Real estate in China
Real estate in China is developed and managed by public, private, and state-owned red chip enterprises. As of 2015 the market was experiencing low growth and the central government had eased prior measures to tighten interest rates, increase deposit and impose restrictions.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2010)|
The Chinese property bubble was a real estate bubble in residential and/or commercial real estate in China. The phenomenon has seen average housing prices in the country triple from 2005 to 2009, possibly driven by both government policies and Chinese cultural attitudes.
- Tianjin High price-to-income and price-to-rent ratios for property and the high number of unoccupied residential and commercial units have been held up as evidence of a bubble. Critics of the bubble theory point to China's relatively conservative mortgage lending standards and trends of increasing urbanization and rising incomes as proof that property prices can remain supported.
Growth of the housing bubble ended in late 2011 when housing prices began to fall, following policies responding to complaints that members of the middle-class were unable to afford homes in large cities. The deflation of the property bubble is seen as one of the primary causes for China's declining economic growth in 2012.
2011 estimates by property analysts state that there are some 64 million empty properties and apartments in China and that housing development in China is massively oversupplied and overvalued, and is a bubble waiting to burst with serious consequences in the future. The BBC cites Ordos in Inner Mongolia as the largest ghost town in China, full of empty shopping malls and apartment complexes. A large, and largely uninhabited urban real estate development has been constructed 25 km from Dongsheng District in the Kangbashi New Area. Intended to house a million people, it remains largely uninhabited. Intended to have 300,000 residents by 2010, government figures stated it had 28,000.
Welfare housing system, parallel dynamics, and allegations of corruption
As of 2010, China has officially ordered an end to its welfare housing system; however, according to China Youth Daily, a parallel housing market continues to exist. Government agencies continue to pay less than 20% of market value for real estate, and many officials purportedly misappropriate renovation and housing reform funds for personal gain.
|Name||Type1||Headquarters2||Total assets3||Market cap3|
|Agile Property||Public||Zhongshan, Guangdong||N/A||US$4.7 billion (2010)|
|China Aoyuan Property||Public||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$399 million (2010)|
|China Merchants Property||State-owned||Shenzhen, Guangdong||N/A||US$4.4 billion (2010)|
|China Overseas Land and Investment Limited||State-owned||Hong Kong||N/A||US$17.8 billion (2010)|
|China Properties Group||Public||Hong Kong||N/A||US$541 million (2010)|
|China Resources Land||State-owned||Hong Kong||N/A||US$10.7 billion (2010)|
|China Vanke||Public||Shenzhen, Guangdong||N/A||US$15 billion (2010)|
|Country Garden||Public||Foshan, Guangdong||N/A||US$5.8 billion (2010)|
|Evergrande Real Estate Group||Public||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$773 million (2010)|
|Financial Street Holding||State-owned||Beijing||N/A||US$3.9 billion (2010)|
|Franshion Properties||State-owned||Hong Kong||N/A||US$2.9 billion (2010)|
|Glorious Property Holdings||Public||Shanghai||N/A||US$3 billion (2010)|
|Henderson China Holdings Ltd.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Hopson Development||Public||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$2.5 billion (2010)|
|K. Wah International||Public||Hong Kong||N/A||US$901 million (2010)|
|KWG Property||Public||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$1.8 billion (2010)|
|New World China Land||Public||Hong Kong||N/A||US$2.1 billion (2010)|
|Poly (Hong Kong) Investments||State-owned||Hong Kong||N/A||US$3.7 billion (2010)|
|Poly Real Estate||State-owned||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$10.6 billion (2010)|
|R&F Properties||Public||Guangzhou, Guangdong||N/A||US$5.2 billion (2010)|
|SOHO China||Public||Beijing||US$4.7 billion (2009)||US$2.9 billion (2010)|
|Shanghai Forte Land||Public||Shanghai||N/A||US$760 million (2010)|
|Shimao Property||Public||Shanghai||N/A||US$6.2 billion (2010)|
|Shui On Land||Public||Shanghai||N/A||US$2.6 billion (2010)|
|Sino-Ocean Land||State-owned||Beijing||N/A||US$5.2 billion (2010)|
|Sunac China||Public||Tianjin||N/A||US$1.3 billion (2010)|
|Xinyuan Real Estate||Public||Beijing||US$881 million (2009)||US$314 million (2010)|
|Yuexiu Property||State-owned||Hong Kong||N/A||US$1.9 billion (2010)|
|1 Some state-owned entities are also publicly traded as red chip stocks
2 De facto location
3 United States dollars
- Neil Gough (June 11, 2015). "Idle Home Builders Hold China’s Economy Back". The New York Times.
By some economists’ estimates, real estate and related industries account for more than 20 percent of China’s gross domestic product
- Heffernan, Shayne (2010-03-03). "China, The World's Largest Real Estate Market". Ebeling Heffernan. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- Packard, Simon (2010-03-03). "China Overtakes U.S. in Attracting Most Property Investment". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- Chovanec, Patrick (2009-06-08). "China's Real Estate Riddle". Far East Economic Review. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Medium (2015-01-04). "Shanghai Real Estate Trends 2015". Medium Inc. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Bradsher, Keith (2012-06-10). "Selling Abroad, China Eases Slump at Home". New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
the popping of China’s real estate bubble over the past year depressed demand for steel, cement and other materials
- Bradsher, Keith (2012-06-09). "Affirming Slowdown, China Reports Second Month of Scant Economic Growth". New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
China’s leaders deliberately popped a real estate bubble last summer because of concerns that middle-class families had been priced out of homeownership in many cities
- China's Ghost Cities. Dateline SBS. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Ordos: The biggest ghost town in China". BBC. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Ordos, China: A Modern Ghost Town". Time. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Gus Lubin (13 June 2011). "NEW SATELLITE PICTURES OF CHINA'S GHOST CITIES". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Barboza, David (19 October 2012). "A New Chinese City, With Everything but People". New York Times.
- Bishop, Bill (2010-04-30). "China State Media On Corruption And Cooling Off The Real Estate Market". Sinocism. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Custer, C. (2010-04-29). "State Media Blames Housing Crisis on Corrupt Government". ChinaGeeks. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Bishop, Bill (2010-05-02). "Corruption In Chinese Real Estate". Sinocism (Forbes). Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Yuhang, Xie (2010-04-02). 解百姓住房难必先除权力自肥. China Youth Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- "2009 Q4 Financial Report" (PDF). SOHO China. 2010-03-11. p. 4. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- "2009 Q4 Financial Report". Xinyuan Real Estate. 2010-02-11. p. 13. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- "Xinyuan Real Estate Co., Ltd. (ADR) (Public, NYSE:XIN)". Google Finance. 2010-03-18. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- "Understanding Residential Real Estate in China" IMF working paper April 28, 2015