Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe

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Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Marriage¹
  Foreign marriages recognized¹
  Other type of partnership¹
  Unregistered cohabitation¹
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

¹ May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.
Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. Not performed in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. Neither performed nor recognized in Niue, Tokelau or the Cook Islands
  3. Neither performed nor recognized in Northern Ireland, the dependency of Sark or six of the fourteen overseas territories
  4. Neither performed nor recognized in American Samoa or many tribal jurisdictions with the exception of federal recognition benefits
  5. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  6. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  7. If performed before 1 June 2018
  8. Registration schemes open in all jurisdictions except Hualien County, Penghu County, Taitung County and Yunlin County

* Not yet in effect
+ Automatic deadline set by judicial body for same-sex marriage to become legal

LGBT portal

Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalise same-sex marriage as well as same-sex civil unions. Currently 29 of the 50 countries and 8 of the 9 dependent territories in Europe[nb 1] recognise some type of same-sex unions, among them most members of the European Union (23/28).

As of March 2018, fifteen European countries legally recognise and perform same-sex marriage: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,[nb 2] Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[nb 3] In Austria, marriages will be legal from 1 January 2019.[1] An additional eleven European countries legally recognise some form of civil union, namely Andorra, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, and Switzerland. San Marino allows immigration and cohabitation of a citizen's partner, and Poland recognises cohabitation for very limited purposes. Armenia and Estonia recognise same-sex marriages performed in any foreign jurisdiction where they are permitted, and Slovakia recognises same-sex marriages performed within the EU and including an EU citizen.

Of the countries that recognise and perform same-sex marriages some still allow couples to enter civil unions, e.g. Benelux countries, France and the United Kingdom,[nb 4] whereas Germany, Ireland and the Nordic countries have terminated their pre-marriage civil union legislation so that existing unions remain but new ones are not possible.

Several European countries do not recognise any form of same-sex unions. Marriage is defined as a union solely between a man and a woman in the constitutions of Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Of these, however, Armenia recognises same-sex marriages performed abroad,[2] and Croatia and Hungary recognise same-sex partnerships.

Current situation[edit]

International level[edit]

European Court of Human Rights[edit]

Over the years, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has handled cases that challenged the lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples in certain member states. The Court has held that the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) requires member states to provide legal recognition, but does not require marriage to be opened to same-sex couples.

In Schalk and Kopf v Austria (24 June 2010), the European Court of Human Rights decided that the European Convention on Human Rights does not oblige member states to legislate for or legally recognise same-sex marriages. However, the Court, for the first time, accepted same-sex relationships as a form of "family life".

In Vallianatos and Others v Greece (7 November 2013),[3] the Court held that exclusion of same-sex couples from registering a civil union, a legal form of partnership available to opposite-sex couples, violates the Convention. Greece had enacted a law in 2008 that established civil unions for opposite-sex couples only. A 2015 law extended partnership rights to same-sex couples.

Oliari and Others v Italy (21 July 2015)[4] went further and established a positive obligation upon member states to provide legal recognition for same-sex couples. Italy thus breached the Convention; it eventually implemented civil unions in 2016. The decision set a precedent for potential future cases regarding the 23 member states, certain British, Danish and Dutch territories, and the states with limited recognition (excluding Kosovo), that currently do not recognise same-sex couples' right to family life.

Chapin and Charpentier v France (9 June 2016) largely confirmed Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, holding that denying a same-sex couple access to marriage does not violate the Convention. At the time of the judgment, France did allow same-sex marriage, however, the case originated from 2004, when only pacte civil de solidarité (PACS) was available to same-sex couples in France.

European Union[edit]

Some debate occurred within the European Union about how to require member states to recognise same-sex marriages conducted in other member states, as well as any European citizens' civil unions or registered partnerships, so as to ensure the right of freedom of movement for citizens' family members.[5]

In 2010, Romanian LGBT activist Adrian Coman and his American partner, Robert Claibourn Hamilton, married in Belgium, and subsequently attempted to relocate to Romania. Romanian authorities refused to recognise their marriage and the case progressed to the European Court of Justice.[6] On 11 January 2018, the ECJ’s advocate general, Melchior Wathelet, issued an official legal opinion stating that an EU member country cannot refuse residency rights to the same-sex spouse of an EU citizen on the grounds that it does not recognise same-sex marriage.[7]

On 5 June 2018 the ECJ ruled in Coman's favour, stating the term "spouse" was gender-neutral, and member states are therefore obliged to recognise EU residency rights for partners of EU citizens. However, the court confirmed that it will still be up to member states whether to authorise same-sex marriage.[8][9]

National level[edit]

Status Country Since Country population
(Last Census count)
Marriage
(16 countries)
* In eight countries that have passed marriage,
other types of partnerships are available too.
Austria Austria* 2019[1] 8,504,850
Belgium Belgium* 2003[10] 11,198,638
Denmark Denmark 2012[11] 5,655,750
Finland Finland 2017[12][13] 5,470,820
France France* 2013[14] 66,030,000
Germany Germany 2017[15] 80,716,000
Iceland Iceland 2010[16] 325,671
Republic of Ireland Ireland 2015[17] 4,609,600
Luxembourg Luxembourg* 2015[18] 549,680
Malta Malta* 2017[19] 446,547
Netherlands Netherlands[nb 2]* 2001[20][21] 16,856,620
Norway Norway 2009[22] 5,136,700
Portugal Portugal* 2010[23] 10,427,301
Spain Spain 2005[24] 46,704,314
Sweden Sweden 2009[25] 10,161,797
United Kingdom United Kingdom[nb 3]* 2014[26][27] 62,700,000[nb 5]
Subtotal 334,999,576
(45.2% of the European population)
Recognition of foreign marriage
(2 countries)
* Constitutional ban on domestic same-sex marriage
Armenia Armenia* 2017[28] 3,018,854
Estonia Estonia 2016[29] 1,315,819
Subtotal 4,334,673
(0.5% of the European population)
Other type of partnership
(10 countries)
* In four of the countries that have passed other types of partnerships,
yet another type of partnership is available too.
Andorra Andorra* 2005[nb 6][30] 85,082
Croatia Croatia 2014[nb 7][31] 4,284,889
Czech Republic Czech Republic* 2006[nb 8][32] 10,513,209
Cyprus Cyprus[nb 9] 2015[33] 1,117,000[nb 10]
Greece Greece 2015[34] 10,816,286
Hungary Hungary* 2009[nb 11][35] 9,877,365
Italy Italy* 2016[nb 12] [36] 60,782,668
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 2011[37] 37,132
Slovenia Slovenia 2006[nb 13][38][39] 2,061,085
Switzerland Switzerland 2007[40] 8,183,800
Subtotal 107,758,516
(12.6% of the European population)
Unregistered cohabitation
(3 countries)
San Marino San Marino 2012[41] 32,570
Slovakia Slovakia 2018[42][43] 5,415,949
Poland Poland 2012[44] 38,483,957
Subtotal 38,516,527
(4.5% of the European population)
Total 447,175,441
(56.9% of the European population)
No recognition
(10 countries)
Albania Albania 3,020,209
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 9,494,600
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,871,643
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 17,948,816
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 2,058,539
Monaco Monaco 36,371
Romania Romania 19,942,642
Russia Russia 143,700,000
Turkey Turkey 76,667,864
Vatican City Vatican City 842
Subtotal 276,741,526
(37.94% of the European population)
Constitutional ban on marriage
(14 countries)
* Foreign marriages are recognised.[2]
** Other types of partnerships are available.
Armenia Armenia* 2015[45] 3,018,854
Belarus Belarus 1994[46] 9,475,100
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1991[47] 7,364,570
Croatia Croatia** 2013[48][49] 4,284,889
Georgia (country) Georgia 2018[50] 4,935,880
Hungary Hungary** 2012[51][52] 9,877,365
Latvia Latvia 2006[53][54] 1,990,300
Lithuania Lithuania 1992[55] 2,944,459
Moldova Moldova 1994[56] 3,557,600
Montenegro Montenegro 2007[57] 647,905
Poland Poland 1997[58] 38,483,957
Serbia Serbia 2006[59] 7,209,764
Slovakia Slovakia 2014[60][61] 5,415,949
Ukraine Ukraine 1996[62] 44,291,413
Subtotal 143,498,005
(18.66% of the European population)
Total 420,239,531
(49.3% of the European population)

Partially-recognised and unrecognised states[edit]

Status Country Since State population
(Last estimate count)
No recognition
(5 states)
Abkhazia Abkhazia 243,564
Kosovo Kosovo 1,907,592
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus 313,626
South Ossetia South Ossetia 51,547
Transnistria Transnistria 475,665
Subtotal 2,991,994
Constitutional ban on marriage
(1 state)
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh 2006[63] 150,932
Subtotal 150,932
Total 3,142,926

Sub-national level[edit]

Status Country Jurisdiction Legal since Jurisdiction population
(Last Census count)
Marriage
(7 jurisdictions)
Denmark Denmark Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 2017[64][65] 49,198
United Kingdom United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia 2014[66] 15,700
Alderney Alderney 2018[67] 2,020
Gibraltar Gibraltar 2016[68][69] 32,194
Guernsey Guernsey 2017[70][71] 62,948
Isle of Man Isle of Man 2016[72] 84,497
Jersey Jersey 2018[73] 100,080
Total 342,637
(0.04% of the European population)
Other type of partnership
(1 jurisdiction)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 2005[74] 1,864,000
Total 1,964,080
(0.22% of the European population)
No recognition
(1 jurisdiction)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Sark Sark 600
Total 600
(0.001% of the European population)

Future legislation[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

Czech Republic Czech Republic: On 13 June 2018, 46 deputies from ANO 2011, the Pirate Party, the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Communist Party, TOP 09 and Mayors and Independents submitted a bill to legalise same-sex marriage. The Civic Democratic Party, Freedom and Direct Democracy and KDU–ČSL are opposed.[75] On 22 June 2018 the bill was backed by the Czech government.[76]

Switzerland Switzerland: On 5 December 2013 the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland submitted a parliamentary initiative to the National Council, proposing a constitutional amendment allowing couples to enter into a marriage or civil union irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. On 20 February 2015 the lower house's Justice Committee recommended approval of the proposal.[77] On 1 September 2015, it was also approved by the upper house's Justice Committee, paving the way for a referendum on the constitutional amendment.[78] On 16 June 2017, the Federal Assembly voted by 118-71 in favour of a proposal by the Green Liberal party to launch a parliamentary study on same-sex marriage. On 6 July 2018, the Legal Affairs Committee voted to proceed with the initiative by legislation, rather than constitutional amendment and referendum. The committee expects to present a bill by February 2019, with the law possibly taking effect on 1 January 2021.[79]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Northern Ireland Northern Ireland: In February 2018, Karen Bradley, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, stated that same-sex marriage could be legislated for in Northern Ireland by the UK Parliament, and that the Conservative government would likely allow a conscience vote for its MPs if such legislation was introduced.[80] A bill was introduced in the House of Lords by a Conservative peer on 27 March 2018.[81] A private member's bill with cross-party support was introduced in the House of Commons the following day.[82] The bill's second reading in the Commons commenced on 11 May 2018[83] and is next scheduled for debate on 26 October 2018.[84]

Non-marital partnership[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

Lithuania Lithuania: On 30 May 2017, Parliament approved a proposal to amend the Civil Code to recognise cohabitation agreements that would grant two or more cohabitants certain property rights without the intention to create family relations. With 46 in favor, 6 opposing and 17 abstentions, the draft proposal was approved for further consideration in the Lithuanian Parliament.[85]

Monaco Monaco: On 27 October 2016, the National Council unanimously approved a proposal to allow civil unions (pacte de vie commune).[86] On 27 April 2017, the government responded positively to the proposal.[87] The government introduced its civil union bill on 16 April 2018, and it must be approved by the National Council before becoming law. The government's proposed bill explicitly does not recognise those in a civil union as forming a family and does not allow couples in civil unions to adopt or create step-parental ties to each other's children.[88]

San Marino San Marino: The United Left won the 20 November 2016 elections and pledged to introduce civil unions. The governing party reiterated its pledge to legalise same-sex civil unions at its party conference on 17 and 18 November 2017.[89] A civil union bill was introduced on 9 March 2018.[90] On 27 September 2018, the Council Committee for Constitutional Affairs approved the bill by 12-2. It is pending a second reading by the Grand and General Council.[91]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Montenegro Montenegro: Montenegro’s Human and Minority Rights Ministry has drafted a law on registered partnership, under which same-sex couples will be acknowledged as legal unions but will not have the same rights as opposite-sex married couples.[92]

Romania Romania: A civil partnership bill is currently before the Chamber of Deputies. Although it was rejected by the Senate on 24 October 2016, debate has continued in several committees of the Chamber of Deputies into 2017.[93] In September 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples must be given legal protection.[94] On 9 October 2018, following a failed referendum to ban same-sex marriage, the Minister of the European Affairs Victor Negrescu stated that the bill creating civil partnerships was finalized and would be introduced in mid-October.[95]

Poland Poland: A new registered partnership bill was proposed on 12 February 2018 by the Modern party.[96][97][98]

Public opinion[edit]

Public support for same-sex marriage from EU member states as measured from a 2015 poll is the greatest in the Netherlands (91%), Sweden (90%), Denmark (87%), Spain (84%), Ireland (80%), Belgium (77%), Luxembourg (75%), the United Kingdom (71%) and France (71%).[99] In recent years, support has risen most significantly in Malta, from 18% in 2006 to 65% in 2015 and in Ireland from 41% in 2006 to 80% in 2015.[100]

After the approval of same-sex marriage in Portugal in January 2010, 52% of the Portuguese population stated that they were in favor of the legislation.[101] In 2008, 58% of the Norwegian voters supported same-sex marriage, which was introduced in the same year, and 31 percent were against it.[102] In January 2013, 54.1% of Italians respondents supported same-sex marriage.[103] In a late January 2013 survey, 77.2% of Italians respondents supported the recognition of same-sex unions.[104]

In Greece support more than doubled between 2006 and 2015, albeit still considerably low. In 2006 15% responded that they agreed with same-sex marriages being allowed throughout Europe, whereas in 2015 33% agreed with the statement.[100]

In Ireland, a 2008 survey revealed 84% of people supported civil unions for same-sex couples (and 58% for same-sex marriage),[105] while a 2010 survey showed 67% supported same-sex marriage[106] by 2012 this figure had risen to 73% in support.[107] On 22 May 2015, 62.1% of the electorate voted to enshrine same-sex marriage in the Irish constitution as equal to heterosexual marriage.

A March 2013 survey by Taloustutkimus found that 58% of Finns supported same-sex marriage.[108]

In Croatia, a poll conducted in November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.[109]

In Poland a 2013 public poll revealed that 70% of Poles reject the idea of registered partnerships.[110] Another survey in February 2013 revealed that 55% were against and 38% of Poles support the idea of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.[111]

In the European Union, support tends to be the lowest in Bulgaria, Latvia, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Lithuania. The average percentage of support for same-sex marriage in the European Union as of 2006 when it had 25 members was 44%, which had descended from a previous percentage of 53%. The change was caused by more socially conservative nations joining the EU.[100] In 2015, with 28 members, average support was at 61%.[99]

Opinion polls[edit]

  Indicates the country has legalized same-sex marriage nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage
Country Pollster Year For Against Neutral[a] Source
 Armenia Pew Research Center 2015 3% 96% 1% [112][113]
 Austria Research Affairs 2018 74% 26% - [114]
 Belarus Pew Research Center 2015 16% 81% 3% [112][115][113]
 Belgium Pew Research Center 2017 82% 10% 8% [115]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Pew Research Center 2016 13% 84% 4% [112][113]
 Bulgaria Pew Research Center 2015 18% 79% 3% [112][113]
 Croatia Pew Research Center 2016 31% 64% 5% [112][113]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2015 37% 56% 7% [116]
 Czech Republic CVVM 2018 50% 45% 5% [117]
 Denmark Pew Research Center 2017 86% 9% 5% [115]
 Estonia Estonian Human Rights Center 2017 39% 52% 9% [118]
 Finland Pew Research Center 2017 64% 26% 10% [115]
 France Pew Research Center 2017 73% 23% 4% [115]
 Georgia Pew Research Center 2016 3% 95% 2% [112][113]
 Germany Pew Research Center 2017 75% 23% 2% [115]
 Greece DiaNeosis 2017 50% 47% 3% [119]
 Hungary Pew Research Center 2016 27% 64% 9% [112][113]
 Iceland Gallup 2004 87% - - [120]
 Ireland Pew Research Center 2017 66% 27% 7% [115]
 Italy Pew Research Center 2017 59% 38% 3% [115]
 Latvia Pew Research Center 2016 16% 77% 7% [112][113]
 Lithuania Pew Research Center 2016 12% 85% 5% [112][113]
 Luxembourg Eurobarometer 2015 75% 20% 5% [116]
 Malta Business Leaders Malta 2016 61% 25% 14% [121]
 Moldova Pew Research Center 2015 5% 92% 3% [112][113]
 Netherlands Pew Research Center 2017 86% 10% 4% [115]
 Norway Pew Research Center 2017 72% 19% 9% [115]
 Poland CBOS 2017 30% 64% 6% [122]
 Portugal Pew Research Center 2017 59% 28% 13% [115]
 Romania Pew Research Center 2015 26% 74% 1% [112][113]
 Russia Pew Research Center 2016 5% 90% 5% [112][113]
 Serbia Pew Research Center 2015 12% 83% 4% [112][113]
 Slovakia FOCUS 2016 27.3% 68.7% 4% [123]
 Slovenia Ninamedia 2015 38.3% 49.5% 12.2% [124]
 Spain Pew Research Center 2017 77% 13% 10% [115]
 Sweden Pew Research Center 2017 88% 7% 5% [115]
  Switzerland Pew Research Center 2017 75% 24% 1% [115]
 Ukraine Pew Research Center 2016 9% 85% 6% [112][113]
 United Kingdom Ipsos 2018 73% 21%[b] 6% [125]
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage by dependent territory
Country Pollster Year For Against Neutral[a] Source
 Faroe Islands Gallup Føroyar 2016 64% 30% 6% [126]
 Northern Ireland Sky Data 2018 76% 18% 6% [127]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Also comprises: Don't know; No answer; Other; Refused.
  2. ^ Of these, only 8% supported banning same-sex marriage. 13% were personally opposed but did not believe the issue should be revisited.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Including Armenia, but excluding Greenland.
  2. ^ a b Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
  3. ^ a b Excluding Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Northern Ireland, Sark, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
  4. ^ Excluding Guernsey and Overseas Territories (except Gibraltar).
  5. ^ Combined population of England, Wales and Scotland.
  6. ^ Stable union since 2005 and civil union since 2014.
  7. ^ Unregistered cohabitation between 2003 and 2014. Life partnerships životno partnerstvo since 2014.
  8. ^ Unregistered cohabitation since 2001 and registered partnerships registrované partnerství since 2006.
  9. ^ Excluding the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
  10. ^ Including the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
  11. ^ Unregistered cohabitation élettársi kapcsolat and registered partnerships bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolat since 2009.
  12. ^ Civil unions and cohabitation agreements since 2016.
  13. ^ Registrirana partnerska skupnost between 2006 and 2017. Partnership (partnerska zveza) since 2017.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Distinction between marriage and registered partnership violates ban on discrimination". Verfassungsgerichtshof Österreich. 5 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Same-sex marriages registered abroad are valid in Armenia".
  3. ^ CASE OF VALLIANATOS AND OTHERS v. GREECE, European Court of Human Rights
  4. ^ CASE OF OLIARI AND OTHERS v. ITALY, European Court of Human Rights
  5. ^ "REPORT on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on measures facilitating the exercise of rights conferred on workers in the context of freedom of movement for workers - A7-0386/2013". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  6. ^ "ECJ plans to rule on same-sex marriage in Romania".
  7. ^ "PRESS RELEASE No 02/18" (PDF). Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  8. ^ Gillet, Kit (5 June 2018). "Same-sex marriages are backed in E.U. immigration ruling". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Same-sex spouses have EU residence rights, top court rules". BBC News. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  10. ^ (in Dutch) Wet tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht en tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek
  11. ^ (in Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning, lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger og retsplejeloven og om ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab
  12. ^ (in Finnish) Laki avioliittolain muuttamisesta
  13. ^ (in Swedish) Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen
  14. ^ (in French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
  15. ^ "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts" (PDF) (in German). Bundesgesetzblatt. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  16. ^ (in Icelandic) Lög um breytingar á hjúskaparlögum og fleiri lögum og um brottfall laga um staðfesta samvist (ein hjúskaparlög)
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  18. ^ (in French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  19. ^ "Act no. XXIII of 2017 – Marriage Act and other Laws (Amendment) Act, 2017". Ministry for Justice, Culture and Local Government of Malta. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  20. ^ (in Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
  21. ^ (in Dutch)ECLI:NL:HR:2007:AZ6095
  22. ^ (in Norwegian) Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par)
  23. ^ (in Portuguese) Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio
  24. ^ (in Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
  25. ^ (in Swedish)Lag (2009:253) om ändring i äktenskapsbalken
  26. ^ Marriage (Same-sex couples) Act 2013
  27. ^ Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014
  28. ^ "PanARMENIAN.Net - Mobile". panarmenian.net. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
  29. ^ "Kooseluseadus" (in Estonian). Riigikogu. 9 October 2014.
  30. ^ (in Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  31. ^ (in Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  32. ^ (in Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  33. ^ Τέθηκε σε ισχύ η πολιτική συμβίωση στην Κύπρο
  34. ^ ΝΟΜΟΣ ΥΠ’ ΑΡΙΘ. 3456 Σύμφωνο συμβίωσης, άσκηση δικαιωμάτων, ποινικές και άλλες διατάξεις.[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ (in Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  36. ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (2016-05-11). "Italy Approves Same-Sex Civil Unions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  37. ^ (in German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
  38. ^ (in Slovene) Ukaz o razglasitvi Zakona o partnerski zvezi (ZPZ)
  39. ^ 24. 2. 2017 se začne uporabljati Zakon o partnerski zvezi
  40. ^ (in German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
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  42. ^ Zák. č. 40/1964 Z. z. Občiansky zákonník
  43. ^ Zák. č. 301/2005 Z. z. Trestný poriadok
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  46. ^ Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL-M. "Belarus - Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  47. ^ "National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria - Constitution". National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2014. Matrimony shall be a free union between a man and a woman.
  48. ^ "2013 Referendum". Izbori.hr. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
  49. ^ "Croats reject gay marriage in referendum". Reuters. EurActiv.com. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  50. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA". Legislative Herald of Georgia.
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  53. ^ Laura Sheeter, "Latvia defies EU over gay rights", BBC News website, 16 June 2006.
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  55. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA".
  56. ^ "Title II. Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties - Presidency of the Republic of Moldova". Retrieved 18 June 2015. Article 48. [...] The family shall be founded on a freely consented marriage between a husband and wife
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