Reading disability

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A reading disability is a condition in which a sufferer displays difficulty reading resulting primarily from neurological factors. Developmental Dyslexia, Alexia (acquired dyslexia), and Hyperlexia.[clarification needed]


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke defines reading disability or dyslexia as follows: "Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with spelling, phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In adults, dyslexia usually occurs after a brain injury or in the context of dementia. It can also be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia." [1]

Reading disabilities[edit]


Main article: Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a learning disability that manifests itself as a difficulty with word decoding, reading comprehension and/or reading fluency. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction.[2] It is estimated that dyslexia affects between 5–17% of the population.[3][4][5] Dyslexia has been proposed to have three cognitive subtypes (auditory, visual and attentional), although individual cases of dyslexia are better explained by the underlying neuropsychological deficits and co-occurring learning disabilities (e.g. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, math disability, etc.).[4][6][7][8][9][10] Although not an intellectual disability, it is considered both a learning disability[11][12] and a reading disability.[11][13] Dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated, since reading and cognition develop independently in individuals who have dyslexia.[14]"Nerve problems can cause damage to the control of eye muscles which can also cause diplopia" (WEBMD, 2005)[15]


Main article: Hyperlexia

Hyperlexic children are characterized by having average or above average IQs and word-reading ability well above what would be expected given their ages and IQs.[16] Hyperlexia can be viewed as a superability in which word recognition ability goes far above expected levels of skill.[17] Some hyperlexics, however, have trouble understanding speech.[17] Most or perhaps all children with hyperlexia lie on the autism spectrum.[17] Between 5–10% of autistic children have been estimated to be hyperlexic.[18]


Remediation includes both appropriate remedial instruction and classroom accommodations.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ dyslexia at NINDS
  2. ^ Stanovich KE (December 1988). "Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poor reader: the phonological-core variable-difference model". Journal of Learning Disabilities 21 (10): 590–604. doi:10.1177/002221948802101003. PMID 2465364. 
  3. ^ McCandliss BD, Noble KG (2003). "The development of reading impairment: a cognitive neuroscience model". Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 9 (3): 196–204. doi:10.1002/mrdd.10080. PMID 12953299. 
  4. ^ a b Czepita D, Lodygowska E (2006). "[Role of the organ of vision in the course of developmental dyslexia]". Klin Oczna (in Polish) 108 (1–3): 110–3. PMID 16883955. 
  5. ^ Birsh, Judith R. (2005). "Research and reading disability". In Judith R. Birsh. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 1-55766-676-8. OCLC 57652241. 
  6. ^ Pennington BF, Santerre-Lemmon L, Rosenberg J, et al. (February 2012). "Individual prediction of dyslexia by single versus multiple deficit models". J Abnorm Psychol 121 (1): 212–24. doi:10.1037/a0025823. PMC 3270218. PMID 22022952. 
  7. ^ Valdois S, Bosse ML, Tainturier MJ (November 2004). "The cognitive deficits responsible for developmental dyslexia: review of evidence for a selective visual attentional disorder". Dyslexia 10 (4): 339–63. doi:10.1002/dys.284. PMID 15573964. 
  8. ^ Heim S, Tschierse J, Amunts K (2008). "Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia". Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 68 (1): 73–82. ISSN 0065-1400. PMID 18389017. 
  9. ^ Facoetti A, Lorusso ML, Paganoni P, et al. (April 2003). "Auditory and visual automatic attention deficits in developmental dyslexia". Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 16 (2): 185–91. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00270-7. PMID 12668226. 
  10. ^ Ahissar M (November 2007). "Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis". Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 11 (11): 458–65. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.015. PMID 17983834. 
  11. ^ a b "Learning Disorders: MeSH Result". NLM MeSH Browser. Retrieved 2009-11-06.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  12. ^ "Dyslexia". The National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc. Retrieved 2009-11-07.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  13. ^ "Dyslexia". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  14. ^ Ferrer E, Shaywitz BA, Holahan JM, Marchione K, Shaywitz SE (January 2010). "Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia". Psychol Sci 21 (1): 93–101. doi:10.1177/0956797609354084. PMID 20424029. 
  15. ^ "Double Vision (Diplopia)." WEB MD. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2014.
  16. ^ Newman TM, Macomber D, Naples AJ, Babitz T, Volkmar F, Grigorenko EL (April 2007). "Hyperlexia in children with autism spectrum disorders". J Autism Dev Disord 37 (4): 760–74. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0206-y. PMID 17048093. 
  17. ^ a b c Grigorenko EL, Klin A, Volkmar F (2003). "Annotation: Hyperlexia: disability or superability?". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44 (8): 1079–91. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00193. PMID 14626452. 
  18. ^ Burd L, Kerbeshian J (June 1985). "Hyperlexia and a variant of hypergraphia". Percept Mot Skills 60 (3): 940–2. doi:10.2466/pms.1985.60.3.940. PMID 3927257.