnout 50,218 84.15
Registered electors 59,678
Labour win (new seat)
General Election 1959: Reading[38][39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Emery 26,314 54.05 +4.29
Labour Ian Mikardo 22,372 45.95 -4.29
Majority 3,942 8.10 N/A
Turnout 48,686 82.84 -1.31
Registered electors 58,772
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +4.29

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1964: Reading[40][41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Emery 20,815 43.93 -10.12
Labour John Lee 20,805 43.91 -2.04
Liberal Michael F Burns 5,759 12.16 N/A
Majority 10 0.02 -8.08
Turnout 47,379 79.80 -3.04
Registered electors 59,371
Conservative hold Swing -4.04
General Election 1966: Reading[42][43]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour John Lee 25,338 51.01 +7.10
Conservative Peter Emery 21,205 42.69 -1.24
Liberal Ernest H Palfrey 3,127 6.30 -5.86
Majority 4,133 8.32 N/A
Turnout 49,670 84.00 +4.20
Registered electors 59,132
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +4.17

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1970: Reading[44][45]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gerard Vaughan 23,598 50.31 +7.62
Labour John Lee 22,444 47.85 -3.16
Democratic Party Alec Boothroyd 867 1.85 N/A
Majority 1,154 2.46 N/A
Turnout 46,909 74.04 -9.96
Registered electors 63,359
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +5.39

References[edit]

General[edit]

  • Lewis Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (2nd edition – London: St Martin's Press, 1961)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 – England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Edward Porritt and Annie G Porritt, The Unreformed House of Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1903)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" (part 1)

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/catour-william-1395
  2. ^ http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/hacche-david-atte
  3. ^ http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/doublet-john-1407
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1386-1421/member/porter-simon
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  8. ^ In place of Edward Herbert and Sir John Berkeley, elected for Old Sarum and Heytesbury
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S., ed. The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-900178-13-2. 
  10. ^ a b Hall, Edith (2015). "Making it Really New: Dickens versus the Classics". In Stead, Henry; Hall, Edith. Greek and Roman Classics in the British Struggle for Social Reform. Bloomsbury. p. 148. ISBN 9781472584274. Retrieved 30 June 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Richards, Jeffrey (2009). The Ancient World on the Victorian and Edwardian Stage (eBook). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. doi:10.1057/9780230250895. ISBN 978-0-230-25089-5. Retrieved 30 June 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Gregory, James (2012). Victorians Against the Gallows: Capital Punishment and the Abolitionist Movement in Nineteenth Century Britain. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 200. ISBN 978-18488-56943. Retrieved 30 June 2018. 
  13. ^ a b "The Berkshire Chronicle". 10 July 1852. p. 4. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3. 
  15. ^ "Hull Election". Hull Advertiser and Exchange Gazette. 12 August 1854. p. 6. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ "Reading Election". Berkshire Chronicle. 14 January 1860. p. 4. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  17. ^ "To the Conservative Electors of the Borough of Reading". Berkshire Chronicle. 17 November 1860. p. 1. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  18. ^ "Reading Borough Election". Berkshire Chronicle. 15 July 1865. p. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  19. ^ "The General Election". London Evening Standard. 31 January 1874. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 18 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  20. ^ "To the Electors of the Borough of Reading". Berkshire Chronicle. 31 January 1874. p. 4. Retrieved 18 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  21. ^ "The Representation of Reading". Reading Mercury. 1 March 1884. p. 5. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  22. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  23. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  24. ^ "Election Notices". Reading Mercury. 26 June 1886. p. 6. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  25. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  26. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  27. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  28. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  29. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  30. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  31. ^ a b c d Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984. 
  32. ^ Who's Who
  33. ^ a b c d e f British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  34. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, F W S Craig
  35. ^ Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939
  36. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results May 1955". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
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  38. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results 1959". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
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  40. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results 1964". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
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  42. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results 1966". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
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  44. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results 1970". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
  45. ^ [5]

See also[edit]