Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents ostensibly unscripted real-life situations, and often features an otherwise unknown cast of individuals who are typically not professional actors, although in some shows celebrities may participate. It differs from documentary television in that the focus tends to be on drama, personal conflict, and entertainment rather than educating viewers. Reality TV programs also often bring participants into situations and environments that they would otherwise never be a part of. The genre has various standard tropes, including "confessionals" used by cast members to express their thoughts, which often double as the shows' narration and competitive elements. Reality TV shows often have a host who asks questions to the participants or comments on the participants. In competition-based reality shows, a notable subset, there are other common elements such as one participant being eliminated per episode, a panel of judges, and the concept of "immunity from elimination."
An early example of the genre was the 1991 Dutch series Nummer 28, which was the first show to bring together strangers and record their interactions. It then exploded as a phenomenon in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global success of the series Survivor, Idols and Big Brother. These shows and a number of others (usually also competition-based) became global franchises, spawning local versions in dozens of countries. Reality television as a whole has become a fixture of television programming. In the United States, various channels have retooled themselves to focus on reality programs, most famously MTV, which began in 1981 as a music video pioneer, before switching to a nearly all-reality format in the early 2000s.
There are grey areas around what is classified as reality television. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows and traditional game shows are not classified as reality television, even though they contain elements of the genre, such as unscripted situations and sometimes unknown participants. Other genres that predate the reality television boom have sometimes been retroactively grouped into reality TV, including hidden camera shows such as Candid Camera (1948), talent-search shows such as The Original Amateur Hour (1948), documentary series about ordinary people such as the Up Series (1964), high-concept game shows such as The Dating Game (1965), home improvement shows such as This Old House (1979) and court shows featuring real-life cases such as The People's Court (1981).
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Much of the criticism has centered on the use of the word "reality", and such shows' attempt to present themselves as a straightforward recounting of events that have occurred. Critics have argued that reality television shows do not accurately reflect reality, in ways both implicit (participants being placed in artificial situations), and deceptive or even fraudulent, such as misleading editing, participants being coached in what to say or how to behave, storylines generated ahead of time, and scenes being staged or re-staged for the cameras. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants (particularly on competition shows); that they make stars out of either untalented people unworthy of fame, infamous personalities, or both; and that they glamorize vulgarity and materialism or sensationalize sex (e.g., Sex Rehab with Dr. Drew) and drug use (e.g., Celebrity Rehab). Professional screenwriters have expressed concern about the popularity of a genre which does not require scriptwriting.
- 1 History
- 2 Subgenres
- 3 Criticism and analysis
- 4 Similar works in popular culture
- 5 Pop culture references
- 6 Other influences on popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are almost as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with a hidden camera, first aired in 1948, and is often seen as a prototype of reality television programming.
Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day (1945–1964) was an early example of reality-based television. The 1946 television game show Cash and Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera (based on his previous 1947 radio show, Candid Microphone) broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting.
In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds.
The radio series Nightwatch (1951–1955) tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It (1950–1959) incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers.
First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life. Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.; it is still ongoing. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities.
The first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, and sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, fishing, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, and the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration.
Another precursor may be considered Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom which aired from 1963 through 1988. This show featured zoologist Marlin Perhins traveling across the globe and illustrating the wide variety of animal life on the planet. Though mostly a travelogue, it was popular in syndication and new episodes were produced through the eighties.
In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the Radio Times Guide to Film 2007 stated that the film was "to blame for reality television".
The 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family (filmed in 1971) going through a divorce; unlike many later reality shows, it was more or less documentary in purpose and style. In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game and The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an Iron Age English village.
Producer George Schlatter capitalized on the advent of videotape to create Real People, a surprise hit for NBC, which ran from 1979 to 1984. The success of Real People was quickly copied by ABC with That's Incredible, a stunt show co-hosted by Fran Tarkenton. The Canadian series Thrill of a Lifetime, a fantasies-fulfilled reality show, originally ran from 1982 to 1988 and was revived from 2001 to 2003.
In 1985, underwater cinematographer Al Giddings teamed with former Miss Universe Shawn Weatherly on the NBC series Oceanquest, which chronicled Weatherly's adventures scuba diving in various exotic locales. Weatherly was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Achievement in informational programming.
COPS, which first aired in the spring of 1989 on Fox and came about partly due to the need for new programming during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike, showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals; it introduced the camcorder look and cinéma vérité feel of much of later reality television.
The series Nummer 28, which aired on Dutch television in 1991, originated the concept of putting strangers together in the same environment for an extended period of time and recording the drama that ensued. Nummer 28 also pioneered many of the stylistic conventions that have since become standard in reality television shows, including a heavy use of soundtrack music and the interspersing of events on screen with after-the-fact "confessionals" recorded by cast members, that serve as narration. One year later, the same concept was used by MTV in its new series The Real World. Nummer 28 creator Erik Latour has long claimed that The Real World was directly inspired by his show; however, the producers of The Real World have stated that their direct inspiration was An American Family.
According to television commentator Charlie Brooker, this type of reality television was enabled by the advent of computer-based non-linear editing systems for video (such as produced by Avid Technology) in 1989. These systems made it easy to quickly edit hours of video footage into a usable form, something that had been very difficult to do before (film, which was easy to edit, was too expensive to shoot enough hours of footage with on a regular basis).
The series Expedition Robinson, created by television producer Charlie Parsons, which first aired in 1997 in Sweden (and was later produced in a large number of other countries as Survivor), added to the Nummer 28/Real World template the idea of competition and elimination, in which cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained (these shows are now sometimes called elimination shows).
The dating reality show Streetmate premiered in the UK in 1998. Originally created by Gabe Sachs as Street Match, it was a flop in the United States; however, the show was revamped in the UK by Tiger Aspect Productions and became a cult hit. The production team from the original series went on to create popular reality shows Strictly Come Dancing, Location, Location, Location and the revamped MasterChef, amongst others.
The 1980s and 1990s were also a time when tabloid talk shows came to rise, many of which featured the same types of unusual or dysfunctional guests who would later become popular as cast members of reality shows.
Reality television saw an explosion of global popularity in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with the successes of the Big Brother and Survivor/Expedition Robinson franchises.
In the United States, reality television programs experienced a temporary decline in viewership in 2001, leading some entertainment industry columnists[who?] to speculate that the genre was a temporary fad that had run its course. Reality shows that suffered from low ratings included The Amazing Race (although the show has since recovered and is in its 27th edition), Lost (unrelated to the better-known serial drama of the same name) and The Mole(which was successful in other countries).
However, this proved not to be the case for stronghold shows Survivor and American Idol, which both topped the U.S. season-average television ratings in the 2000s: Survivor led the ratings in 2001–02, and Idol has the longest hold on the No. 1 rank in the American television ratings, dominating over all other primetime programs and other television series in the overall viewership tallies for eight consecutive years, from the 2003–2004 to the 2010–2011 television seasons.
Internationally, a number of shows created in the late 1990s and 2000s have had massive global success. At least ten reality-television franchises created during that time have had over 30 international adaptations each: the singing competition franchises Idols, Star Academy  and The X Factor, other competition franchises Survivor/Expedition Robinson, Big Brother, Got Talent, Top Model, MasterChef and Dancing with the Stars, and the investment franchise Dragons' Den. Several "reality game shows" from the same period have had even greater success, including Deal or No Deal, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? and Weakest Link, with over 50 international adaptions each. (All but two of these franchises, Top Model and Dragons' Den, were created by either British producers or the Dutch production company Endemol; and even Dragons' Den, which originated in Japan, has had most adaptations be based on the British version.)
The 2000s saw the launches of three television channels devoted exclusively to reality television: Fox Reality in the United States, which existed from 2005 to 2010; Global Reality Channel in Canada, which lasted two years from 2010 to 2012; and Zone Reality in the United Kingdom, which operated from 2002 to 2009. In addition, several other cable channels, including Bravo, A&E, E!, TLC, History, VH1 and MTV, changed their programming to mostly comprise reality television series during the 2000s.
During the early part of the 2000s, network executives expressed concern that reality-television programming was limited in its appeal for DVD reissue and syndication. DVDs for reality shows in fact sold briskly; Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, The Amazing Race, Project Runway and America's Next Top Model all ranked in the top DVDs sold on Amazon.com, and in the mid-2000s, DVDs of The Simple Life outranked scripted shows like The O.C. and Desperate Housewives. Syndication, however, has indeed proven problematic; shows such as Fear Factor, COPS and Wife Swap in which each episode is self-contained, can indeed be rerun fairly easily, but usually only on cable television and/or during the daytime (COPS and America's Funniest Home Videos being exceptions). Season-long competitions such as The Amazing Race, Survivor and America's Next Top Model generally perform more poorly and usually must be rerun in marathons to draw the necessary viewers to make it worthwhile (even in these cases, it is not always successful: the first ten seasons of Dancing with the Stars were picked up by GSN in 2012 and was run in marathon format, but experienced very poor ratings). Another option is to create documentaries around series including extended interviews with the participants and outtakes not seen in the original airings; the syndicated series American Idol Rewind is an example of this strategy.
COPS has had huge success in syndication, direct response sales and DVD. A Fox staple since 1989, COPS has, as of 2013 (when it moved to cable channel Spike), outlasted all competing scripted police shows. Another series that has seen wide success is Cheaters, which has been running since 2000 in the U.S. and is syndicated in over 100 countries worldwide.
In 2001, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences added the reality genre to the Emmy Awards in the category of Outstanding Reality Program. In 2003, to better differentiate between competition and informational reality programs, a second category, Outstanding Reality-Competition Program, was added. In 2008, a third category, Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program, was added.
By 2012, many of the long-running reality television show franchises in the United States, such as American Idol, Dancing with the Stars and The Bachelor, had begun to see declining ratings. However, reality television as a whole remained durable in the U.S., with hundreds of shows across many channels. In 2012 New York Magazine's Vulture blog published a humorous Venn diagram showing popular themes across American reality shows then running, including shows set in the U.S. states of Alaska, Louisiana and Texas, shows about cakes, weddings and pawnbrokers, and shows, usually competition-based, whose title includes the word "Wars".
Duck Dynasty, a reality series featuring the Robertson family that founded Duck Commander, in 2013 became the most popular reality series in U.S. cable television history. Its fourth season premiere was viewed by nearly 12 million viewers in the United States, most of which were in rural markets; its rural audience share has ranked in the 30s, an extremely high number for any series, broadcast or cable.
In 2014, Entertainment Weekly and Variety again noted a stagnation in reality television programs' ratings in the U.S., which they attributed to "The diminishing returns of cable TV's sea of reality sameness". They noted that a number of networks that featured reality programming, including Bravo and E!, were launching their first scripted shows, and others, including AMC, were abandoning plans to launch further reality programs; though they clarified that the genre as a whole "isn't going anywhere."
The genre of reality television consists of various subgenres. There are eight subgenres of reality television as proposed by Murray and Ouellette (2009). These subgenres are: gamedocs, dating programs, makeover programs, docusoaps, talent contests, court programs, reality sitcoms, and celebrity variations of other programs.
Others such as Hill, Weibull, and Nilsson (2007, p. 18) suggest that five subgenres or categories exist. They suggest the following: infotainment, docusoap, lifestyle, reality game shows, and lifestyle experiment programs as main categories of reality TV. Nabi et al. (2006, p. 433) on the other hand, proposed a categorization based on six main topics: romance, crime, informational, reality-drama, competition/game, and talent. Similarly, Fitzgerald (2003) proposed a similar categorization focusing on talent and survival competitions, personal makeover, home makeover, get-rich-quick schemes, docudramas, and "Mr. Right" programs.
Still others suggest that categorization can be determined by either narrative or performation reality. Narrative reality television is based on "entertaining the viewers by an authentic or staged rendition of extraordinary, real, or close-to-reality events with non-prominent actors, whereas formats providing a stage for uncommon performances with a direct impact on the participants' lives fall into the category of performative reality TV." From the perspective of Klaus and Lucke,"docusoaps" portray people in their usual living environment and "reality soaps" bring them in a new, uncommon environment."
A variety of what could be called "adventure" reality television places people in wild and challenging natural settings. The genre includes such shows as Survivorman, Man vs. Wild, Marooned with Ed Stafford, Naked and Afraid and Get Out Alive with Bear Grylls.
In many reality television programs, camera shooting and footage editing give the viewer the impression that they are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities; this style of filming is sometimes referred to as fly on the wall or factual television. Story "plots" are often constructed via editing or planned situations, with the results resembling soap operas – hence the terms docusoap and docudrama. Documentary-style programs give viewers a private look into the lives of the subjects.
Within documentary-style reality television are several subcategories or variants:
- Special living environment
- Some documentary-style programs place cast members, who in most cases previously did not know each other, in artificial living environments; The Real World is the originator of this style. In almost every other such show, cast members are given specific challenges or obstacles to overcome. Road Rules, which started in 1995 as a spin-off of The Real World, started this pattern: the cast traveled across the country guided by clues and performing tasks.
- Big Brother is probably the best known program of this type in the world, with around 50 international versions having been produced. Other shows in this category, such The 1900 House, involve historical re-enactment, with cast members living and working as people of a specific time and place. 2001's Temptation Island achieved some notoriety by placing several couples on an island surrounded by single people in order to test the couples' commitment to each other. U8TV: The Lofters combined the "special living environment" format with the "professional activity" format noted below; in addition to living together in a loft, each member of the show's cast was hired to host a television program for a Canadian cable channel.
- Soap-opera style
- Although the term "docusoap" has been used for many documentary-style reality television shows, there have been shows that have deliberately tried to mimic the appearance and structure of soap operas. Such shows often focus on a close-knit group of people and their shifting friendships and romantic relationships. One highly influential such series was the American 2004–2006 series Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, which attempted to specifically mimic the primetime soap opera The O.C., which had begun airing in 2003. Laguna Beach had a more cinematic feel than any previous reality television show, through the use of higher-quality lighting and cameras, voice-over narration instead of on-screen "confessionals", and slower pacing. Laguna Beach led to several spinoff series, most notably the 2006–2010 series The Hills. It also inspired various other series, including the highly successful British series The Only Way Is Essex and Made in Chelsea, and the Australian series Freshwater Blue.
- Due to their cinematic feel, many of these shows have been accused of being pre-scripted, more so than other reality television shows have. The producers of The Only Way Is Essex and Made in Chelsea have admitted to coaching cast members on what to say in order to draw more emotion from each scene, although they insist that the underlying stories are real.
- Another highly successful group of soap-opera-style shows is the Real Housewives franchise, which began with The Real Housewives of Orange County in 2006 and has since spawned nearly twenty other series, in the U.S. and internationally. The franchise has an older cast and different personal dynamics than that of Laguna Beach and its imitators, as well as lower production values, but similarly is meant to resemble scripted soap operas – in this case, the television series Desperate Housewives and Peyton Place.
- A notable subset of such series focus on a group of women who are romantically connected to male celebrities; these include Basketball Wives (2010), Love & Hip Hop (2011) and Hollywood Exes (2012).
- Another subset of fly-on-the-wall-style shows involves celebrities. Often these show a celebrity going about their everyday life: notable examples include The Anna Nicole Show, The Osbournes, Gene Simmons Family Jewels, Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica, Keeping Up with the Kardashians and Hogan Knows Best. In other shows, celebrities are put on location and given a specific task or tasks; these include The Simple Life, Tommy Lee Goes to College and The Surreal Life. VH1 in the mid-2000s had an entire block of such shows, known as "Celebreality". Shows such as these are often created with the idea of promoting a celebrity product or upcoming project.
- Professional activities
- Some documentary-style shows portray professionals either going about day-to-day business or performing an entire project over the course of a series. One early example (and the longest running reality show of any genre) is Cops, which has been airing since 1989.
- Other examples of this type of reality show include the American shows Miami Ink, Bikini Barbershop, The First 48, Dog the Bounty Hunter, American Chopper, Lizard Lick Towing and Deadliest Catch; the British shows Airport, Police Stop! and Traffic Cops; the Australian shows Border Security and Bondi Rescue, and the New Zealand show Motorway Patrol. U.S. cable networks TLC and A&E in particular show a number of reality shows of this type.
- VH1's 2001 show Bands on the Run was a notable early hybrid, in that the show featured four unsigned bands touring and making music as a professional activity, but also pitted the bands against one another in game show fashion to see which band could make the most money.
- Some documentary-style shows shed light on cultures and lifestyles rarely seen otherwise by most of their viewers. One example is shows about people with disabilities or people who have unusual physical circumstances, such as the American series Push Girls and Little People, Big World, and the British programmes Beyond Boundaries, The Undateables and Seven Dwarves.
- Another example is shows that portray the lives of ethnic or religious minorities. Examples include All-American Muslim (Lebanese-American Muslims), Shahs of Sunset (affluent Persian-Americans), Sister Wives (polygamists from a Mormon splinter group), Breaking Amish and Amish Mafia (the Amish), and Washington Heights (Dominican Americans).
- The Real Housewives franchise offers a window into the lives of social-striving urban and suburban housewives. Many shows focus on wealth and conspicuous consumption, including Platinum Weddings, and My Super Sweet 16, which documented huge coming of age celebrations thrown by wealthy parents. Conversely, the highly successful Here Comes Honey Boo Boo and Duck Dynasty are set in poorer rural areas of the Southern United States.
Reality legal programming
Another subgenre of reality television is "reality legal programming." These are programs that center on real-life legal matters.
- Originally, court shows were all dramatized and staged programs with actors playing the litigants, witnesses and lawyers. The cases were either reenactments of real-life cases or cases that were fictionalized altogether. Among examples of stage courtroom dramas are Famous Jury Trials, Your Witness, and the first two eras of Divorce Court. The People's Court revolutionized the genre by introducing the arbitration-based "reality" format in 1981, later adopted by the vast majority of court shows. The genre experienced a lull in programming after The People's Court was cancelled in 1993, but then soared after the emergence of Judge Judy in 1996. This led to the debuts of a slew of other reality court shows, such as Judge Mathis, Judge Joe Brown, Judge Alex, Judge Mills Lane and Judge Hatchett.
- Though the litigants are legitimate, the "judges" in such shows are actually arbitrators, as these pseudo-judges are not actually presiding in a court of law. Typically, however, they are retired judges, or at least individuals who have had some legal experience.
- Courtroom programs are typically daytime television shows that air on weekdays.
Law enforcement documentaries
- Another subgenre of reality legal programming are law enforcement documentaries. Law enforcement documentaries are programs that capture police officers on duty. These shows tend to be shocking in nature as they consist of individuals caught in real-life criminal acts and circumstances, as well as confrontations with police officers. The most successful installment of this subgenre is Cops.
Reality competition/game shows
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2009)|
- See also: List of reality television game shows
Another subgenre of reality television is "reality competition", "reality playoffs", or so-called "reality game shows," which follow the format of non-tournament elimination contests. Typically, participants are filmed competing to win a prize, often while living together in a confined environment. In many cases, participants are removed until only one person or team remains, who/which is then declared the winner. Usually this is done by eliminating participants one at a time (or sometimes two at a time, as an episodic twist due to the number of contestants involved and the length of a given season), through either disapproval voting or by voting for the most popular to win. Voting is done by the viewing audience, the show's own participants, a panel of judges, or some combination of the three.
A well-known example of a reality-competition show is the globally syndicated Big Brother, in which cast members live together in the same house, with participants removed at regular intervals by either the viewing audience or, in the American version, by the participants themselves.
There remains disagreement over whether talent-search shows such as the Idol series, the Got Talent series and the Dancing with the Stars series are truly reality television, or just newer incarnations of shows such as Star Search. Although the shows involve a traditional talent search, the shows follow the reality-competition conventions of removing one or more contestants in every episode, allowing the public to vote on who is removed, and interspersing performances with video clips showing the contestants' "back stories", their thoughts about the competition, their rehearsals and unguarded behind-the-scenes moments. Additionally, there is a good deal of unscripted interaction shown between contestants and judges. The American Primetime Emmy Awards have nominated both American Idol and Dancing with the Stars for the Outstanding Reality-Competition Program Emmy.
Game shows like Weakest Link, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, American Gladiators and Deal or No Deal, which were popular in the 2000s, also lie in a gray area: like traditional game shows (e.g., The Price Is Right, Jeopardy!), the action takes place in an enclosed television studio over a short period of time; however, they have higher production values, more dramatic background music, and higher stakes than traditional shows (done either through putting contestants into physical danger or offering large cash prizes). In addition, there is more interaction between contestants and hosts, and in some cases they feature reality-style contestant competition and/or elimination as well. These factors, as well as these shows' rise in global popularity at the same time as the arrival of the reality craze, have led to such shows often being grouped under both the reality television and game show umbrellas.
There have been various hybrid reality-competition shows, like the worldwide-syndicated Star Academy, which combines the Big Brother and Idol formats, The Biggest Loser, which combines competition with the self-improvement format, and American Inventor, which uses the Idol format for products instead of people. Some reality shows that aired mostly during the early 2000s, such as Popstars, Making the Band and Project Greenlight, devoted the first part of the season to selecting a winner, and the second part to showing that person or group of people working on a project.
Popular variants of the competition-based format include the following:
- Dating-based competition
- Dating-based competition shows follow a contestant choosing one out of a group of suitors. Over the course of either a single episode or an entire season, suitors are eliminated until only the contestant and the final suitor remains. In the early 2000s, this type of reality show dominated the other genres on the major U.S. networks. Shows that aired included The Bachelor, its spin-off The Bachelorette, as well as Temptation Island and Average Joe. In Married by America, contestants were chosen by viewer voting. More recent such shows include Flavor of Love (a dating show featuring rapper Flavor Flav that led directly and indirectly to over 10 spinoffs), The Cougar and Love in the Wild. This is one of the older variants of the format; shows such as The Dating Game that date to the 1960s had similar premises (though each episode was self-contained, and not the serial format of more modern shows).
- Job search
- In this category, the competition revolves around a skill that contestants were pre-screened for. Competitors perform a variety of tasks based on that skill, are judged, and are then kept or removed by a single expert or a panel of experts. The show is usually presented as a job search of some kind, in which the prize for the winner includes a contract to perform that kind of work and an undisclosed salary, although the award can simply be a sum of money and ancillary prizes, like a cover article in a magazine. The show also features judges who act as counselors, mediators and sometimes mentors to help contestants develop their skills further or perhaps decide their future position in the competition. Popstars, which debuted in 1999, may have been the first such show, while the Idol series has been the longest-running and, for most of its run, the most popular such franchise. The first job-search show which showed dramatic, unscripted situations may have been America's Next Top Model, which premiered in May 2003. Other examples include The Apprentice (which judges business skills); Hell's Kitchen, MasterChef and Top Chef (for chefs); Shear Genius (for hair styling), Project Runway (for clothing design), Top Design (for interior design), Stylista (for fashion editors), Last Comic Standing (for comedians), I Know My Kid's a Star (for child performers), On the Lot (for filmmakers), RuPaul's Drag Race (for drag queens), The Shot (for fashion photographers), So You Think You Can Dance (for dancers), MuchMusic VJ Search and Food Network Star (for television hosts), Dream Job (for sportscasters), American Candidate (for aspiring politicians), Work of Art (for artists), Face Off (for makeup artists), Ink Master and Best Ink (for tattoo artists), Platinum Hit (for songwriters) and The Tester (for game testers).
- A notable subset is shows in which the winner gets a specific part a known film, television show, musical or performing group. Examples include Scream Queens (where the prize is a role in the Saw film series), The Glee Project (for a role on the television show Glee) and Any Dream Will Do (the lead role in a revival of the musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat). The most extreme prize for such a show may have been for 2005's Rock Star: INXS, where the winner became the lead singer of the rock band INXS. J.D. Fortune, who won the show, went on to be INXS's lead singer until 2011.
- Some shows use the same format with celebrities: in this case, there is no expectation that the winner will continue this line of work, and prize winnings often go to charity. The most popular such shows have been the Dancing with the Stars and Dancing on Ice franchises. Other examples of celebrity competition programs include Deadline, Celebracadabra and Celebrity Apprentice.
- Most of these programs create a sporting competition among athletes attempting to establish their name in that sport. The Club, in 2002, was one of the first shows to immerse sport with reality television, based on a fabricated club competing against real clubs in the sport of Australian rules football; the audience helped select which players played each week by voting for their favorites. Golf Channel's The Big Break is a reality show in which aspiring golfers compete against one another and are eliminated. The Contender, a boxing show, became the first American reality show in which a contestant committed suicide after being eliminated from the show; the show's winner was promised a shot at a boxing world championship. Sergio Mora, who won, indeed got his title shot and became a world champion boxer. In The Ultimate Fighter, participants have voluntarily withdrawn or expressed the desire to withdraw from the show due to competitive pressure.
- In sports shows, sometimes just appearing on the show, not necessarily winning, can get a contestant the job. The owner of UFC declared that the final match of the first season of Ultimate Fighter was so good, both contestants were offered a contract, and in addition, many non-winning "TUF Alumni" have prospered in the UFC. Many of the losers from World Wrestling Entertainment's Tough Enough and Diva Search shows have been picked up by the company.
- Not all sports programs involve athletes trying to make a name in the sport. The 2006 U.S. reality series Knight School focused on students at Texas Tech University vying for a walk-on (non-scholarship) roster position on the school's men's basketball team under legendary coach Bob Knight. In the Republic of Ireland, RTÉ One's Celebrity Bainisteoir involves eight non-sporting Irish celebrities becoming bainisteoiri (managers) of mid-level Gaelic football teams, leading their teams in an officially sanctioned tournament.
One concept pioneered by, and unique to, reality competition shows is the idea of immunity, in which a contestant can win the right to be exempt the next time contestants are eliminated from the show. Possibly the first instance of immunity in reality TV was on the U.S. version of Survivor, which premiered in 2000. On that show, there are complex rules around immunity: a player can achieve it by winning challenges (either as a team in the tribal phase or individually in the merged phase), or, in more recent seasons, through finding a hidden totem. They can keep their immunity a secret from other players, and they can also pass on their immunity to someone else.
On most shows, immunity is quite a bit simpler: it is usually achieved by winning a task, often a relatively minor task during the first half of the episode; the announcement of immunity is made publicly and immunity is usually non-transferable. Competition shows that feature immunity include the Apprentice, Big Brother, Biggest Loser, Top Model and Top Chef franchises. In one Apprentice episode, a participant chose to waive his earned immunity and was immediately "fired" by Donald Trump for giving up this powerful asset.
Another common characteristic of reality competition shows is the presence of a confession room, or confessional interviews, wherein contestants "confess" details of their strategy/gameplay or their concerns and struggles on the show. These segments are usually filmed after episodes or a season.
Some reality television shows cover a person or group of people improving their lives. Sometimes the same group of people are covered over an entire season (as in The Swan and Celebrity Fit Club), but usually there is a new target for improvement in each episode. Despite differences in the content, the format is usually the same: first the show introduces the subjects in their current, less-than-ideal environment. Then the subjects meet with a group of experts, who give the subjects instructions on how to improve things; they offer aid and encouragement along the way. Finally, the subjects are placed back in their environment and they, along with their friends and family and the experts, appraise the changes that have occurred. Other self-improvement or makeover shows include The Biggest Loser, Extreme Weight Loss and Fat March (which covers weight loss), Extreme Makeover (entire physical appearance), Queer Eye, What Not to Wear and How Do I Look? (style and grooming), Supernanny (child-rearing), Made (life transformation), Trinny & Susannah Undress and Bridalplasty (fashion and cosmetic makeover and marriage), Tool Academy (relationship building) and Charm School and From G's to Gents (self-improvement and manners). The British programme Snog Marry Avoid? takes participants who usually have a wild dress sense or wear excess make-up and "fakery" and makes them look more presentable.
Some shows make over part or all of a person's living space, work space, or vehicle. The American series This Old House, which debuted in 1979, features the start-to-finish renovation of different houses through a season; media critic Jeff Jarvis has speculated that it is "the original reality TV show." The British show Changing Rooms, beginning in 1996 (later remade in the U.S. as Trading Spaces) was the first such renovation show that added a game show feel with different weekly contestants. Other shows in this category include Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, Debbie Travis' Facelift, Designed to Sell, While You Were Out and Holmes on Homes. Pimp My Ride and Overhaulin' show vehicles being rebuilt. Some shows, such as Restaurant Makeover and Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares, show both the decor and the menu of a failing restaurant being remade.
The issue of "making over" was taken to its social extreme with the British show Life Laundry, in which people who had become hoarders, even living in squalor, were given professional assistance. The American television series Hoarders and Hoarding: Buried Alive follow similar premises, presenting interventions in the lives of people who suffer from compulsive hoarding.
Financial transactions and appraisals
Another subset of reality TV shows focuses on haggling and financial transactions, often over unique or rare items whose value must first be appraised. Two such shows, both of which have led to multiple spinoff shows, are Pawn Stars and American Pickers. Other shows, while based around such financial transactions, also show elements of its main cast members' personal and professional lives; these shows include Hardcore Pawn and Comic Book Men.
Such shows have some antecedent in the British series Antiques Roadshow, which began airing in 1979 and has since spawned numerous international versions, although that show includes only appraisals and does not include bargaining or other dramatic elements.
The globally syndicated format Dragons' Den involves financial transactions with much higher amounts, showing a group of wealthy investors choosing whether or not to invest in a series of pitched startup companies. The series Restaurant Startup similarly involves investors, but involves more of a game show element in which restaurant owners compete to prove their worth.
The British series Show Me the Monet offers a twist in which artworks' artistic value, rather than their financial value, is appraised by a panel of judges, who determine whether each one will be featured at an exhibition.
Another type of reality program is the social experiment that produces drama, conflict, and sometimes transformation. British TV series Wife Swap, which began in 2003, and has had many spinoffs in the UK and other countries, is a notable example. In the show, people with different values agree to live by each other's social rules for a brief period of time. Other shows in this category include Trading Spouses, Bad Girls Club and Holiday Showdown. Faking It was a series where people had to learn a new skill and pass themselves off as experts in that skill. Shattered was a controversial 2004 UK series in which contestants competed for how long they could go without sleep. Solitary was a controversial 2006-2010 Fox Reality series that isolated contestants for weeks in solitary confinement pods with limited sleep, food and information while competing in elimination challenges ended by a quit button, causing winners to go on for much longer than needed as a blind gamble to not be the first person to quit.
Another type of reality programming features hidden cameras rolling when random passers-by encounter a staged situation. Candid Camera, which first aired on television in 1948, pioneered the format. Modern variants of this type of production include Punk'd, Trigger Happy TV, Primetime: What Would You Do?, The Jamie Kennedy Experiment and Just for Laughs: Gags. The series Scare Tactics and Room 401 are hidden-camera programs in which the goal is to frighten contestants rather than just befuddle or amuse them.
Not all hidden camera shows use strictly staged situations. For example, the syndicated program Cheaters purports to use hidden cameras to record suspected cheating partners, although the authenticity of the show has been questioned, and even refuted by some who have been featured on the series. Once the evidence has been gathered, the accuser confronts the cheating partner with the assistance of the host. In many special-living documentary programs, hidden cameras are set up all over the residence in order to capture moments missed by the regular camera crew, or intimate bedroom footage.
Supernatural and paranormal
Supernatural and paranormal reality shows such as MTV's Fear, place participants into frightening situations which ostensibly involve the paranormal. In series such as Celebrity Paranormal Project, the stated aim is investigation, and some series like Scariest Places on Earth challenge participants to survive the investigation; whereas others such as Paranormal State and Ghost Hunters use a recurring crew of paranormal researchers. In general, the shows follow similar stylized patterns of night vision, surveillance, and hand held camera footage; odd angles; subtitles establishing place and time; desaturated imagery; and non-melodic soundtracks.
Noting the trend in reality shows that take the paranormal at face value, New York Times culture editor Mike Hale characterized ghost hunting shows as "pure theater" and compared the genre to professional wrestling or softcore pornography for its formulaic, teasing approach.
In hoax reality shows, a false premise is presented to some of the series participants; the rest of the cast may contain actors who are in on the joke. These shows often served to parody the conventions of the reality television genre. The first such show was the 2003 American series The Joe Schmo Show. Other examples are My Big Fat Obnoxious Boss (modeled after The Apprentice), My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance, Hell Date (modeled after Blind Date), Superstar USA (modeled after American Idol), Bedsitcom (modeled after Big Brother), Space Cadets (which convinced the hoax targets that they were being flown into space), Invasion Iowa (in which a town was convinced that William Shatner was filming a movie there) and Reality Hell (which featured a different target and premise every episode).
Other hoax shows are not intended for comedic affect and do not include actors. In some shows, a person of wealth and/or power has their identity disguised so that they can go among less-privileged people in order to see them in their natural state and judge their worthiness for largesse; the other participants are not told the true nature of the show during filming. Popular examples include Undercover Boss (though that show is also intended to let bosses see their business more accurately) and The Secret Millionaire.
Criticism and analysis
"Reality" as misnomer
The authenticity of reality television is often called into question by its detractors. The genre's title of "reality" is often criticized as being inaccurate because of claims that the genre frequently includes elements such as premeditated scripting, acting, urgings from behind-the-scenes crew to create specified situations of adversity and drama and misleading editing. It has often been described as "scripting without paper".
In many cases, the entire premise of the show is a contrived one, based around a competition or another unusual situation. However, various shows have additionally been accused of using fakery in order to create more compelling television, such as having premeditated storylines and in some cases feeding participants lines of dialogue, focusing only on participants' most outlandish behavior, and altering events through editing and re-shoots.
Television shows that have been notably accused of, or admitted to, deception include The Real World, the U.S. version of Survivor, Joe Millionaire, The Hills, Hell's Kitchen, A Shot at Love with Tila Tequila, Hogan Knows Best, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, The Bachelor and The Bachelorette, Pawn Stars, Storage Wars and Keeping Up with the Kardashians.
Political and cultural impact
Reality television's global successes has been, in the eyes of some analysts, an important political phenomenon. In some authoritarian countries, reality television voting has been the first time many citizens have voted in any free and fair wide-scale elections. In addition, the frankness of the settings on some reality shows present situations that are often taboo in certain orthodox cultures, like Star Academy Arab World, which began airing in 2003, and which shows male and female contestants living together. A Pan-Arab version of Big Brother was cancelled in 2004 after less than two weeks on the air after a public outcry and street protests. In 2004, journalist Matt Labash, noting both of these issues, wrote that "the best hope of little Americas developing in the Middle East could be Arab-produced reality TV."
In 2007, Abu Dhabi TV began airing Million's Poet, a show featuring Pop Idol-style voting and elimination, but for the writing and oration of Arabic poetry. The show became popular in Arab countries, with around 18 million viewers, partly because it was able to combine the excitement of reality television with a traditional, culturally relevant topic. In April 2010, however, the show also become a subject of political controversy, when Hissa Hilal, a 43-year-old female Saudi competitor, read out a poem criticizing her country's Muslim clerics. Hilal's poetry was well received by both critics and the public; she received the highest scores from the judges throughout the competition, and came in third place overall.
In India, in the summer of 2007, coverage of the third season of Indian Idol focused on the breaking down of cultural and socioeconomic barriers as the public rallied around the show's top two contestants.
The Chinese singing competition Super Girl (a local imitation of Pop Idol) has similarly been cited for its political and cultural impact. After the finale of the show's 2005 season drew an audience of around 400 million people, and eight million text message votes, the state-run English-language newspaper Beijing Today ran the front-page headline "Is Super Girl a Force for Democracy?" The Chinese government criticized the show, citing both its democratic nature and its excessive vulgarity, or "worldliness", and in 2006 banned it outright. It was later reintroduced in 2009, before being banned again in 2011. Super Girl has also been criticized by non-government commentators for creating seemingly impossible ideals that may be harmful to Chinese youth.
In Indonesia, reality television shows have surpassed soap operas as the most-watched programs on the air. One popular program is Jika Aku Menjadi ("If I Were"), which follows young, middle-class people as they are temporarily placed into lower-class life, where they learn to appreciate their circumstances back home by experiencing daily life for the less fortunate. Critics have claimed that this and similar programs in Indonesia reinforce traditionally Western ideals of materialism and consumerism. However, Eko Nugroho, reality show producer and president of Dreamlight World Media, insists that these reality shows are not promoting American lifestyles but rather reaching people through their universal desires.
As a substitute for scripted drama
Reality television generally costs less to produce than scripted series.
VH1 executive vice president Michael Hirschorn wrote in 2007 that the plots and subject matters on reality television are more authentic and more engaging than in scripted dramas, writing that scripted network television "remains dominated by variants on the police procedural... in which a stock group of characters (ethnically, sexually, and generationally diverse) grapples with endless versions of the same dilemma. The episodes have all the ritual predictability of Japanese Noh theater," while reality television is "the liveliest genre on the set right now. It has engaged hot-button cultural issues – class, sex, race – that respectable television... rarely touches."
Television critic James Poniewozik wrote that reality shows like Deadliest Catch and Ice Road Truckers showcase working-class people of the kind that "used to be routine" on scripted network television, but that became a rarity in the 2000s: "The better to woo upscale viewers, TV has evicted its mechanics and dockworkers to collect higher rents from yuppies in coffeehouses."
Reality television has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, at least for a short period. This is most notable in talent-search programs such as Idol and The X Factor, which have spawned music stars in many of the countries in which they have aired. Many other shows, however, have made at least temporary celebrities out of their participants; some participants have then been able to parlay this fame into media and merchandising careers. For example, Elisabeth Hasselbeck, a contestant on Survivor: The Australian Outback, later became a host on daytime talk show The View and a correspondent on Fox and Friends. Jamie Chung (from The Real World: San Diego), Kristin Cavallari (from Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County) and NeNe Leakes (from The Real Housewives of Atlanta) all have had acting careers since appearing on reality television. Several cast members of MTV's Jersey Shore have had lucrative endorsement deals, and in some cases their own product lines. Tiffany Pollard, originally a contestant on Flavor of Love, was eventually given four additional reality series of her own on VH1. In Britain, Jade Goody became famous after appearing on Big Brother 3 in 2002; she later appeared on other reality programs, wrote a bestselling autobiography and launched a top-selling perfume line. She later received extensive media coverage during her battle with cervical cancer, from which she died in 2009. Bethenny Frankel, who gained fame after appearing on several reality television shows, launched the successful brand Skinnygirl Cocktails, and got her own short-lived syndicated talk show, Bethenny. Two cast members of non-athletic reality shows, Mike "The Miz" Mizanin (from The Real World and its spin-off, The Challenge) and David Otunga (from I Love New York), became professional wrestlers for the WWE. Some reality-television alumni have parlayed their fame into paid public appearances.
Several socialites, or children of famous parents, who were somewhat well-known before they appeared on reality television shows have become much more famous as a result, including Paris Hilton, Nicole Richie, Kelly Osbourne, Kim Kardashian and many of the rest of the Kardashian family.
Reality television personalities are sometimes derided as "Z-list celebrities", "Bravolebrities", and/or "nonebrities" who are effectively "famous for being famous" and have done nothing to warrant their sudden fame. Some have been lampooned for exploiting an undeserved "15 minutes of fame". The Kardashian family is one such group of reality television personalities who were subject to this criticism in the 2010s, Kim Kardashian in particular.
In 2006, four of the ten most popular programs among viewers under 17 were reality shows. Studies have shown that young people emulate the behavior displayed on these programs, gathering much of their knowledge of the social world, particularly about consumer practices, from television. Many of the programs watched by teens contain questionable role models, in particular the representation of sexually objectified women in shows like The Girls Next Door.
A number of studies have tried to pinpoint the appeal of reality television. Factors that have been cited in its appeal include personal identification with the onscreen participants; pure entertainment; diversion from scripted TV; vicarious participation; a feeling of self-importance compared to onscreen participants; enjoyment of competition; and an appeal to voyeurism, especially given "scenes which take place in private settings, contain nudity, and/or include gossip".
Similar works in popular culture
A number of fictional works since the 1940s have contained elements similar to elements of reality television. They tended to be set in a dystopian future, with subjects being recorded against their will, and often involved violence.
- "The Seventh Victim" (1953) was a short story by science fiction author Robert Sheckley that depicted a futuristic game in which one player gets to hunt down another player and kill him. The first player who can score ten kills wins the grand prize. This story was the basis for the Italian film The 10th Victim (1965).
- You're Another, a 1955 short story by Damon Knight, is about a man who discovers that he is an actor in a "livie", a live-action show that is viewed by billions of people in the future.
- A King in New York, a 1957 film written and directed by Charlie Chaplin has the main character, a fictional European monarch portrayed by Chaplin, secretly filmed while talking to people at a New York cocktail party. The footage is later turned into a television show within the film.
- "The Prize of Peril" (1958), another Robert Sheckley story, was about a television show in which a contestant volunteers to be hunted for a week by trained killers, with a large cash prize if he survives. It was adapted in 1970 as the TV movie Das Millionenspiel, and again in 1983 as the movie Le Prix du Danger.
- Richard G. Stern's novel Golk (1960) was about a hidden-camera show similar to Candid Camera.
- "It Could Be You" (1964), a short story by Australian Frank Roberts, features a day-in-day-out televised blood sport.
- Survivor (1965), a science fiction story by Walter F. Moudy, depicted the 2050 "Olympic War Games" between Russia and the United States. The games are fought to show the world the futility of war and thus deter further conflict. Each side has one hundred soldiers who fight in a large natural arena. The goal is for one side to wipe out the other; the few who survive the battle become heroes. The games are televised, complete with color commentary discussing tactics, soldiers' personal backgrounds, and slow-motion replays of their deaths.
- "Bread and Circuses" (1968) was an episode of the science fiction television series Star Trek in which the crew visits a planet resembling the Roman Empire, but with 20th-century technology. The planet's "Empire TV" features regular gladiatorial games, with the announcer urging viewers at home to vote for their favorites, stating, "This is your program. You pick the winner."
- The Year of the Sex Olympics (1968) was a BBC television play in which a dissident in a dictatorship is forced onto a secluded island and taped for a reality show in order to keep the masses entertained.
- The Unsleeping Eye (1973), a novel by D.G. Compton (also published as The Continuous Katherine Mortenhoe), was about a woman dying of cancer whose last days are recorded without her knowledge for a television show. It was later adapted as the 1980 movie Death Watch.
- "Ladies And Gentlemen, This Is Your Crisis" (1976) was a short story by science fiction author Kate Wilhelm about a television show in which contestants (including a B-list actress who is hoping to revitalize her career) attempt to make their way to a checkpoint after being dropped off in the Alaskan wilderness, while being filmed and broadcast around the clock through an entire weekend. The story focuses primarily on the show's effect on a couple whose domestic tensions and eventual reconciliation parallel the dangers faced by the contestants.
- Network (1976) includes a subplot in which network executives negotiate with an urban terrorist group for the production of a weekly series, each episode of which was to feature an act of terrorism.
- The Running Man (1982) was a book by Stephen King depicting a game show in which a contestant flees around the world from "hunters" trying to chase him down and kill him; it has been speculated that the book was inspired by Robert Sheckley's The Prize of Peril. The book was loosely adapted as a 1987 movie of the same name. The movie removed most of the reality-TV element of the book: its competition now took place entirely within a large television studio, and more closely resembled an athletic competition (though a deadly one).
- The film 20 Minutes into the Future (1985), and the spin-off television series Max Headroom, revolved around television mainly based on live, often candid, broadcasts. In one episode of Max Headroom, "Academy", the character Blank Reg fights for his life on a courtroom game show, with the audience deciding his fate.
- Vengeance on Varos (1985) was an episode of the television show Doctor Who in which the population of a planet watches live television broadcasts of the torture and executions of those who oppose the government. The planet's political system is based on the leaders themselves facing disintegration if the population votes 'no' to their propositions.
Pop culture references
Some scripted and written works have used reality television as a plot device:
- Halloween: Resurrection (2002) is a horror/slasher film that takes place in a wired house full of surveillance cameras. Each "contestant" is recorded as they attempt to survive and solve the mystery of the murders.
- American Dreamz (2006) is a film set partially on an American Idol-like show.
- EDtv (1999) was a remake of Louis the 19th, King of the Airwaves.
- Louis the 19th, King of the Airwaves (1994) is a Québécois film about a man who signs up to star in a 24-hour-a-day reality television show.
- Real Life (1979) is a comedic film about the creation of a show similar to An American Family gone horribly wrong.
- Series 7: The Contenders (2001) is a film about a reality show in which contestants have to kill each other to win.
- The Truman Show (1998) is a film about a man (Jim Carrey) who discovers that his entire life is being staged and filmed for a 24-hour-a-day reality television show.
- Slumdog Millionaire (2008) is a film in which a contestant on the Indian version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? is interrogated because he knows all the answers.
- The Comeback (2005) satirizes the indignity of reality television by presenting itself as "raw footage" of a new reality show documenting the attempted comeback of has-been star Valerie Cherish.
- Dead Set is a British television programme featuring a zombie apocalypse affecting the Big Brother house. Part of the film was shot during an actual eviction with host Davina McCall making a cameo appearance.
- Rock Rivals (2008) is a British television show about two judges on a televised singing contest whose marriage is falling apart.
- Chart Throb (2006) is a comic novel by Ben Elton that parodies The X Factor and The Osbournes, among other reality shows.
- Dead Famous (2001) is a comedy/whodunit novel, also by Ben Elton, in which a contestant is murdered while on a Big Brother-like show.
- Oryx and Crake (2003), a speculative fiction novel by Margaret Atwood, occasionally makes mentions of the protagonist and his friend entertaining themselves by watching reality television shows of live executions, Noodie News, frog squashing, graphic surgery, and child pornography.
- L.A. Candy (2009) is a young adult novel series by Lauren Conrad, which is based on her experiences on Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County and The Hills.
Other influences on popular culture
A number of scripted television comedy and satire shows have adopted the format of the documentary-type reality television show, in "mockumentary" style. The first such show was the BBC series Operation Good Guys, which premiered in 1997. Subsequent examples include People Like Us (BBC UK, 1998), The Games (ABC Australia, 1999), Trailer Park Boys (2001), Reno 911! (2003), Drawn Together (2004), Summer Heights High (2007), Total Drama (2007), Parks and Recreation (2009), Modern Family (2009), Come Fly With Me (2010) and The Muppets (2015). Arguably the best-known and most influential "mockumentary" sitcom is the BBC's The Office (2001), which spawned numerous international remakes, including a successful American version.
The 2013-2015 American sketch comedy series Kroll Show set most of its sketches as excerpts from various fictional reality television shows, which one critic wrote "aren't far off from the lineups at E!, Bravo, and VH1", and parodied those shows' participants' "lack of self-awareness". The show also satirized the often incestuous nature of reality television, in which some series lead to a cascade of spinoffs. Kroll Show writer John Levenstein said in an interview that reality TV "has so many tools for telling stories in terms of text and flashbacks and ways to show things to the audience that it's incredibly convenient for comedy and storytelling if you use the full reality show toolkit."
Some feature films have been produced that use some of the conventions of documentary film and/or reality television; such films are sometimes referred to as reality films, and sometimes simply as documentaries. Allen Funt's 1970 hidden camera movie What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? was based on his reality-television show Candid Camera.
The television series Jackass has spawned five films: Jackass: The Movie in 2001, Jackass: Number Two in 2006, Jackass 2.5 in late 2007, Jackass 3D in 2010 and Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa in 2013. A similar show, Extreme Duudsonit, was adapted for the film The Dudesons Movie in 2006. The producers of The Real World created The Real Cancun in 2003. The Chinese reality show Hurry Up, Brother was adapted for the 2015 film Running Man.
In 2007, broadcaster Krishnan Guru-Murthy stated that reality television is "a firm and embedded part of television's vocabulary, used in every genre from game-shows and drama to news and current affairs."
The mumblecore film genre, which began in the mid-2000s, and uses video cameras and relies heavily on improvisation and non-professional actors, has been described as influenced in part by what one critic called "the spring-break psychodrama of MTV's The Real World". Mumblecore director Joe Swanberg has said, "As annoying as reality TV is, it's been really good for filmmakers because it got mainstream audiences used to watching shaky camerawork and different kinds of situations."
- Zeven werklozen samen op zoek naar een baan (in Dutch), Raymond van den Boogaard, NRC Handelsblad, 28 September 1996
- Hill, Annette (2005). Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26152-X.
- Clissold, B.(2004). Candid Camera and the origins of reality TV: contextualizing a historical precedent. In Holmes, and Jermyn, D. (eds) Understanding Reality Television. London: Routledge, 33-53.
- McCarthy, A. (2009). Stanley Milgram, Allen Funt and me: Postwar Social Science and the First Wave of Reality TV. In Ouellette, L. and Murray, S. (eds). Reality Television Culture. New York: NYU Press.
- Rowan, Beth (July 21, 2000). "Reality TV Takes Hold". Infoplease.com. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
- Alex McNeil, Total Television (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), p. 178
- "Syracuse.com - Guest column: These new reality hunting TV shows are out of control". Retrieved October 17, 2013. The Post-Standard newspaper, Syracuse, New York, December 21, 2012, by Tom Adessa. "As a teenager, I always looked forward to Sunday afternoons when I'd watch Curt Gowdy and his TV show, 'The American Sportsman.' Gowdy had a distinct, soft-spoken demeanor and the destinations of his hunts were in various parts of the world."
- "'The American Sportsman' Penetrates the Awesome World of the Shark". Retrieved October 17, 2013. The News and Courier newspaper, February 8, 1975, Charleston, South Carolina. "Peter Benchley's journey to the world of the White Shark is an evocative portrait of one of nature's extraordinary phenomena, the shark, and of one man's revealing transition from the world of fantasy to the world of underwater reality. The American Sportsman is produced and directed by Neil Cunningham and hosted by Curt Gowdy."
- "Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom" Network Awesome. http://networkawesome.com/series/mutual-omahas-wild-kingdom/ accessed 8/26/2014.
- Baracaia, Alexa (October 4, 2006). "Warhol 'reality' film named in top 100". Evening Standard.
- Biressi, Anita (2005). Reality TV: Realism and Revelation. London: Wallflower Press. pp. 64–66. ISBN 1904764045.
- James, Caryn (January 26, 2003). "Bachelor No. 1 And the Birth Of Reality TV". The New York Times. Television/Radio. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
- Oceanquest at the Internet Movie Database
- Peterson, Karla (November 6, 2007). "With writers on strike, expect more repeats and dose of reality". San Diego Union-Tribune.
- Source: Zeven werklozen samen op zoek naar een baan by Raymond van den Boogaard, NRC Handelsblad, September 28, 1996
- Keveney, Bill (October 9, 2007). "MTV's 'Real World' launched a revolution". USA Today.
- "Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe - Reality TV Editing". YouTube. February 2007.
- Sigesmund, B. J. (October 11, 2001). Will Reality TV Survive? Newsweek. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database.
- Lodish, E. (2013, June 25). Who would win a World Idol competition? Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/culture-lifestyle/entertainment/130625/arab-idol-mohammed-assaf-world-singers
- Star Academy reality show comes to town. (2014, February 21). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://vietnamnews.vn/life-style/251419/star-academy-reality-show-comes-to-town.html
- Punathambekar, Aswin (2010). "Reality TV and Participatory Culture in India". Popular Communication 8: 241–255. doi:10.1080/15405702.2010.514177.
- Levin, Gary (May 8, 2007). "'Simple economics': More reality TV". USA Today.
- Snider, Mike (March 5, 2010). "Have a PlayStation? You can watch 'The Tester' ; Reality series is available only on consoles". USA Today. p. D.12. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- Molloy, Tim (March 13, 2012). Reality Ratings Slip: Aging Bachelors, Idols and Dancers Lose Their Bite. The Wrap. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Margaret Lyons and Jen Cotton (January 31, 2012). "See a Venn Diagram Connecting Reality-TV Shows". New York Magazine Vulture blog.
- Republicans fueling record Duck Dynasty ratings, urbanites tuning out. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Littleton, Cynthia (October 9, 2014). AMC Scraps Second Season of 'Game of Arms,' Other Shows as Cabler Reconsiders Unscripted Genre. Variety. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Hibberd, James (October 31, 2014). "Are we tired of reality TV?". Entertainment Weekly.
- Murray, S. & Ouellette, L. (2009). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. New York: New York University Press.
- Hill, A., Weibull, L. & Nilsson, A. (2007). "Public and popular: British and Swedish audience trends in factual and reality television." Cultural Trends, 16(1), p.17–41.
- Nabi, R. Stitt, C. Halford, J. & Finnerty, K. (2006). "Emotional and cognitive predictors of the enjoyment of reality based and fictional television programming: An elaboration of the uses and gratifications perspective." Media Psychology, 8, 421–447.
- Fitgerald, K. (2003). "So many realities, so few slots." Advertising Age, 74(19).
- Klaus, E. & Lucke, S.(2003). "Reality TV: Definition," Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft, 51(2), 195–212.
- Klaus, & Lucke, p.199.
- Bindig, Lori; Bergstrom, Andrea (2013). The O.C.: A Critical Understanding. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-3317-0.
- Raeside, Julia (31 May 2011). "A different kind of reality TV". The Guardian.
- "How can I audition for reality shows?". MSNBC. June 1, 2007.
- Matthew J. Smith, Andrew F. Wood, Survivor Lessons: Essays on Communication and Reality Television (2003), p. 33.
- Frank J. Landy, Jeffrey M. Conte, Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2009) p. 151.
- Jarvis, Jeff (August 6, 2005). "Tag the greatest – but not obvious – TV shows". BuzzMachine.com. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
- Lawrence, Christopher. "Las Vegas pawnshop center of new reality series" Las Vegas Review-Journal; July 19, 2009
- Nowell, Scott (October 17, 2002). "Your Cheatin' Art". HoustonPress. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- "Mike Hale, Editor, The New York Times". New York Times Knowledge Network. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- Hale, Mike (December 10, 2009). "Consigning Reality to Ghosts". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Perigard, Mark A (August 16, 2009). "Shocker! Stooges do anything for camera in 'Reality Hell'". Boston Herald.
- Booth, William (August 10, 2004). "Reality Is Only An Illusion, Writers Say - Hollywood Scribes Want a Cut Of Not-So-Unscripted Series". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- "Just how real are reality TV shows? - Shows may exist in a middle ground – not fully scripted nor completely true". MSNBC. April 14, 2009. Retrieved April 2009.
- Fretts, Bruce. (July 21, 1995). "The British Invasion The Real World returns for fourth season – The MTV hit invades London". Entertainment Weekly. Page 3 of 4
- Rogers, Steve. "'Real World: Chicago' cast admits their September 11 reactions were staged". August 19, 2002
- Roberts, Michael. "The Unreal World". Denver Westword. March 14, 1996
- "At last! The secrets of 'Survivor' revealed." MSNBC. October 7, 2008. Accessed September 2011.
- Reality TV Secrets Revealed, VH1 documentary, 2004
- Roger Holland (June 19, 2006). "Hell's Kitchen review". PopMatters.
- Johnson, K C (January 3, 2008). "As 'Shot' misses, Tequila aims anew". Chicago Tribune.
- Hogan, Hulk (October 2009), My Life Outside the Ring, St. Martin's Press. pp. 175 - 178, ISBN 0-312-58889-5
- Christensen, Kim; James, Meg (May 13, 2007). "And then the roof caved in". Los Angeles Times. Page 2 of 3.
- McDow, Christine (June 28, 2011). "Jesse Csincsak Talks About Ashley Hebert And Last Night's The Bachelorette". Reality TV Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
The viewers are seeing the PRODUCED side of her show and not so much the genuine stuff, and she looks silly because of it... A LOT TAKES PLACE IN THE EDITING ROOM!
- Carbone, Steve (February 26, 2009). "My Interview with Megan Parris". Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Dehnart, Andy (March 29, 2009). "Megan Parris says Bachelor producers "berate," "curse at" contestants". Reality Blurred. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Cherry, Bobby (March 26, 2009). "'Bachelor' candidate from Sewickley Hills goes off script". Trib Live. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Dehnart, Andy (March 16, 2010). "Bachelors have sex with an average of three women, but Bob Guiney has the record with 5.5". Reality Blurred. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
We need our fair share of villains every season. And now we're very careful in our casting...to develop characters that the audience is going to root for and root against
- "Today's TV Addict Top 5: Wildly Disturbing Quotes from THE BACHELOR creator/executive producer Mike Fleiss". Today's TV Addict. March 18, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
"We are very careful in our casting to develop characters that the audience is going to root for and root against." Fleiss admits that his show has less to do with "reality" than it does making good television. Which is all fine and good... if a few moments later he hadn't claimed that the whole premise was romance and the search for love.
- Harrison, Rick (2011). License to Pawn: Deals, Steals, and My Life at the Gold & Silver . Hyperion. 2011. New York. ISBN 978-1-4013-2430-8 pp. 70, 89
- Oldenburg, Ann (December 11, 2012). "'Storage Wars' star says show is rigged". USA Today.
- Maresca, Rachel (March 13, 2013). "Kim Kardashian, Kris Humphries divorce case heats up: Court documents show marriage scenes were 'scripted, reshot or edited' for reality show". Daily News.
- Tate, Amethyst (March 14, 2013) "Kim Kardashian Faked Kris Humphries Scenes: Show Producer Reveals Star Wanted To Make Humpries Look Bad". International Business Times.
- Lynch, Marc (2006). "'Reality is Not Enough': The Politics of Arab Reality TV".
- "Arab Big Brother show suspended". BBC News. March 1, 2004.
- Labash, Matt (October 18, 2004). "When a Kiss Is Not Just a Kiss". The Weekly Standard.
- Winner's tribe put the millions in Million's Poet, James Calderwood, The National, April 19, 2010
- Move over American Idol: Hissa Hilal in finals of Arab reality TV poetry contest, Kristen Chick, Christian Science Monitor, April 7, 2010
- Hassan, Hassan (March 19, 2010). "Million's Poet finalist defies death threats". The National
- Li Cui; Francis L. F. Lee (2010). "Becoming Extra-Ordinary: Negotiation of Media Power in the Case of "Super Girls' Voice" in China". Popular Communication 8: 256–272. doi:10.1080/15405702.2010.512829.
- "Democracy Idol". The Economist. September 8, 2005.
- Macartney, Jane (August 29, 2005). "TV talent contest 'too democratic' for China's censors". The Times (London).
- "Footage from banned Chinese "Pop Idol" receives Cambridge premiere" (Press release). University of Cambridge. July 5, 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (May 25, 2009). "Indonesia goes wild for American-style reality TV in a nation where income varies widely, shows offer a look at how others live". International Herald Tribune.
- Hirschorn, Michael (May 2007). "The Case for Reality TV". The Atlantic Monthly.
- Poniewozik, James (May 22, 2008). "Reality TV's Working Class Heroes". Time.
- Aurthur, Kate (October 10, 2004). "Reality Stars Keep on Going and Going". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved December 19, 2010.
- Childers, Linda (July 7, 2011). "Rick Harrison of 'Pawn Stars' spills success secrets". CNN Money.
- "Introducing the Nonebrities". The Sun. November 7, 2007.
- "Kim Kardashian Is Fighting Back Against Backlash". Inside Edition. December 21, 2011
- *"Elton John Trashes Kim Kardashian, Reality Television". The Improper. February 4, 2011.
*Vanderberg, Madison (December 23, 2011). "Kardashian Family: The Backlash of Being Overexposed". Hollyscoop.
*Gostin, Nicki (December 12, 2011). "Jonah Hill Talks 'The Sitter,' Weight Loss And Disgust With Kardashians". The Huffington Post.
*Sarah Bull (November 30, 2011). "Daniel Craig brands the Kardashians 'f***ing idiots' for making careers out of their private lives". Daily Mail.
*Marikar, Sheila (March 19, 2012). "Jon Hamm Defends Kim Kardashian Criticism". ABC News.
- Mitchell, Houston (July 14, 2012). "Ronda Rousey wants to beat up Kim Kardashian". Los Angeles Times.
- "The Appeal of Reality Television for Teen and Pre-Teen Audiences". Journal of Advertising Research 51 (1): 288–297. March 2011. doi:10.2501/jar-51-1-288-297.
- Wallis, Cara (2011). "New Media Practices in China: Youth Patterns, Processes and Politics". International Journal of Communications 5: 406–436.
- Guo, Ke; Ying Wu (2009). "Media Consumption and Global Visions Among Urban Chinese Youth". China Media Research 5 (4): 80–94.
- Paron, Katina (2008). "It's About Audience: How Adult Audiences Can Benefit Youth Media Organizations". Youth Media Reporter 2 (1-6): 87–91.
- Lockett, Cierra (November 19, 2014). "Mommy Dearest: Celebrities Parenting America". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- Battista, Kathy (2012). "Cindy Hinant's Make-Up, Glamour and TV Show". Phaidon. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
Such women are symbolic of both the triumph and failure of consumerism and popular culture, where Playboy models and reality TV stars are revered by a younger, impressionable generation.
- Barton, Jennifer (2010). Bunny Talk: Teenagers Discuss The Girls Next Door (PDF). London: Media@ LSE , London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Jaded". The Economist. January 27, 2007. p. 57.
- Lundy, L. Ruth, A. & Park, T.(2008). Simply Irresistible: Reality TV Consumption Patterns, Communication Quarterly, 56(2), p.208-225.
- Ebersole, S. & Woods, R.(2007). Motivations for Viewing Reality Television: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis. Southwestern Mass Communication Journal, 23(1, 23-42)
- Reiss, S. & Wiltz, J. (2004). Why People Watch Reality TV, Media Psychology 6(4).
- Papacharissi, Z. & Mendelson, A. (2007). An exploratory study of reality appeal: Uses and Gratifications of reality TV shows. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51(2), 355-370.
- Baruh, L.(2009). Publicized intimacies on reality television: An analysis of voyeuristic content and its contribution to the appeal of reality programming. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(2), p. 207
- Baruh, L.(2009). Publicized intimacies on reality television: An analysis of voyeuristic content and its contribution to the appeal of reality programming. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(2), p.190
- "The Prize of Peril". e-text. arthurwendover.com.
- Coral Ann Howells, "The Cambridge companion to Margaret Atwood", Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-521-83966-1, p.186
- John Moss, Tobi Kozakewich, "Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye", Re-appraisals, Canadian writers, volume 30, University of Ottawa Press, 2006, ISBN 0-7766-0613-1, p.398
- Sharon Rose Wilson, "Myths and fairy tales in contemporary women's fiction: from Atwood to Morrison", Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, ISBN 0-230-60554-0, pp.43,49
- Nowalk, Brandon (January 14, 2014). "Kroll Show skewers reality TV, but in a friendlier fashion".
- Megh Wright, "Sketch Anatomy: John Levenstein Goes Behind the Scenes of 'Kroll Show's 'Niece Denise' ", splitsider.com, 27 May 2014 (retrieved 25 May 2015)
- Prigge, Matt (January 3, 2007). "Jackass Number Two... the year's best, most twisted cross-over documentary-and don't forget it is, in every definition of the word, a documentary". Repertory (Philadelphia Weekly).
- Jury, Louise (January 4, 2007). "Has reality television had its day, or are audiences still attracted to it?". The Independent. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- Dollar, Steve (August 17, 2007). "Reality Never Looked So ... Real". The New York Sun.
- Big Brother - Why Bother? - Graham Barnfield's Spiked commentary
- Hill, Annette (2005). Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26152-X.
- Murray, Susan, and Laurie Ouellette, eds. (2004). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5688-3
- Nichols, Bill (1994). Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34064-0.
- Godard, Ellis (2003). "Reel Life: The Social Geometry of Reality Shows". In Matthew J. Smith and Andrew F. Wood. Survivor Lessons. McFarland. pp. 73–96. ISBN 0-7864-1668-8.
- Lord of the fly-on-the-walls - Observer article: Paul Watson's UK & Australian docusoaps
- Sparks, Colin. "Reality TV: the Big Brother phenomenon". International Socialism (114).
- Gillan, J. (2004). From Ozzie Nelson to Ozzy Osbourne: The genesis and the development of the reality (star) sitcom. in S. Holmes & D. Jermyn (eds.), Understanding reality television (pp. 54–70). London and New York: Routledge.
- Gray, J. (2009). Cinderella burps: Gender, performativity, and the dating show. in S. Murray & L. Ouellette. Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 243–259). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Grazian, D. (2010). Neoliberalism and the realities of reality TV. Contexts, 9(2), 68-71.
- Griffen-Foley, B. (2004). From Tit-Bits to Big Brother: A century of audience participation in the media. Media, Culture & Society, 26(4), 533-548
- Grimm, J. (2010). From reality TV to coaching TV: Elements of theory and empirical findings towards understanding the genre. In A. Hetsroni (ed.), Reality TV: Merging the global and the local (pp. 211–258). New York: Nova.
- Grindstaff, L. (2011). Just be yourself—only more so: ordinary celebrity. in M. M. Kraidy & K. Sender (eds.), The politics of reality television: Global perspectives (pp. 44–58). London and New York: Routledge.
- Hall, A. (2003). Reading realism: Audiences' evaluation of the reality of media texts. Journal of Communication, 53(4), 624-641.
- Hall, A. (2006). Viewers' perceptions of reality programs. Communication Quarterly, 54(2), 191- 211.
- Hall, A. (2009). Perceptions of the authenticity of reality programs and their relationships to audience Involvement, enjoyment, and perceived learning. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(4), 515-531.
- Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Hearn, A. (2009). Hoaxing the "real": on the metanarrative of reality television. in S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 165–178). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Hellmueller, L. C., & Aeschbacher, N. (2010). Media and celebrity: Production and consumption of "wellKnownness." Communication Research Trends, 29(4), 3-35.
- Hendershot, H. (2009). Belabored reality: Making it work on The Simple Life and Project Runway. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 243–259). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Hetsroni, A., & Tukachinsky, R. H. (2003). "Who wants to be a millionaire" in America, Russia, and Saudi Arabia: A celebration of differences or a unified global culture? The Communication Review, 6(2), 165-178.
- Hill, A., Weibull, L., & Nilsson, A. (2007). Public and popular: British and Swedish audience trends in factual and reality television. Cultural Trends, 16(1), 17-41.
- Ho, H. (2006, June 16). Parasocial identification, reality television, and viewer self-worth. Paper presented at the 56th annual meeting of the international Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany. Retrieved March 14, 2011 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p93143_index.html
- Holmes, S. (2004). "But this time you choose!" Approaching the "interactive" audience in reality TV. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(2), 213-231.
- Holmes, S., & Jermyn, D. (2004). Introduction: Understanding reality TV. in S. Holmes & D. Jermyn (eds.), Understanding reality television (pp. 1–32). London and New York: Routledge.
- James, C. (2003, January 26). Bachelor No.1 and the birth of reality TV. The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/26/movies/television-radio-bachelor-no- 1-and-the-birthof-reality-tv.html.
- Jenkins, H. (2009). Buying into American idol: How we are being sold on reality television. in S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 343–362). 2nd edition, New York and London: New York University Press.
- Jermyn, D. (2004). "This is about real people!" Video technologies, actuality and affect in the television crime appeal. In S. Holmes & D. Jermyn, (eds.), Understanding reality television (pp. 71–90). London and New York: Routledge.
- Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Uses and gratifications research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(4), 509-523.
- Kilborn, R. M. (2003). Staging the real. Factual TV programming in the age of Big Brother. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
- Klaus, E., & Lucke, S. (2003). Reality TV: Definition und Merkmale einer erfolgreichen Genrefamilie am Beispiel von Reality Soap und Docu Soap. Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft, 51 (2), 195-212.
- Kompare, D. (2009). Extraordinarily ordinary: The Osbournes as "An American Family." in S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 100–119). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Livio, o. (2010). Performing the nation: A cross-cultural comparison of idol shows in four countries. in A. Hetsroni (ed.), Reality TV: Merging the global and the local (pp. 165–188). New York: Nova.
- Lundy, L. K., Ruth, A. M., & Park, T. D. (2008). Simply irresistible: Reality TV consumption patterns. Communication Quarterly, 56(2), 208-225.
- McCarthy, A. (2009). "Stanley Milgram, Allen Funt and Me": Postwar social science and the first wave of reality TV. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 23–43). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- McGee, M. (2005). Self-help Inc.: Makeover culture in American life. Oxford/New York: oxford University Press.
- Murray, S. (2009). "I think we need a new name for it": The meeting of documentary and reality TV. in S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 65–81). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Murray, S., & Ouellette, L. (2009). Introduction. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 1–20). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Nabi, R. L. (2007). Determining dimensions of reality: A concept mapping of the reality TV landscape. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51 (2), 371-390.
- Nabi, R. L., Biely, E. N., Morgan, S. J., & Stitt, C. R. (2003): Reality-based television programming and the psychology of its appeal. Media Psychology, 5, 303-330.
- Nabi, R. L., Stitt, C. R., Halford, J., & Finnerty, K. L. (2006). Emotional and cognitive predictors of the enjoyment of reality-based and fictional television programming: An elaboration of the uses and gratifications perspective. Media Psychology, 8, 421-447.
- Ouellette, L. (2009). "Take responsibility for yourself": Judge Judy and the neoliberal citizen. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 223–242). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- Ouellette, L., & Hay, J. (2008). Better living through reality TV. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Palmer, G. (2004). 'The new you': Class and transformation in lifestyle television. in S. Holmes & D. Jermyn (eds.), Understanding reality television (p. 173-190). London and New York: Routledge.
- Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rosengren, K. E. (1985). Uses and gratifications research: The past ten years. in K. E. Rosengren, L. A. Wenner & P. Palmgreen (eds.), Media gratifications research: Current perspectives (pp. 11–37). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Papacharissi, Z., & Mendelson, A. L. (2007). An exploratory study of reality appeal: Uses and gratifications of reality TV shows. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51 (2), 355-370.
- Patino, A., Kaltcheva, V. D., & Smith, M. F. (2011). The appeal of reality television for teen and pre-teen audiences: The power of "connectedness" and psycho demographics. Journal of Advertising Research, 51(1), 288-297.
- Price, E. (2010). Reinforcing the myth: Constructing Australian identity in 'reality TV'. Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24(3), 451-459.
- Reiss, S., & Wiltz, J. (2004). Why people watch reality TV. Media Psychology, 6, 363-378.
- Riley, S. G. (2010). Temporary celebrity. in S. G. Riley (ed.), Star struck: An encyclopedia of celebrity culture (pp. 294–299). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
- Rose, R. L., & Wood, S. L. (2005). Paradox and the consumption of authenticity through reality television. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 284-296.
- Shattuc, J. (2001). Confessional talk shows. In G. Creeber (ed.), The television genre book (pp. 84–87). London: British Film institute.
- Shoemaker, P. J., & Vos, T. P. (2009). Gatekeeping theory. New York / Abingdon: Routledge.
- Thornborrow, J., & Morris, D. (2004). Gossip as strategy: The management of talk about others on reality TV show "Big Brother." Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(2), 246-271.
- Tincknell, E., & Raghuram, P. (2002). Big Brother: Reconfiguring the "active" audience of cultural studies? European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5(2), 199-215.
- Waisbord, S. (2004). Mc TV: Understanding the global popularity of television formats. Television & New Media, 5(4), 359-383.
- Walter, T. (2010). Jade and the journalists: Media coverage of a young British celebrity dying of cancer. Social Science & Medicine, 71(5), 853-860.
- Watts, A. (2009). Melancholy, merit, and merchandise: The postwar audience participation show. in S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 301–320). 2nd ed., New York and London: New York University Press.
- West, E. (2010). Reality nations: An international comparison of the historical reality genre. in A. Hetsroni (ed.), Reality TV: Merging the global and the local (pp. 259277). New York: Nova.
- Zillmann, D. (1988). Mood management: Using entertainment to full advantage. in L. Donohew, H. E. Sypher, & T. E. Higgins (eds.), Communication, social cognition and affect (pp. 147–171). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Andrejevic, M. (2004). Reality TV: The work of being watched. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
- Andrejevic, M. (2008). Watching television without pity: The productivity of online fans. Television & New Media, 9(1), 24-46.
- Andrejevic, M. (2009). Visceral literacy: Reality-TV, savvy viewers, and auto-spies. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (eds.), Reality TV. Remaking television culture (pp. 321–342). 2nd edition, New York and London: New York University Press.
- Aslama, M. (2009). Playing house: Participants' experiences Of Big Brother Finland. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 12(1), 81-96.
- Biltereyst, D. (2004). Media audiences and the game of controversy: on Reality TV, moral panic and controversial media stories. Journal of Media Practice, 5(1), 7-24.
- Boddy, W. (2001). Quiz shows. In G. Creeber (ed.), The television genre book (pp. 79–81). London: British Film institute.
- Cohen, J., & Weimann, G. (2008). Who's afraid of reality shows? Exploring the effects of perceived influence of reality shows and the concern over their social effects on willingness to censor. Communication Research, 35(3), 382-397.
- Cooper-Chen, A. (2005). A world of "millionaires": Global, local and "glocal" TV game shows. In A. Cooper-Chen (ed.), Global entertainment media. Content, audiences, issues (pp. 237–251). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reality television.|