Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Marriage
  Foreign marriages recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. Marriages performed in some municipalities and recognized by the state
  2. For some purposes, from all jurisdictions where same-sex marriage is legal
  3. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  4. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  5. Registration schemes opened in all jurisdictions except Hualien County, Penghu County, Taitung County, and Yunlin County

* Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalize same-sex marriage as well as same-sex civil unions. Currently 29 of the 50 countries and 8 of the 9 dependent territories in Europe[nb 1] recognize some type of same-sex unions, among them most members of the European Union, 22 out of 28.

As of July 2017, fourteen European countries legally recognize and perform same-sex marriage, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,[nb 2] Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[nb 3] An additional thirteen European countries legally recognize some form of civil union, namely Andorra, Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Malta, Slovenia, and Switzerland. San Marino only allows immigration and cohabitation of a citizen's partner. Armenia only recognizes same-sex marriages performed abroad.

Of the countries that recognize and perform same-sex marriages some still allow couples to enter civil unions, e.g. Benelux countries, France, Germany and the United Kingdom,[nb 4] whereas Ireland and the Nordic countries have terminated their pre-marriage civil union legislation so that existing unions remain but new ones are not possible.

Several European countries do not recognize any form of same-sex unions. Marriage is defined as a union solely between a man and a woman in the constitutions of Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Of these, however, Armenia recognizes same-sex marriages performed abroad,[1] and Croatia and Hungary recognize same-sex partnerships.

ECHR case law[edit]

Over the years, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has handled cases that challenged the lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples in certain member states. The Court has held that the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) requires member states to provide legal recognition, but does not require marriage to be opened to same-sex couples.

In Schalk and Kopf v Austria (24 June 2010), the European Court of Human Rights decided that the European Convention on Human Rights does not oblige member states to legislate for or legally recognize same-sex marriages. However, the Court, for the first time, accepted same-sex relationships as a form of "family life".

In Vallianatos and Others v Greece (7 November 2013),[2] the Court held that exclusion of same-sex couples from registering a civil union, a legal form of partnership available to opposite-sex couples, violates the Convention. Greece had enacted a law in 2008 that established civil unions for opposite-sex couples only. A 2015 law extended partnership rights to same-sex couples.

Oliari and Others v Italy (21 July 2015)[3] went further and established a positive obligation upon member states to provide legal recognition for same-sex couples. Italy thus breached the Convention; it eventually implemented civil unions in 2016. The decision set a precedent for potential future cases regarding the 23 member states, certain British, Danish and Dutch territories, and the states with limited recognition (excluding Kosovo), that currently do not recognize same-sex couples' right to family life.

Chapin and Charpentier v France (9 June 2016) largely confirmed Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, holding that denying a same-sex couple access to marriage does not violate the Convention. At the time of the judgment, France did allow same-sex marriage, however, the case originated from 2004, when only pacte civil de solidarité (PACS) was available to same-sex couples in France.

Current situation[edit]

National level[edit]

Status Country Since Country population living in Europe
(Last Census count)
Marriage
(14 countries)
* In nine countries that have passed marriage,
other types of partnerships are available, too.
Belgium Belgium 2003[4] 11,198,638
Denmark Denmark 2012[5] 5,655,750
Finland Finland 2017[6][7] 5,470,820
France France 2013[8] 66,030,000
Germany Germany 2017[9] 80,716,000
Iceland Iceland 2010[10] 325,671
Republic of Ireland Ireland 2015[11] 4,609,600
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2015[12] 549,680
Netherlands Netherlands[nb 2] 2001[13][14] 16,856,620
Norway Norway 2009[15] 5,136,700
Portugal Portugal 2010[16] 10,427,301
Spain Spain 2005[17] 46,704,314
Sweden Sweden 2009[18] 9,716,962
United Kingdom United Kingdom[nb 3] 2014[19][20] 62,700,000[nb 5]
Subtotal 326,098,279
(38.2% of the European population)
Recognition of foreign marriage
(3 countries)
* Constitutional ban on domestic same-sex marriage
Armenia Armenia * 2017[21] 3,018,854
Estonia Estonia 2016[22] 1,315,819
Malta Malta[nb 6] 2014[23][24] 446,547
Subtotal 4,871,220
(0.5% of the European population)
Other type of partnership
(11 countries)
* In one of the countries that have passed other types of partnerships,
yet another type of partnership is available, too.
Andorra Andorra 2014[25] 85,082
Austria Austria 2010[26] 8,504,850
Croatia Croatia 2014[27] 4,284,889
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2006[28] 10,513,209
Cyprus Cyprus[nb 7] 2015[29] 1,117,000[nb 8]
Greece Greece 2015[30] 10,816,286
Hungary Hungary 2009[31] 9,877,365
Italy Italy 2016[32] 60,782,668
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 2011[33] 37,132
Slovenia Slovenia 2006[34] 2,061,085
Switzerland Switzerland 2007[35] 8,183,800
Subtotal 116,263,366
(13.6% of the European population)
Unregistered cohabitation
(1 country)
San Marino San Marino 2012[36] 32,576
Subtotal 32,576
(0.003% of the European population)
Total(29 countries) 447,175,441
(52.3% of the European population)
No recognition
(11 countries)
Albania Albania 3,020,209
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 9,494,600
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,871,643
Georgia (country) Georgia 4,935,880
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 17,948,816
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 2,058,539
Monaco Monaco 36,371
Romania Romania 19,942,642
Russia Russia 143,700,000
Turkey Turkey 76,667,864
Vatican City Vatican City 842
Subtotal 281,677,406
(37.94% of the European population)
Constitutional ban on marriage
(13 countries)
* Foreign marriages are recognised.[1]
** Other types of partnerships are available.
Armenia Armenia * 2015[37] 3,018,854
Belarus Belarus 1994 [38] 9,475,100
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1991[39] 7,364,570
Croatia Croatia ** 2013[40][41] 4,284,889
Hungary Hungary ** 2012[42][43] 9,877,365
Latvia Latvia 2006[44][45] 1,990,300
Lithuania Lithuania 1992[46] 2,944,459
Moldova Moldova 1994[47] 3,557,600
Montenegro Montenegro 2007[48] 647,905
Poland Poland 1997[49] 38,483,957
Serbia Serbia 2006[50] 7,209,764
Slovakia Slovakia 2014[51][52] 5,415,949
Ukraine Ukraine 1996[53] 44,291,413
Subtotal 138,562,125
(18.66% of the European population)
Total 406,077,277[nb 9]
(47.7% of the European population)

Sub-national level[edit]

Status Country Jurisdiction Legal since Jurisdiction population
(Last Census count)
Marriage
(5 jurisdictions)
Denmark Denmark Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 2017 [54][55] 49,198
United Kingdom United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia 2014[56] 15,700
Gibraltar Gibraltar 2016[57][58] 32,194
Guernsey Guernsey 2017[59][60] 62,948
Isle of Man Isle of Man 2016[61] 84,497
Total 244,537
(0.03% of the European population)
Recognition of foreign marriage
(1 jurisdiction)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Alderney Alderney 2016[62][63] 2,020
Total 2,020
(0.01% of the European population)
Other type of partnership
(2 jurisdictions)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Jersey Jersey 2012[64] 100,080
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 2005[65] 1,864,000
Total 1,964,080
(0.22% of the European population)
No recognition
(1 jurisdiction)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Sark Sark 600
Total 600
(0.001% of the European population)

Future legislation[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

Alderney Alderney: On 21 February 2017, the States of Alderney's Policy and Finance Committee backed a proposal to draft a bill to legalise same-sex marriage on the island.[66] On 16 May 2017, the committee voted to send the draft marriage bill to the full States of Alderney for a vote.[67] It is expected it will be a year before such a law comes into effect.[68]

Jersey Jersey: On 14 July 2015 the Chief Minister submitted a proposal to parliament. The States were asked to decide whether they agree, in principle, that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry. The proposition was approved by the Assembly on 22 September 2015.[69] Legislation to bring the law into effect is expected to be brought forward in the summer and come into force by December 2017.[70]

Malta Malta: After winning an election on 3 June 2017, PM Joseph Muscat committed his government to passing a same-sex marriage law before summer of the same year.[71][72] On 18 June 2017, Muscat announced that the law would go through both its first and second reading on the first day of the parliamentary session, which would start on the week of June 26th.[73] The bill passed second reading on 5 July 2017, with the final vote being hold the 12 of July 2017, where the bill received its final parliamentary approval, with 66 deputies voting for and just 1 against.[74] It will become law when it is signed by the President and published in the official gazette.

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Austria Austria: The opposition party NEOS – The New Austria submitted a bill to the National Council on 12 June 2014. On 24 September 2014 it had its first reading and was sent to the Judiciary Committee.[75] A people's initiative was submitted to the National Council on 5 August 2015 and sent to the Petition and People's Initiative Committee on 8 August 2015.[76]

Switzerland Switzerland: On 5 December 2013 the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland submitted a parliamentary initiative to the National Council, proposing a constitutional amendment allowing couples to enter into a marriage or civil union irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. On 20 February 2015 the lower house's Justice Committee recommended approval of the proposal.[77] On 1 September 2015, it was also approved by the upper house's Justice Committee, paving the way for a referendum on the constitutional amendment.[78] On 16 June 2017, the Federal Assembly voted by 118-71 in favour of a proposal by the Green Liberal party to launch a parliamentary study on same-sex marriage. Any change in the law would have to be passed by Swiss voters in a referendum as it would require constitutional change.[79] The vote in parliament gave the legal affairs committee until summer 2019 to draw up a bill to legalise same-sex marriage. [80]

Non-marital partnership[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

San Marino San Marino: In March 2016, two opposition parties, LabDem and the United Left, along with the main government party, the Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, announced their own proposals to expand the rights of all unmarried cohabiting couples through a new partnership law. The junior coalition partner, the Party of Socialists and Democrats, has also announced an intention to submit a fourth bill.[81] The United Left won the 20 November 2016 elections and has pledged to introduce civil unions.

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Romania Romania: A civil partnership bill is currently before the Chamber of Deputies. Although it was rejected by the Senate on 24 October 2016, debate has continued in several committees of the Chamber of Deputies into 2017.[82]

Mutual recognition[edit]

European Union European Union: Debate has occurred in the European Union over a proposal which would require each member to legally recognize each other's same-sex marriages as well as any member's civil unions and registered partnerships to ensure the right of freedom of movement for citizens' family members.[83] The European Court of Justice will hear a case on mutual recognition of same-sex unions, which could impact 18 EU member states that do not completely recognize same-sex unions.[84]

Public opinion[edit]

Public support for same-sex marriage from EU member states as measured from a 2015 poll is the greatest in the Netherlands (91%), Sweden (90%), Denmark (87%), Spain (84%), Ireland (80%), Belgium (77%), Luxembourg (75%), the United Kingdom (71%) and France (71%).[85] In recent years, support has risen most significantly in Malta, from 18% in 2006 to 65% in 2015 and in Ireland from 41% in 2006 to 80% in 2015.[86]

After the approval of same-sex marriage in Portugal in January 2010, 52% of the Portuguese population stated that they were in favor of the legislation.[87] In 2008 58% of the Norwegian voters supported the Marriage Act, which was introduced in the same year, and 31 percent were against it.[88] In January 2013 54.1% of Italians respondents supported same-sex marriage[89] In a late January 2013 survey 77.2% of Italians respondents supported the recognition of same-sex unions.[90]

In Greece support more than doubled between 2006 and 2015, albeit still considerably low. In 2006 15% responded that they agreed with same-sex marriages being allowed throughout Europe, whereas in 2015 33% agreed with the statement.[86]

In Ireland, a 2008 survey revealed 84% of people supported civil unions for same-sex couples (and 58% for same-sex marriage),[91] while a 2010 survey showed 67% supported same-sex marriage[92] by 2012 this figure had risen to 73% in support.[93] On 22 May 2015, 62.1% of the electorate voted to enshrine same-sex marriage in the Irish constitution as equal to heterosexual marriage.

A March 2013 survey by Taloustutkimus found that 58% of Finns supported same-sex marriage.[94]

In Croatia, a poll conducted in November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.[95]

In Poland a 2013 public poll revealed that 70% of Poles reject the idea of registered partnerships.[96] Another survey in February 2013 revealed that 55% were against and 38% of Poles support the idea of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.[97]

In the European Union, support tends to be the lowest in Bulgaria, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Lithuania. The average percentage of support for same-sex marriage in the European Union as of 2006 when it had 25 members was 44%, which had descended from a previous percentage of 53%. The change was caused by more socially conservative nations joining the EU.[86] In 2015, with 28 members, average support was at 61%.[85]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls for same-sex marriage
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
 Albania NDI 2015 10%[98] 88%[98] 2%[98]
 Armenia Pew Research Center 2017 3%[99] 96%[99] 1%[99]
 Austria "Österreich" magazine 2017 59%[100] 25%[100] 16%[100]
 Belarus Pew Research Center 2017 16%[99] 81%[99] 3%[99]
 Belgium Eurobarometer 2015 77%[101] 20%[101] 3%[101]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Pew Research Center 2017 13%[99] 84%[99] 4%[99]
 Bulgaria Pew Research Center 2017 18%[99] 79%[99] 3%[99]
 Croatia Pew Research Center 2017 31%[99] 64%[99] 6%[99]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2015 37%[101] 56%[101] 7%[101]
 Czech Republic CVVM 2017 52%[102] 41%[102] 7%[102]
 Denmark Eurobarometer 2015 87%[101] 9%[101] 4%[101]
 Estonia Estonian Human Rights Center 2017 39%[99] 52%[99] 9%[99]
 Finland Eurobarometer 2015 66%[101] 28%[101] 6%[101]
 France BVA 2015 67%[103] 31%[101] 2%[101]
 Georgia Pew Research Center 2017 3%[99] 95%[99] 2%[99]
 Germany SUZ 2017 83%[104] 17%[104] 0%[104]
 Greece DiaNeosis 2017 50%[105] 47%[105] 3%[105]
 Hungary Pew Research Center 2017 27%[99] 64%[99] 9%[99]
 Iceland Gallup 2004 87%[106] - -
 Ireland ILGA 2016 64%[107] 18%[107] 18%[107]
 Italy Demos & Pi 2016 56%[108] 40%[108] 4%[108]
 Kosovo NDI 2015 10%[98] 88%[98] 2%[98]
 Latvia Pew Research Center 2017 16%[99] 77%[99] 7%[99]
 Lithuania Pew Research Center 2017 12%[99] 85%[99] 5%[99]
 Luxembourg Eurobarometer 2015 75%[101] 20%[101] 5%[101]
 Macedonia NDI 2015 10%[98] 88%[98] 2%[98]
 Malta Business Leaders Malta 2016 61%[109] 25%[109] 14%[109]
 Moldova Pew Research Center 2017 5%[99] 92%[99] 3%[99]
 Montenegro NDI 2015 10%[98] 88%[98] 2%[98]
 Netherlands Eurobarometer 2015 91%[101] 7%[101] 2%[101]
 Norway Ipsos 2013 78%[110] 17%[110] 4%[110]
 Poland IPSOS 2017 38%[111] 57%[111] 5%[111]
 Portugal ILGA 2016 53%[107] 27%[107] 21%[107]
 Romania Pew Research Center 2017 26%[99] 74%[99] 1%[99]
 Russia Pew Research Center 2017 5%[99] 90%[99] 5%[99]
 Serbia Pew Research Center 2017 12%[99] 83%[99] 4%[99]
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2015 24%[101] 69%[101] 7%[101]
 Slovenia Ninamedia 2015 38.3%[112] 49.5%[112] 12.2%[112]
 Spain Eurobarometer 2015 84%[101] 10%[101] 6%[101]
 Sweden Eurobarometer 2015 90%[101] 7%[101] 3%[101]
  Switzerland Pink Cross 2016 69%[113] 25%[113] 6%[113]
 Ukraine Pew Research Center 2017 9%[99] 85%[99] 6%[99]
 United Kingdom ILGA 2016 48%[107] 29%[107] 23%[107]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Including Armenia, but excluding Greenland.
  2. ^ a b Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
  3. ^ a b Excluding Alderney, Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Jersey, Montserrat, Northern Ireland, Sark, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Tristan da Cunha, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
  4. ^ Excluding Guernsey and Overseas Territories (except Gibraltar).
  5. ^ Combined population of England, Wales and Scotland.
  6. ^ Civil Unions, which provide everything but the name marriage, are also available.
  7. ^ Excluding the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
  8. ^ Including the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
  9. ^ Excluding Croatia and Hungary.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Same-sex marriages registered abroad are valid in Armenia". 
  2. ^ CASE OF VALLIANATOS AND OTHERS v. GREECE, European Court of Human Rights
  3. ^ CASE OF OLIARI AND OTHERS v. ITALY, European Court of Human Rights
  4. ^ (in Dutch) Wet tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht en tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek
  5. ^ (in Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning, lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger og retsplejeloven og om ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab
  6. ^ (in Finnish) Laki avioliittolain muuttamisesta
  7. ^ (in Swedish) Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen
  8. ^ (in French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
  9. ^ "Germany's first same-sex marriages expected in October". 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  10. ^ (in Icelandic) Lög um breytingar á hjúskaparlögum og fleiri lögum og um brottfall laga um staðfesta samvist (ein hjúskaparlög)
  11. ^ "Marriage Bill 2015 (Number 78 of 2015)". House of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  12. ^ (in French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  13. ^ (in Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
  14. ^ (in Dutch)ECLI:NL:HR:2007:AZ6095
  15. ^ (in Norwegian) Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par)
  16. ^ (in Portuguese) Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio
  17. ^ (in Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
  18. ^ (in Swedish)Lag (2009:253) om ändring i äktenskapsbalken
  19. ^ Marriage (Same-sex couples) Act 2013
  20. ^ Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014
  21. ^ "PanARMENIAN.Net - Mobile". panarmenian.net. Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
  22. ^ "Kooseluseadus" (in Estonian). Riigikogu. 9 October 2014. 
  23. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  24. ^ MARRIAGE ACT
  25. ^ (in Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  26. ^ (in German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  27. ^ (in Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  28. ^ (in Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  29. ^ Τέθηκε σε ισχύ η πολιτική συμβίωση στην Κύπρο
  30. ^ ΝΟΜΟΣ ΥΠ’ ΑΡΙΘ. 3456 Σύμφωνο συμβίωσης, άσκηση δικαιωμάτων, ποινικές και άλλες διατάξεις.
  31. ^ (in Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  32. ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (2016-05-11). "Italy Approves Same-Sex Civil Unions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  33. ^ (in German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
  34. ^ (in Slovene) Ukaz o razglasitvi Zakona o partnerski zvezi (ZPZ)
  35. ^ (in German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
  36. ^ "San Marino axes medieval law to let gay couples live together". Gay Star News. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  37. ^ "Referendum in Armenia brings constitutional reforms". ILGA Europe. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015. Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry with each other. 
  38. ^ Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL-M. "Belarus - Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  39. ^ "National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria - Constitution". National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2014. Matrimony shall be a free union between a man and a woman. 
  40. ^ "2013 Referendum". Izbori.hr. Retrieved 2014-01-23. 
  41. ^ "Croats reject gay marriage in referendum". Reuters. EurActiv.com. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  42. ^ "New Hungarian constitution comes into effect with same-sex marriage ban," PinkNews, 3 January 2012, accessed 18 June 2015.
  43. ^ "Text of the Hungarian Constitution (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  44. ^ Laura Sheeter, "Latvia defies EU over gay rights", BBC News website, 16 June 2006.
  45. ^ http://www.saeima.lv/Likumdosana_eng/likumdosana_satversme.html
  46. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA". 
  47. ^ "Title II. Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties - Presidency of the Republic of Moldova". Retrieved 18 June 2015. Article 48. [...] The family shall be founded on a freely consented marriage between a husband and wife 
  48. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Constitution of Montenegro". Refworld. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  49. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm. 2 April 1997. Retrieved 10 July 2014. Article 18. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland. 
  50. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia". Srbija.gov.rs. Retrieved 22 June 2015. Contracting, duration or dissolution of marriage shall be based on the equality of man and woman. 
  51. ^ "ÚSTAVA SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY". Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 9 July 2015. Article 43. Marriage is a unique union between a man and a woman 
  52. ^ "Slovakia bans gay marriage in constitution". Sky News Australia. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  53. ^ "Constitutions - Legislationline". Legislationline. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  54. ^ https://www.gaystarnews.com/article/sex-marriage-faroe-islands-approved-denmark/
  55. ^ http://portal.fo/nu+kunnu+samkynd+giftast.html
  56. ^ "Overseas Marriage (Armed Forces) Order 2014" (PDF). Legislation.gov.uk. 28 April 2014. 
  57. ^ Civil Marriage Amendment Act 2016 [No. 22 of 2016
  58. ^ Civil Marriage Amendment Act 2016 - Notice of Commencement
  59. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage (Guernsey) Law, 2016 (P.2016/30)". Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  60. ^ "Orders Approved at Privy Council 2016-12-14" (PDF). Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  61. ^ "Marriage and Civil Partnership (Amendment) Act 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  62. ^ "The Inheritance (Alderney) Law, 2015". Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  63. ^ "Inheritance (Alderney) Law, 2015 (Commencement) Ordinance, 2015". Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  64. ^ Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012
  65. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2004". Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  66. ^ "Policy and Finance Committee Meeting - 21 Feb 2017". 
  67. ^ "POLICY AND FINANCE COMMITTEE MEETING - 16 May 2017". 
  68. ^ "Alderney to introduce Same-Sex Marriage - Liberate". Liberate. 2017-03-02. Retrieved 2017-03-15. 
  69. ^ P.77/2015 Same-sex marriage, divorce and dissolution
  70. ^ "WRITTEN QUESTION TO THE CHIEF MINISTER - 14 March 2017" (PDF). 
  71. ^ http://www.independent.com.mt/articles/2017-06-04/local-news/PM-Muscat-commits-himself-to-passing-gay-marriage-law-before-summer-6736175061
  72. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-malta-election-idUSKBN18V0HT?il=0
  73. ^ "Parliament to kick off with gay marriage debate". MaltaToday. 18 June 2017. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. 
  74. ^ http://www.washingtonblade.com/2017/07/12/malta-sex-marriage-bill-receives-final-approval/
  75. ^ (in German)Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung (498/A)
  76. ^ Ehe Gleich! Aufhebung des Eheverbots für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare (85/BI)
  77. ^ (in German) 13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative – Ehe für alle
  78. ^ "Ständerat sagt Ja zur Homo-Ehe". Blick.ch. 1 September 2015. 
  79. ^ https://www.thelocal.ch/20170616/gay-marriage-back-on-the-discussion-table-in-swiss-parliament
  80. ^ https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/gay-equality_same-sex-marriage-delayed-in-switzerland-/43264176
  81. ^ (in Italian) San Marino. Unioni civili, presto sul tavolo tre bozze di legge
  82. ^ "URMARIREA PROCESULUI LEGISLATIV". www.cdep.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 2017-06-02. 
  83. ^ "REPORT on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on measures facilitating the exercise of rights conferred on workers in the context of freedom of movement for workers - A7-0386/2013". Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  84. ^ "ECJ plans to rule on same-sex marriage in Romania". 
  85. ^ a b "Special Eurobarometer 437: Discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). European Commission. October 2015. 
  86. ^ a b c "EU Public Opinion: SSM" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  87. ^ "New England's largest GLBT newspaper". Bay Windows. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  88. ^ AVJonathan Tisdall  . "Support for gay marriage". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  89. ^ (in Italian) [1] Datamonitor, 7 January 2013
  90. ^ (in Italian) Il Rapporto Italia 2013 | L'Italia del presentismo Eurispes, 31 January 2013
  91. ^ "Increased support for gay marriage – Survey". BreakingNews.ie. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  92. ^ "Yes to gay marriage and premarital sex: a nation strips off its conservative values". Irish Times. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  93. ^ "Poll finds Irish support for gay marriage at 73%". PinkNews. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  94. ^ "Poll: Over half of Finns favour same-sex marriage law". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  95. ^ "Anketa za HRT: 59 posto građana ZA promjenu Ustava" (in Croatian). Slobodnadalmacija.hr. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  96. ^ (in Polish) Polacy: Związki partnerskie? Niepotrzebne! [SONDAŻ TOK FM]
  97. ^ (in Polish) Sondaż: Polacy przeciwko związkom partnerskim. [SONDAŻ TNS OBOP]
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "NDI Public Opinion Poll in the Balkans on LGBTI Communities". National Democratic Institute. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  99. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Religious belief and national belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  100. ^ a b c Österreich: Deutliche Mehrheit für Ehe für alle
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "Special Eurobarometer 437: discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). TNS. European Commission. October 2015. p. 373. Retrieved 10 October 2015. 
  102. ^ a b c "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – květen 2017" (PDF) (in Czech). CVVM. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  103. ^ "Les Français et les droits des couples homosexuels" (PDF). BVA. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  104. ^ a b c http://www.antidiskriminierungsstelle.de/SharedDocs/Aktuelles/DE/2017/20170112_Umfrage_LSB.html
  105. ^ a b c "Τι πιστεύουν οι Έλληνες" (PDF). DiaNeosis. March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017. 
  106. ^ "Regnbågsfamiljers ställning i Norden Politik, rättigheter och villkor. NIKK Publikationer 2009:1 NIKK, Oslo 2009 ISBN: 978-82-7864-025-4". Doc Player. July 2004. Page 269 
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h i "ILGA/RIWI Global Attitudes Survey on LGBTI People" (PDF). ILGA. ILGA. Retrieved 31 December 2016. 
  108. ^ a b c "Il governo italiano, i diritti degli omosessuali". Demos & Pi. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  109. ^ a b c Grech, Helena (20 April 2016). "iSurvey: 61% ready to change gay civil union into marriage". The Malta Independent. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  110. ^ a b c "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 13. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  111. ^ a b c "Po raz pierwszy w Polsce zwolennicy jednopłciowych związków partnerskich są w większości. Może już czas". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  112. ^ a b c "Kaj je pokazala anketa pred referendumom?". rtvslo.si. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  113. ^ a b c (in French) Les Suisses pour l'introduction du mariage pour tous, selon un sondage