ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) with standard dynamic range (SDR) and wide color gamut (WCG), including picture resolutions, frame rates with progressive scan, bit depths, color primaries, RGB and luma-chroma color representations, chroma subsamplings, and an opto-electronic transfer function. The first version of Rec. 2020 was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012, and two further editions have been published since then. It is expanded in several ways by Rec. 2100.
Rec. 2020 defines a bit depth of either 10 bits per sample or 12 bits per sample.
10 bits per sample Rec. 2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 64 and the nominal peak is defined as code 940. Codes 0–3 and 1,020–1,023 are used for the timing reference. Codes 4 through 63 provide video data below the black level while codes 941 through 1,019 provide video data above the nominal peak.
12 bits per sample Rec. 2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 256 and the nominal peak is defined as code 3760. Codes 0–15 and 4,080–4,095 are used for the timing reference. Codes 16 through 255 provide video data below the black level while codes 3,761 through 4,079 provide video data above the nominal peak.
|Color space||White point||Primary colors|
The Rec. 2020 (UHDTV/UHD-1/UHD-2) color space can reproduce colors that cannot be shown with the Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space. The RGB primaries used by Rec. 2020 are equivalent to monochromatic light sources on the CIE 1931 spectral locus. The wavelength of the Rec. 2020 primary colors is 630 nm for the red primary color, 532 nm for the green primary color, and 467 nm for the blue primary color. In coverage of the CIE 1931 color space, the Rec. 2020 color space covers 75.8%, the DCI-P3 digital cinema color space covers 53.6%, the Adobe RGB color space covers 52.1%, and the Rec. 709 color space covers 35.9%.
During the development of the Rec. 2020 color space it was decided that it would use real colors, instead of imaginary colors, so that it would be possible to show the Rec. 2020 color space on a display without the need for conversion circuitry. Since a larger color space increases the difference between colors, an increase of 1 bit per sample is needed for Rec. 2020 to equal or exceed the color precision of Rec. 709.
The NHK measured contrast sensitivity for the Rec. 2020 color space using Barten's equation which had previously been used to determine the bit depth for digital cinema. 11 bits per sample for the Rec. 2020 color space is below the visual modulation threshold, the ability to discern a one-value difference in luminance, for the entire luminance range. The NHK is planning for their UHDTV system, Super Hi-Vision, to use 12 bits per sample RGB.
Rec. 2020 defines a nonlinear transfer function for gamma correction that is the same nonlinear transfer function that is used by Rec. 709, except that its parameters are (for 12 bit only) given with higher precision:
- where E is the signal proportional to camera-input light intensity and E′ is the corresponding nonlinear signal
- where α = 1 + 5.5 * β ≈ 1.09929682680944 and β ≈ 0.018053968510807 (values chosen to achieve a continuous function with a continuous slope)
The standard says that for practical purposes, the following values of α and β can be used:
- α = 1.099 and β = 0.018 for 10 bits per sample system (the values given in Rec. 709)
- α = 1.0993 and β = 0.0181 for 12 bits per sample system
While the Rec. 2020 transfer function can be used for encoding, it is expected that most productions will use a reference monitor that has an appearance of using equvivalent of gamma 2.4 transfer function as defined in Rec. ITU-R BT.1886 and that the reference monitor will be evaluated as defined in Rec. ITU-R BT.2035.
RGB and luma-chroma formats
Rec. 2020 allows for RGB and luma-chroma signal formats with 4:4:4 full-resolution sampling and luma-chroma signal formats with 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 chroma subsampling. It supports two types of luma-chroma signals, called YCbCr and YcCbcCrc.
YCbCr may be used when the top priority is compatibility with existing SDTV and HDTV operating practices. The luma (Y′) signal for YCbCr is calculated as the weighted average Y′ = KR⋅R′ + KG⋅G′ + KB⋅B′, using the gamma-corrected RGB values (denoted R′G′B′) and the weighting coefficients KR = 0.2627, KG = 1−KR−KB = 0.678 and KB = 0.0593. As in similar schemes, the chroma components in YCbCr are calculated as C′B = 0.5⋅(B′−Y′)/(1−KB) = (B'−Y′)/1.8814 and C′R = 0.5⋅(R′−Y′)/(1−KR) = (R′−Y′)/1.4746, and for digital representation the Y′, C′B, and C′R signals are scaled, offset by constants, and rounded to integers.
The YcCbcCrc scheme is a "constant luminance" luma-chroma representation. YcCbcCrc may be used when the top priority is the most accurate retention of luminance information. The luma component in YcCbcCrc is calculated using the same coefficient values as for YCbCr, but it is calculated from linear RGB and then gamma corrected, rather than being calculated from gamma-corrected R′G′B′ and is done as follows: Y′ = (KR⋅R + KG⋅G + KB⋅B)′. The chroma components in YcCbcCrc are calculated from the Y′, B′, and R′ signals with equations that depend on the range of values of B′−Y′ and R′−Y′.
HDMI 2.0 supports the Rec. 2020 color space. HDMI 2.0 can transmit 12 bits per sample RGB at a resolution of 2160p and a frame rate of 24/25/30 fps or it can transmit 12 bits per sample 4:2:2/4:2:0 YCbCr at a resolution of 2160p and a frame rate of 50/60 fps.
The Rec. 2020 color space is supported by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and H.265/High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The Main 10 profile in HEVC was added based on proposal JCTVC-K0109 which proposed that a 10-bit profile be added to HEVC for consumer applications. The proposal stated that this was to allow for improved video quality and to support the Rec. 2020 color space that will be used by UHDTV.
On May 22, 2014, Nanosys announced that using a quantum dot enhancement film (QDEF) a current LCD TV was modified so that it could cover 91% of the Rec. 2020 color space. Nanosys engineers believe that with improved LCD color filters it is possible to make a LCD that covers 97% of the Rec. 2020 color space.
On September 5, 2014, the Blu-ray Disc Association revealed that the future 4K Blu-ray Disc format will support 4K UHD (3840x2160 resolution) video at frame rates up to 60 frames per second. The standard will encode videos under the High Efficiency Video Coding standard. 4K Blu-ray Discs will support both a higher dynamic range by increasing the color depth to 10-bit per color, and a greater color gamut by using the Rec. 2020 color space. The 4K-Blu-ray specification allows for three disc sizes, each with their own data rate: 50 GB with 82 Mbit/s, 66 GB with 108 Mbit/s, and 100 GB with 128 Mbit/s. The first Ultra HD Blu-ray titles were officially released from four studios on March 1, 2016.
On November 7, 2014, DivX developers announced that DivX265 version 1.4.21 has added support for the Main 10 profile of HEVC and the Rec. 2020 color space.
On December 22, 2014, Avid Technology released an update for Media Composer that added support for 4K resolution, the Rec. 2020 color space, and a bit rate of up to 3,730 Mbit/s with the DNxHD codec.
On January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts.
On May 26, 2015, the NHK announced a 4K LCD with a laser diode backlight that covers 98% of the Rec. 2020 color space. Using a laser allows for generating almost monochromatic light. The NHK stated that at the time it was announced this 4K LCD has the widest color gamut of any display in the world.
On June 17, 2015, Digital Projection International presented a 4K LED projector with support for the Rec. 2020 color space.
On January 4, 2016, the UHD Alliance announced their specifications for Ultra HD Premium which includes support for the Rec. 2020 color space.
At SID display week 2017, AUO displayed a 5" foldable 720p HD AMOLED display able to display 95% of the Rec. 2020 colorspace. Although 720p is not specified by Rec. 2020, the color space coverage is of note.
The Ultra HD Forum guidelines for UHD Phase A include support for SDR formats with 10 bits of color bit depth based on both Rec. 709 and Rec. 2020 color gamuts and also both the HDR10 and HLG10 formats of Rec. 2100, which are supposed to start by 2017.
At SID display week 2018, various companies showcased displays that are able to cover over 90% of the Rec.2020 color space. JDI showcased an improvement of their 17.3" LCD 8k broadcast monitor that is powered by an RGB laser backlight system. This allows the display to reproduce 97% of the Rec. 2020 color space.
Rec. 2100 is an ITU-R Recommendation released in July 2016 that defines high dynamic range (HDR) formats for both HDTV 1080p and 4K/8K UHDTV resolutions. These formats use the same color primaries as Rec. 2020, but with different transfer functions for HDR use. Rec. 2100 does not support the YcCbcCrc scheme of Rec. 2020.
- UHDTV – Digital video formats with resolutions of 4K (3840 × 2160) and 8K (7680 × 4320)
- High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) – Video standard that supports 4K/8K UHDTV and resolutions up to 8192 × 4320
- Rec. 709 – ITU-R Recommendation for HDTV
- Rec. 601 – ITU-R Recommendation for SDTV
- Rec. 2100 – ITU-R Recommendation for HDR-TV (with FHD and UHD resolution)
- "BT.2020: Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
- "BT.2020: Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
- "The international standard for Super Hi-Vision TV". NHK. 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "8K Ultra High Def TV Format Opens Options for TV Viewing". The Hollywood Reporter. 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "ITU approves NHK's Super Hi-Vision as 8K standard, sets the UHDTV ball rolling very slowly". Engadget. 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- ""Super Hi-Vision" as Next-Generation Television and Its Video Parameters". Information Display. Archived from the original on 2021-02-05. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
- "Super Hi-Vision format". NHK. Archived from the original on 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- "Wide-color-gamut Super Hi-Vision System". NHK. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
- David Wood (2012-03-08). "Deciding Tomorrow's Television Parameters" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- "BT.2246-2(2012): The present state of ultra-high definition television". International Telecommunication Union. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- "Super Hi-Vision Production Devices for Mobile". NHK. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
- "BT.709: Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
- "BT.1886: Reference electro-optical transfer function for flat panel displays used in HDTV studio production". International Telecommunication Union. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
- "BT.2035: A reference viewing environment for evaluation of HDTV program material or completed programmes". International Telecommunication Union. 2013-08-13. Retrieved 2014-11-05.
- "FAQ for HDMI 2.0". HDMI.org. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "H.264: Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services". ITU. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- G.J. Sullivan; J.-R. Ohm; W.-J. Han; T. Wiegand (2012-05-25). "Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "H.265: High efficiency video coding". ITU. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Alberto Dueñas; Adam Malamy (2012-10-18). "On a 10-bit consumer-oriented profile in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)". JCT-VC. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "ViXS Announces XCode 6400, the World's First System-on-Chip (SoC) with Native Support for 10-bit High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and Ultra High Definition (HD) 4K". PRNewswire. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- "Is the rec.2020 UHD color broadcast spec really practical?". Nanosys. 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- "Free Canon Firmware for Cinema EOS System Cameras Delivers Improved Basic Performance, Including Support for ITU-R BT.2020 Color Space". MarketWatch. September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Free Canon Firmware Upgrade for DP-V3010 30-Inch 4K Professional Display Enables Confirmation of ITU-R BT.2020 Color Gamut Video Content". Business Wire. September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "4K Blu-ray discs arriving in 2015 to fight streaming media". CNET. September 5, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- "Upcoming Fox 4K Blu-ray Titles". Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Change the use of a reserved color space entry". Chromium (web browser). 2014-11-06. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
- "DivX HEVC Community Encoder" (Press release). DivX. 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
- Wim Van den Broeck (2014-12-22). "Editing 4K and Beyond in Media Composer Now Available with Avid Resolution Independence Update". Avid Technology. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
- Bryant Frazer (2014-12-22). "Starting Today, You Can Finally Edit 4K Natively in the Avid". studiodaily. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
- "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL – the First Audio/Video Specification With Support Up to 8K". Yahoo Finance. 2015-01-06. Archived from the original on 2015-10-20. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- Ryan Smith (2015-01-06). "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL: New Standard & New Cable To Drive 8K TV". AnandTech. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "Introducing superMHL". MHL. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "High Fidelity Pixels Enhance Ultra HD Video On Demand". PR Newswire. 2015-01-07. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- Deborah D. McAdams (2015-03-18). "Arri Rolls Out Alexa With 4K ProRes Recording". TVTechnology. Retrieved 2015-03-19.
- "ALEXA SXT". Arri. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2015-03-19.
- Jose Antunes (2015-04-08). "New 24-inch 4K Reference Display from Canon". Pro Video Coalition. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Jose Antunes (2015-04-08). "The EOS C300 Mark II Has Arrived". Pro Video Coalition. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- "NHK Showcases Latest 8K Super Hi-Vision Technologies". cdrinfo. 2015-05-26. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- "Laser-backlit Wide-gamut LCD and Color Gamut Mapping". NHK. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- Tetsuo Nozawa (2015-06-01). "STRL Announces 4k Display With World's Widest Color Gamut". Nikkei Business Publications. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
- "Digital Projection Launches World's Brightest LED Projector at InfoComm" (Press release). AVNetwork. June 16, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- "UHD Alliance Defines Premium Home Entertainment Experience". Business Wire. 2016-01-04. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
- "VESA Updates Display Stream Compression Standard to Support New Applications and Richer Display Content". PRNewswire. 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Sony introduces the PVM-X550, a 55" quad-view large screen Trimaster EL 4K OLED monitor" (Press release). Sony. 2016-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
- "End-to-end guidelines for phase A implementation". Ultra HD Forum. 2016-04-18. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- "Ultra HD Forum Releases First Industry Guidelines for Deploying End-to-End Live & Pre-Recorded UHD Services in 2016". Business Wire. 2016-04-18. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- "BT.2100: Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 2016-07-04. Retrieved 2016-07-04.