Reading Abbey

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Reading Abbey
Reading Abbey interior.jpg
The chapter house, from the site of the monks' dormitory
Reading Abbey is located in Reading Central
Reading Abbey
Location within Reading Town Centre
Monastery information
Full nameThe Abbey of Reading, dedicated to the Virgin and St John the Evangelist
OrderCluniac
Established18 June 1121
Disestablished1539
Dedicated toMary, mother of Jesus
John the Evangelist
People
Founder(s)Henry I of England
Important associated figuresHugh Cook of Faringdon
Site
LocationReading, Berkshire, England
Coordinates51°27′22.85″N 0°57′54.31″W / 51.4563472°N 0.9650861°W / 51.4563472; -0.9650861Coordinates: 51°27′22.85″N 0°57′54.31″W / 51.4563472°N 0.9650861°W / 51.4563472; -0.9650861
Visible remainsInner rubble cores of the walls of the major buildings; gateway and hospitium intact.
Public accessOpen daily

Reading Abbey is a large, ruined abbey in the centre of the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire. It was founded by Henry I in 1121 "for the salvation of my soul, and the souls of King William, my father, and of King William, my brother, and Queen Maud, my wife, and all my ancestors and successors." In its heyday the abbey was one of Europe's largest royal monasteries. The traditions of the Abbey are continued today by the neighbouring St James's Church, which is partly built using stones of the Abbey ruins.[1][2]

Reading Abbey was the focus of a major £3 million project called "Reading Abbey Revealed" which conserved the ruins and Abbey Gateway and resulted in them being re-opened to the public on 16 June 2018. Alongside the conservation, new interpretation of the Reading Abbey Quarter was installed, including a new gallery at Reading Museum, and an extensive activity programme.[3][4]

Abbey Ward of Reading Borough Council takes its name from Reading Abbey, which lies within its boundaries.

History[edit]

The abbey was founded by Henry I in 1121. As part of his endowments, he gave the abbey his lands within Reading, along with land at Cholsey, then in Berkshire, and Leominster in Herefordshire. He also arranged for further land in Reading, previously given to Battle Abbey by William the Conqueror, to be transferred to Reading Abbey, in return for some of his land at Appledram in Sussex.[5][6]

Following its royal foundation, the abbey was established by a party of monks from Cluny Abbey in Burgundy, together with monks from the Cluniac priory of St Pancras at Lewes in Sussex. The abbey was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist.[7] The first abbot, in 1123, was Hugh of Amiens[8] who became archbishop of Rouen and was buried in Rouen Cathedral.

According to the twelfth-century chronicler William of Malmesbury, the abbey was built on a gravel spur "between the rivers Kennet and Thames, on a spot calculated for the reception of almost all who might have occasion to travel to the more populous cities of England". The adjacent rivers provided convenient transport, and the abbey established wharves on the River Kennet. The Kennet also provided power for the abbey water mills, most of which were established on the Holy Brook, a channel of the Kennet of uncertain origin.[1]

Burial of Henry I at Reading Abbey in 1136 painted by Harry Morley (1916)

When Henry I died in Lyons-la-Forêt, Normandy in 1135 his body was returned to Reading, and was buried in the front of the altar of the then incomplete abbey. Other royal persons buried in the abbey include parts of Matilda of Scotland, William of Poitiers, and Constance of York.

Because of its royal patronage, the abbey was one of the pilgrimage centres of medieval England, and one of its richest and most important religious houses, with possessions as far away as Herefordshire and Scotland. The abbey also held over 230 relics including the hand of St James.[9] A shrivelled human hand was found in the ruins during demolition work in 1786 and is now in St Peter's RC Church, Marlow.[10] The song Sumer is icumen in, which was first written down in the abbey about 1240, is the earliest known six part harmony from Britain. The original document is held in the British Library.[11]

Reading Abbey was frequently visited by kings and others, most especially by Henry III who often visited three or four times a year staying several weeks on each visit. It also hosted important state events, including the meeting between Henry II and the Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1185, the wedding of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster in 1359 and a meeting of Parliament in 1453.[12]

The abbey was mostly destroyed in 1538 during Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries. The last abbot, Hugh Faringdon, was subsequently tried and convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered in front of the Abbey Church. After this, the buildings of the abbey were extensively robbed, with lead, glass and facing stones removed for reuse elsewhere.[1]

Map of Reading Abbey before its destruction.
Map of Reading Abbey before its destruction.

Some twenty years after the dissolution, Reading town council created a new town hall by inserting an upper floor into the former refectory of the hospitium of the abbey. The lower floor of this building continued to be used by Reading School, as it had been since 1486. For the next 200 years, the old monastic building continued to serve as Reading's town hall, but by the 18th century it was suffering from structural weakness. Between 1785 and 1786, the old hall was dismantled and replaced on the same site by the first of several phases of building that were to make up today's Reading Town Hall.[13][14] Around 1787, Henry Seymour Conway removed a large amount of stone from the wall and used it to build Conway's Bridge near his home at Park Place outside Henley.[15]

St James's Church and School was built on a portion of the site of the abbey between 1837 and 1840.[16][17] Its founder was James Wheble, who owned land in the area at that time. Reading Gaol was built in 1844 on the eastern portion of the abbey site, replacing a small county Gaol on the same site. James Wheble sold the rest of his portion of the abbey site to Reading Corporation to create the Forbury Gardens, which were opened in 1861.[18][19][20]

Abbey ruins[edit]

The interior of the ruined chapter house

The inner rubble cores of the walls of many of the major buildings of the abbey still stand. The only parts of the Abbey Church that still exist are fragments of the piers of the central tower, together with parts of transepts, especially the south transept. In a range to the south of this transept are, in order, the remains of the vestry, the chapter house, the infirmary passage and the ground floor of the dorter or monks dormitory and reredorter or toilet block. The best preserved of these ruins are those of the chapter house, which is apsidal and has a triple entrance and three great windows above. To the west of this range, the site of the cloister is laid out as a private garden and to the south is a surviving wall of the refectory. The ruins are Grade I listed[21][22] and a Scheduled monument[23]

Restoration[edit]

Restoration of an arch done in 2004

Over the years the ruins have been repaired and maintained in a piecemeal fashion leading to their deterioration.[24] In April 2008, the cloister arch, chapter house and treasury were closed to the public.[25] Repair work began in March 2009 and was expected to take only a few weeks[26] but the entire site was instead closed in May 2009 due to the risk of falling masonry.[27]

In late 2010, Reading Borough Council was reported as estimating that the ruins could cost £3m to repair, but it was also stated that the extent of the damage was yet to be determined. A survey was carried out in October 2010, using three-dimensional scans to build up a detailed view of each elevation, thus helping to identify the extent of the conservation required.[28] In April 2011 plans for an £8m revamp were unveiled, with the aim to create an Abbey Quarter cultural area in Reading.[29] In June 2014 the Council secured initial funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF); more detailed plans for the project, Reading Abbey Revealed, were then developed and submitted to the HLF in September 2015.

In October 2014, a temporary scaffold roof, not visible from ground level, was installed on the Gateway to allow the building to dry out until funding for more permanent repairs was secured. The HLF confirmed that the second round application had been successful in December 2015.[30] The HLF supported the project with a grant of £1.77 million, with Reading Borough Council match funding of £1.38 million. Historic England provided additional grant funding for initial work to the Abbey gateway and the conservation of the refectory wall.[31] Work began in September 2016 and the ruins reopened to the public on 16 June 2018.[32][33]

Hidden Abbey Project[edit]

In spring 2014, historian-screenwriter Philippa Langley, MBE, best known for her contribution to the exhumation of Richard III in 2012, together with local historians John and Lindsay Mullaney, put together a complementary effort called the Hidden Abbey Project (HAP). The goal of the HAP was to perform a modern comprehensive study, including a non-invasive analysis of the grounds using ground-penetrating radar (GPR).[34] The first phase of the GPR survey, focusing on the Abbey Church, St. James Church, the Forbury Gardens, and the Reading Gaol car park, began in June 2016. Initial results indicate some potential grave sites behind the high altar in an apse at the east end of the Abbey. There are also some findings probably related to the Abbey's construction, as well as some other potential archaeological targets.[35] News reports seized on the fact that the grave sites were found underneath the Ministry of Justice car park at Reading Gaol. Said the Telegraph:

Britain’s kings appear to be making a habit of this. First it was Richard III, whose bones were found under a car park in Leicester. Now it appears that Henry I may have met a similarly undignified fate.[36]

However, the borough council's press release stated, "The graves are located behind the High Altar in an apse at the east end of the Abbey. They are located east of the area where King Henry I's grave is believed to be. No direct connection between these features and King Henry can be made using these results alone."[35]

Other remains[edit]

Besides the ruins of the abbey itself, there are several other remains of the larger abbey complex still extant.

Abbey Gateway[edit]

The gateway as restored in 2018

The Abbey's Inner Gateway also known as the Abbey Gateway adjoins Reading Crown Court and Forbury Gardens. It is one of only two abbey buildings that have survived intact, and is a grade I listed building. The Inner Gateway marked the division between the area open to the public and the section accessible only to monks. Hugh Faringdon, the last abbot of Reading was hanged, drawn, and quartered outside the Abbey Gateway in 1539. The gateway survived because it was used as the entrance to the abbots lodging, which was turned into a royal palace after the dissolution. In the late 18th century, the gateway was used as part of the Reading Ladies’ Boarding School, attended amongst others by the novelist Jane Austen.[37][38][39][40]

The gateway was heavily restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott, after a partial collapse during a storm in 1861. It was extensively restored again after some decorative stonework came loose and fell into the street in 2010, reopening in 2018. The room above the gateway is now used by Reading Museum as part of its learning programme for local schools, whilst the arch below is available for use by pedestrian and cycle traffic.[40]

Hospitium[edit]

The former hospitium

The abbey's hospitium, or dormitory for pilgrims, also survives. Known as the Hospitium of St. John and founded in 1189, the surviving building is the main building of a larger range of buildings that could accommodate 400 people. Much of the remainder of this range of buildings was located where Reading Town Hall now stands. Today the surviving building occupies a rather isolated site, with no direct street access. It abuts the main concert hall of Reading Town Hall to the west, and the south of the building opens directly onto the churchyard of St Laurence's Church. The building is surrounded to the north and east by a modern office development, with a small intermediate courtyard.[41]

Abbey Mill and Holy Brook[edit]

Some remains of the former Abbey Mill are visible alongside the Holy Brook at the south of the abbey site. The water mill originally belonged to Reading Abbey, whose monks are believed to have created the Holy Brook as a water supply to this and other mills owned by them and to the abbey's fish ponds.[42][43] The Holy Brook is a 6 miles (9.7 km) long, largely artificial, watercourse which flows out of the River Kennet near the village of Theale, passes just to the south of the Abbey, and returns to its parent river just downstream of the Abbey Mill.[43]

Open-air theatre and performance[edit]

The ruins of Reading Abbey have a history of live performance. From early impromptu artist-led events, the site has established a history of open-air theatre.

In the late 1980s, the food art and performance collective La Grande Bouche organised a cabaret under marquee in the ruins. The evening offered music and performance acts combined with food, much of which cooked by contributing performers.[citation needed]

In 1994, a large scale performance event "From the Ruins"[44] was held in the abbey ruins, the finale event for the "Art in Reading" (AIR) festival, funded in part by Reading Borough Council. This was organised by and featured a large number of artists and performers living or working in Reading,[45] and combined specially created music, dance, paintings, poetry and culminated in a spectacular evening performance involving large scale puppetry and pyrotechnics loosely based upon the history of Reading Abbey from the foundation by Henry I through the rise of the merchant classes to the dissolution and eventual sacking of the Abbey under Henry VIII.

In 1995, the ruined South Transept was used as the setting for the first Abbey Ruins Open Air Shakespeare production by MDM Productions and Progress Theatre in partnership with Reading Borough Council. In 1996, the outdoor production moved to the ruined chapter house and since 1999 has been staged by Progress Theatre in partnership with Reading Borough Council. This annual event expanded to the "Reading Abbey Ruins Open Air Festival" in 2007. Because of the access limitations during the restoration project, the 2009 and 2010 festivals could not be held, and the event has since relocated to the gardens of Caversham Court.[46][47] "Shakespeare in the Ruins" returned to the Chapter House in July 2018 after the ruins reopened to the public after extensive conservation in June 2018.[48]

Abbots[edit]

Plaque of Hugh III (Cook, alias Faringdon), the last Abbot

As an abbey, Reading was ruled by an abbot. The abbey had 27 abbots between 1123 and 1539.[49][50]

Abbot Years
Hugh I (of Amiens) 1123–1130
Anscher 1130–1135
Edward 1136–1154
Reginald 1154–1158
Roger 1158–1165
William I 1165–1173
Joseph 1173–1186
Hugh II 1186–1199
Helias 1199–1213
Simon 1213–1226
Adam (of Lathbury) 1226–1238
Richard I (of Chichester) 1238–1262
Richard II (of Reading, alias Bannister) 1262–1269
Robert (of Burgate) 1269–1290
William II (of Sutton) 1290–1305
Nicholas (of Whaplode) 1305–1328
John I (of Appleford) 1328–1342
Henry (of Appleford) 1342–1361
William III (of Dombleton) 1361–1369
John II (of Sutton) 1369–1378
Richard III (of Yately) 1378–1409
Thomas I (Earley) 1409–1430
Thomas II (Henley) 1430–1445
John II (Thorne I) 1446–1486
John III (Thorne II) 1486–1519
Thomas III (Worcester) 1519–1520
Hugh III (Cook, alias Faringdon) 1520–1539

Notable burials[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The staff of the Trust for Wessex Archaeology and Reading Museum and Art Gallery (1983). Reading Abbey Rediscovered: A summary of the Abbey's history and recent archaeological excavations. Trust for Wessex Archaeology.
  2. ^ "Visit". readingabbeyquarter.org.uk. Reading Borough Council. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Reading Abbey Abbey ruins reopen after £3m repairs". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 16 June 2018. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  4. ^ "About the Abbey Quarter". readingabbeyquarter.org.uk. Reading Borough Council. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  5. ^ Ditchfield, P.H.; Page, William, eds. (1923). "The borough of Reading: The borough". A History of the County of Berkshire. 3. pp. 342–364.
  6. ^ Kemp, Brian R. (1968). Reading Abbey an introduction to the history of the abbey. Reading: Reading Museum and Art Gallery. p. 13.
  7. ^ Charles Tomkins, Views of Reading abbey, with those of the churches originally connected with it, 1805
  8. ^ C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (2001), p. 282-3.
  9. ^ Ford, David Nash (2001). "Relics from Reading Abbey". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  10. ^ Ford, David Nash (2001). "History of Reading, Berkshire". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  11. ^ Ford, David Nash (2001). "Sumer is icumen in memorial, Reading Abbey". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  12. ^ Slade, Cecil (2001). The Town of Reading and its Abbey. MRM Associates Ltd. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-9517719-4-5.
  13. ^ Phillips, Daphne (1980). The Story of Reading. Countryside Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-905392-07-3.
  14. ^ Phillips, Daphne (1980). The Story of Reading. Countryside Books. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-905392-07-3.
  15. ^ Mackay, Charles (1840). The Thames and its tributaries; or, Rambles among the rivers. London: R. Bently. p. 341.
  16. ^ "Church of St James', Reading". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  17. ^ "About the Nursery". Forbury Gardens Day Nursery. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  18. ^ "St James Church – A guide for Visitors" (PDF). St James Church. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
  19. ^ "HM Prison Service – Reading". United Kingdom Ministry of Justice. 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
  20. ^ "Forbury Gardens". Reading Borough Council. 2000–2007. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
  21. ^ "State of the Environment Report – Chapter 2 – The built environment and landscape" (PDF). Reading Borough Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  22. ^ Ford, David Nash. "Ruins of Reading Abbey". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  23. ^ Historic England. "Reading Abbey: a Cluniac and Benedictine monastery and Civil War earthwork (1007932)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  24. ^ Fort, Linda (26 March 2010). "Reading Abbey repair costs 'truly frightening'". getreading.co.uk. Reading Post – S&B media.
  25. ^ "Paths closed at ruins for repairs". getreading.co.uk. Reading Post – S&B media. 23 April 2008.
  26. ^ "Repair work starts on ancient ruins". getreading.co.uk. Reading Post – S&B media. 24 March 2009.
  27. ^ Hewitt, Adam (25 March 2010). "High cost of Abbey Ruins heritage". readingchronicle.co.uk. Berkshire Media Group.
  28. ^ Midgley, Emma (21 October 2010). "Reading Abbey Ruins to be photographed by surveyors". BBC News. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  29. ^ "Reading Abbey ruins £8m revamp plans unveiled". BBC News. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  30. ^ "Reading Abbey Quarter - The Vision". Reading Museum. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  31. ^ "Reading Abbey Re-Opened to the Public". Historic England. Historic England. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  32. ^ "The HLF Project". Reading Museum. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  33. ^ "What have we done? Reading Abbey Revealed project". Abbey Quarter. Reading Borough Council. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  34. ^ Langley, Philippa. "The Hidden Abbey Project". Reading's Hidden Abbey. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  35. ^ a b "A Significant Next Step Towards Revealing King Henry I's Hidden Abbey". Reading Borough Council. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  36. ^ Sawyer, Patrick (13 September 2016). "Another car park, another King: 'Henry I's remains' found beneath tarmac at Reading Gaol". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  37. ^ "The Inner Gateway". The Friends of Reading Abbey. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  38. ^ "Abbey Gate, Reading". British Listed Buildings. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  39. ^ Ford, David Nash. "The Abbey Gateway". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2009.
  40. ^ a b "Abbey Gateway". readingabbeyquarter.org.uk. Reading Borough Council. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  41. ^ Ford, David Nash. "The Hospitium". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 2 May 2009.
  42. ^ Ford, David Nash. "The Abbey Mill Arch". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 2 May 2009.
  43. ^ a b Sowen, Adam; Castle, Sally; Hay, Peter (2003). The Holy Brook or The Granators Tale. Two Rivers Press. ISBN 978-1-901677-34-8.
  44. ^ Andrew Lewis. Video of 1994 performance 'From the Ruins', shot on Hi-8, later digitised
  45. ^ Contributing organisations to From the Ruins as listed in contemporary project documentation in 1994
  46. ^ "Reading Abbey Ruins Open Air Festival: History". Progress Theatre. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  47. ^ "About Progress Theatre". Progress Theatre. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  48. ^ "Progress Theatre - Much Ado About Nothing". Reading Museum. Reading Borough Council. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  49. ^ Kemp, Brian R. (1968). Reading Abbey – An Introduction to the History of the Abbey. Reading, Berkshire: Reading Museum and Art Gallery.
  50. ^ Ford, David Nash (2001). "Abbots of Reading, Berkshire". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 28 December 2010.

Further reading[edit]

  • Durrant, Peter; Painter, John (2018). Reading Abbey and the Abbey Quarter. Reading, Berkshire: Two Rivers Press. ISBN 978-1909747395.
  • Baxter, Ron (2016). The Royal Abbey of Reading. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydel & Brewer. ISBN 978-1-78327-084-2.
  • Mullaney, John R. (2014). Reading's Abbey Quarter: An Illustrated History. Reading, Berkshire: Scallop Shell Press. ISBN 978-0957277274.
  • Cram, Leslie (1988). Reading Abbey. Reading, Berkshire: Reading Museum and Art Gallery. ISBN 978-0-9501247-8-0.
  • Kemp, Brian R. (1968). Reading Abbey: An Introduction to the History of the Abbey. Reading, Berkshire: Reading Museum and Art Gallery.

External links[edit]