Same-sex marriage in Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
State recognition of same-sex relationships in Mexico
  Same-sex marriage (SSM) legalized at the state level
  Legalization not implemented, though required by 5+ court orders supporting SSM
  Partial precedent of 1–4 court orders supporting SSM
Legal status of same-sex unions
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  3. Marriages performed in some municipalities and recognized by the state

* Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

In Mexico, only civil marriages are recognized by the law, and all its proceedings fall under state legislation.[1] Same-sex marriage is performed without restriction in Mexico City and in the states of Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit and Quintana Roo, as well as in certain civil registries in Guerrero and Querétaro. Legislation to change the laws covering same-sex marriage is currently pending in several states. In addition, courts in all states must approve marriage licenses for same-sex couples when petitioned to do so; so far, individual cases of same-sex marriage have occurred in every state. Same-sex civil unions are legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Campeche,[2] Coahuila, Jalisco,[3] and Michoacán.[4] Civil unions were previously legal in Colima from 2013 to 2016. Since August 2010, same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception, and fundamental spousal rights (such as alimony payments, inheritance rights, and the coverage of spouses by the federal social security system) also apply to same-sex couples across the country.[5]


On 9 November 2006, after several years of consideration, the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (ALDF) approved a civil union law called Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia. It was the first such law in Mexico, soon followed by the northern state of Coahuila in January 2007.

In late November 2009, the leading party at the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (ALDF), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced that it was fine-tuning an amendment to the civil code to legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City, a project endorsed by the local head of government, Marcelo Ebrard, but strongly opposed by the second largest political force in the country, the right-of-center National Action Party (PAN) and the Roman Catholic Church. The bill found support from over 600 non-governmental organizations, including the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) and Amnesty International (AI). On 21 December 2009, Mexico City became the first Latin American jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage. The law became effective on 4 March 2010.[6]

On 5 August 2010, the Supreme Court voted 8-2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[7] The Court later ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the entire country.[8]

On 28 November 2011, the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after discovering that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage,[9] but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April 2012.[10] In May 2012, the secretary of state of Quintana Roo reversed the annulments and allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.[11]

The 2012 Oaxaca case was pivotal in opening the door to legal same-sex marriage in every state in Mexico, through the recurso de amparo process. Using international decisions, whose verdicts serve as legal precedent in Mexican courts, like the protections in the American Convention on Human Rights Karen Atala Riffo y Niñas v. Chile case,[12] the U.S. cases Loving v. Virginia and Brown v. Board of Education[13] and Mexico's own anti-discrimination ordinances, they ruled[14] 5 December 2012 that: 1) Laws limiting marriage to one man and one woman, or for the purposes of perpetuating the species, violated federal law requiring that they "correspond to all persons without any distinction" and 2) That such laws were unconstitutional on the basis of discrimination by sexual orientation and usurpation of the right, not only of the individual but also the couple's right, to form a family.[15] Barring legislative will to change State laws, a provision in the Mexican Code allows that five rulings in a state with the same outcome on the same issue override a statute and establish the legal jurisprudence to overturn it.[16] Thus, marriages obtained by injunction could be performed in any state, regardless of whether the state Civil Code had been changed.[17] It is also important to notice that a same sex marriage performed in any state is valid in all of the other states in Mexico, even if any particular state has no laws that allow it, according to federal law.

A landmark decision, issued on 29 January 2014, was the first injunction for marriage recognition in Puebla. The case involved a same-sex couple who legally married in Mexico City in 2012 and filed for spousal benefits with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in the state of Puebla, but were denied.[18] Because the complainant died during the injunction process, a lower court had dismissed the case, but the Supreme Court of the Nation, granted the injunction and ordered recognition of the marriage by both the state of Puebla and the IMSS. The injunction will require IMSS to extend benefits equal to married heterosexual couples' benefits to gays and lesbians who are married or have entered into civil unions throughout Mexico.[19][20]

A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling that found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and does not invalidate any state laws, meaning gay couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico, to approve all applications for same-sex marriage,[21][22] and made the approval mandatory.[23] The ruling was published in the country's Judicial Gazette on 19 June 2015 and became binding on 22 June 2015.[24] Some have suggested the ruling "effectively legalises" same-sex marriage in Mexico,[25][26] though without legislative change, civil registrars are still bound to follow the state constitutions.[27][28][29]

On 20 December 2015, the National Human Rights Commission submitted a general recommendation to all state executive and legislative bodies, requesting them to allow same-sex marriages in their jurisdictions.[30] It also stated that the National Human Rights Commission considers differentiated marriage constructions for same-sex couples (such as civil unions) to be discriminatory.

On 17 May 2016, President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, announced he had signed an initiative to amend Article 4 of the Mexican Constitution, which would legalise same-sex marriage nationwide. Any amendment to the constitution requires support of at least a two-thirds majority in Congress and ratification from a simple majority of the 31 states.[31][32] He also submitted the bill to make appropriate changes in the civil code.[33] Chairman of the Committee on Constitutional Issues of the Chamber of Deputies, Daniel Ordoñez, announced in June 2016 that the president's initiative will be debated within the committee the second week of September. Ordoñez also said that 47,000 letters expressing opposition to the initiative were received though none of them were signed.[34]

By state[edit]

States and territories that fully license and recognize same-sex marriage[edit]

Note: This table shows only states that regularly license same-sex marriages or have legalized them. It does not include states where same-sex couples have been able to marry in individual cases.

Federal entities with same-sex marriage
Federal entity Population Date of Enactment/Ruling Date Effective Legalization method Details
Campeche Campeche 899,931 May 10, 2016 May 20, 2016 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Campeche
Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua 3,556,574 June 11, 2015 June 12, 2015 Gubernatorial decree
Coahuila Coahuila 2,954,915 September 1, 2014 September 17, 2014 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Coahuila
Colima Colima 711,235 May 25, 2016 June 12, 2016 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Colima
Jalisco Jalisco 7,844,830 January 26, 2016 May 12, 2016 Judicial decree & Legislative statute Unanimous ruling of the Mexican Supreme Court. Subsequent amendment of state law by Congress.
Mexico City Mexico City 8,918,653 December 29, 2009 March 4, 2010 Legislative statute Passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District
Michoacán Michoacán 4,584,471 May 18, 2016 June 23, 2016 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Michoacán
Morelos Morelos 1,903,811 May 18, 2016 July 5, 2016 Legislative statute & Constitutional amendment Passed by the Congress of Morelos and ratified by a majority of the state's municipalities
Nayarit Nayarit 1,181,050 December 17, 2015 December 23, 2015 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Nayarit
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo 1,501,562 May 3, 2012 May 3, 2012 Decision by the state's Secretary of State
Total 34,057,032 (28.5% of the Mexican population, 119,530,753)
State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.1
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding decision overturning a ban on same-sex marriage not in effect
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.

Mexico City (Federal District)[edit]

Civil union[edit]

Being the seat of the Powers of the Union, Mexico City did not belong to any particular state but to all. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to directly elect the Head of Government of the Federal District and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly (ALDF) by popular vote in 1997. Ever since, the center-left Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both political powers.

In the early 2000s, Enoé Uranga, an openly lesbian politician and activist, unsuccessfully pushed a bill that would have legalized same-sex civil unions in Mexico City under the name Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia (LSC; "Law for Coexistence Partnerships").[35] Despite being passed four times by legislative commissions, the bill repeatedly got stuck in plenary voting for its sensitive nature, which could be attributed to the widespread opposition from right-wing groups and then-Head of Government Andrés Manuel López Obrador's ambiguity concerning the bill.[36] Nonetheless, since new left-wing mayor Marcelo Ebrard was expected to take power in December 2006, the ALDF decided to take up the bill and approved it in a 43–17 vote on 9 November.[36]

The law was well received by feminist and LGBT groups, including Emilio Álvarez Icaza, then-chairman of the Federal District's Human Rights Commission, who declared that "the law was not a threat to anyone in particular and that it will be a matter of time before it shows positive consequences for different social groups." It was strongly opposed by right-wing groups such as the National Parents' Union and the Roman Catholic Church, which labeled the assemblymen who voted for the law as "sinners" and complained it was "vengeance against the Catholic Church from the more radical groups from the left, who felt it was a demand for justice."[36] The law officially took effect on 16 March 2007.[37] Mexico City's first same-sex civil union was between Jorge Cerpa, a 31-year-old economist, and Antonio Medina, a 38-year-old journalist.[37] As of December 2009, 736 same-sex civil unions have taken place in the city since the law became effective, of which 24 have been annulled (3%).[38]

In early September 2014, modifications to the Civil Union agreement were drafted to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and dissolution support. In essence, the law had provided that upon termination, domestic partners were only allowed support for a period equal to half the length of the partnership. The Supreme Court ruled that the provision was discriminatory as it accorded differential treatment in cases of partnership for cohabitation, marriage or concubinage.[39]

Year Unions Annulled
2007 257 10
2008 268 14
2009 211
Total 736 24


On 24 November 2009, PRD assemblyman David Razú proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[40] Luis González Plascencia, chairman of the Humans Rights Commission of Mexico City, backed the bill and said that it was up to the Legislative Assembly to consider LGBT adoption.[41] The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), International Amnesty (AI), the AIDS Healthcare Foundation and over 600 non-governmental organizations supported the legalization of same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[42] The PAN has announced it will either go to the courts to appeal the law or demand a referendum.[43][44] However, a referendum on same-sex marriage was rejected by the Legislative Assembly in a 36-22 vote on 18 December 2009.[45] On 21 December 2009, the Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriage (39-20) in Mexico City. The bill changes the definition of marriage in the city's Civil Code from "a free union between a man and a woman" to "a free union between two people."[46] The law would grant same-sex couples the same rights as opposite-sex couples, including adopting children.[47] The PAN vowed to challenge the law in the courts.[47] On 29 December 2009, Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard signed the bill into law, which became effective on 4 March 2010.[6][48] On 5 August, the Supreme Court voted 8–2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[7] The Court ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the country.[49]


In May 2014, a male same-sex couple requested an injunction against the Civil Registry in Aguascalientes for refusing to allow them to marry and against the constitutionality of sections 143 and 144 of the Civil Code.[50][51] The injunction 1015/14 was approved on 29 August 2014.[52] A lesbian couple also applied for an amparo in May[53] and received a favorable response on 2 September 2014.[54] On 1 September 2014, Julián Elizalde Peña, coordinator of the organization, Collective SerGay of Aguascalientes, announced a third injunction had been requested.[55] On 3 September 2014, the first same-sex wedding was held in Aguascalientes.[56] On 13 October 2014, Elizalde Peña announced that a fourth individual amparo is pending and that a collective injunction is in process.[57] As of May 2016, seven injunctions have been granted to same-sex couples in the state, surpassing the five necessary to make the state's provisions in the civil code null and inoperable. Another nine couples have requested to marry.[58]

In September 2014, Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejada, legislative member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that a civil unions bill and possibly a same-sex marriage initiative were to be introduced by the Governor of the state for consideration. Escobeda Tejada further announced that if the Governor did not introduce a bill, the PRD would.[59] On 4 November 2014, Escobedo presented a civil unions initiative arguing that "marriage means protection to the mother, matrem, monium, protect, care for the mother," which is an insufficient concept for a civil contract which defines a partnership for "living together, forming a heritage, having children if they wish, and dealing with situations that arise for a couple." He acknowledged that a citizen's initiative on same-sex marriage had been presented a few weeks prior to his initiative.[60] Debate on three initiatives with different schemes for marriage and civil unions began on 21 November 2014.[61] On 15 June 2016, a PAN congresswoman indicated that her party is preparing a civil union proposal and would present it to Congress when ready.[62] If such a proposal is approved, LGBT activists will most certainly file an action of unconstitutionality before the Mexican Supreme Court.

Baja California[edit]

On 23 August 2010, shortly after the ruling of the Mexican Supreme Court requiring all states to recognise same-sex marriages validly performed in another state, state legislators introduced an amendment to article 7 of the Constitution of the State of Baja California, adding the definition of marriage as being the union of a man and a woman. On 29 September 2010, the Congress of Baja California voted 18–1 in favor of the amendment, and after approval by municipalities, it was published on 27 May 2011.[63] On 13 November 2014, the Supreme Court of Mexico ruled that Baja California's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.[64][65] Because the legislature had made no efforts since 2011 to reform the civil code, a complaint was filed with the Comisión Ciudadana de Derechos Humanos del Noroeste (CCDH) on 27 November 2014. On 14 January 2015, Raúl Ramírez Baena, director of the CCDH, filed a petition with the governor and five municipal officers of the state requiring them to provide notification to the registrars throughout the jurisdiction on how to proceed with same-sex marriages in compliance with the Mexican constitution.[66] A bill was introduced in the Baja California Congress on 12 February 2015 to fully legalise same-sex marriage in the state by changing article 7 of the state constitution.[63][67] In March 2015, politicians in Tijuana began work on an initiative to legalise same-sex marriage in the city.[68]

On 18 March 2013, a male same sex couple applied to marry in Ensenada, Baja California. They were denied on the 21st and filed for an amparo 12 April 2014.[69] On 31 October 2014 the Seventh District Court ordered the City of Ensenada to allow their marriage,[70] which had been denied by the registrar a year and a half earlier.[71]

On 17 June 2013, a male same-sex couple were denied the right to marry in Mexicali and applied for an injunction.[72] The injunction was approved in October 2013,[73] but was appealed by the Registrar to the Supreme Court.[74] On 25 June 2014 the initial injunction was upheld and Mexico's Supreme Court deemed the state's marriage ban unconstitutional.[75] On 31 October 2014, the officer of civil registrar of Mexicali, Adriana Guadalupe Ramirez, notified the couple the decision would not be appealed, the refusal was withdrawn, and the marriage could proceed.[76] Though Ramirez scheduled the ceremony for 21 November 2014, when the couple appeared in the Wedding Hall to marry, the judge refused to perform the ceremony and the celebrants were evacuated after a bomb threat was received.[77][78] The Civil Registry claimed that discrepancies in documents had been rectified and announced a rescheduling of the wedding for 10 January 2015.[79] On 10 January 2015, the couple again returned to the registry for their marriage ceremony which was declined for the 4th time, under a citizen's allegation that the couple suffers from insanity. The citizen who made the allegation is an official who performs premarital counseling required by the city and who had refused to give the couple the certificate that they had completed the counseling.[80] In response to the ongoing controversy in Mexicali, the officials in Tijuana announced that they were willing to comply with an amparo and offer premarital counseling to same-sex couples.[81] Officials in Ensenada have also stated that they would honor an injunction and noted that though one was approved there, the couple did not ask for a ceremony.[82] Lawyers for the couple filed contempt of court proceedings against the mayor and registrar for failure to carry out the instructions of the Supreme Court. A hearing will be held before the Appellate Court and could result in the officials losing their positions or being disqualified from public office.[83] During a protest march scheduled by the LGBT community, officials in Mexicali announced that they were dismissing the accusation of "madness" and were ready to perform the marriage. On 17 January 2015, the first same-sex couple were married in Baja California.[84][85] In March 2015, it was announced that the Government has asked for a review of the amparos granted in the state thus far with the intent of delaying the issuance of jurisprudence. If the state's request is granted, a legal precedent shall not be applied in Baja California until each case is resolved once again.[86]

On 6 August 2013, a lesbian couple were denied a marriage license by the Civil Registrar in Mexicali and filed for an injunction. They received notice of their approval 524/2013 on 30 December 2013.[87] On 22 January 2015, a lesbian couple applied to marry at the Civil Registry in Tijuana and were denied. The couple have vowed to fight the denial and insist that as federal law trumps local law, an injunction is unnecessary since the SCJN has declared Baja California's code unconstitutional.[88][89]

Three additional injunctions to create the jurisprudence for the law to be changed were filed in September 2014.[90] One of the three couples involved, married on 14 May 2016 after their injunction was granted.[91] It was announced in June 2015 that ten persons have filed for a collective amparo in Tijuana.[92] On 18 March 2016, the collective amparo was granted.[93]

Baja California Sur[edit]

On 9 April 2010, the organization La Comunidad Sudcaliforniana en Diversidad Sexual proposed reforms to the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage and adoption.[94] No action was taken by the legislature, as in both 2013[95] and 2014, local politicians deflected the issue saying that the public must be consulted.[96] Even after the granting of the collective amparo, the members of the local Congress advised that the issue of gay marriage had not been discussed and was not on the legislative agenda.[97] On 25 March 2015, the Chief Justice of the Baja California Sur Supreme Court handed Congress a proposal to legalise same-sex marriage.[98] On 15 April 2015, a member of Congress told the media that analysis of the initiative would begin in May.[99] On 17 May 2016, the International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia, a PAN congresswoman announced that the proposal will be voted upon by the State Congress before 30 June. She also indicated that PAN is in favor of modifying the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage to be legal.[100]

In August 2014, 14 women and 4 men requested a collective injunction against Articles 330 and 150 of the Baja California Sur Civil Code, which bans same-sex marriage.[101] The amparo was granted by the First Chamber of the Supreme Court on 9 March 2016.[102] On 21 October 2014, the first amparo in Baja California Sur was granted declaring articles 330 and 150 of the Civil Code unconstitutional, according to the lawyer[103] who represented the couples.[104] On 27 November 2014, a group of 20 members of the LGBT community of BCS presented an injunction for same-sex marriage in La Paz.[105] On 10 April 2015, a First District judge approved an injunction involving 36 couples.[106]


On 11 April 2013 the Party of the Democratic Revolution introduced a measure to create a Civil Partnership of Coexistence for Campeche.[107] The bill was unanimously passed on 20 December 2013, and while it covers both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, it specifically provides that it "shall not constitute a civil partnership of people living together in marriage and cohabitation." An additional distinction is that it is not filed with the Civil Registrar, but with the Public Registry of Property and Trade.[108]

In April 2016, Campeche's Governor, Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas, submitted a same-sex marriage bill to Congress, which was approved on 10 May 2016. The law was published in the official state gazette on 16 May 2016 and came into effect on 20 May 2016.[109] Campeche was the seventh Mexican state to allow same-sex marriage without the need for a court order.[110]


The first significant attempt to legalize same-sex marriage in the state of Chiapas occurred in November 2013, when Diego Cadenas Gordillo, a human rights activist, sent a bill to the Congress of Chiapas which would have legalized same-sex marriage in the state. The proposal was rejected the following month on the basis that "popular initiatives" required the support of at least 1.5% of the electorate, or 50,500 voters.[111] On 25 September 2014, a collective injunction for the legalization of same-sex marriage was filed.[112] On 3 March 2015, 51 couples won the right to marry as the state's Civil Code was deemed unconstitutional[113] by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. By early May 2016 those 51 couples were awaiting for an injunction to be granted and a lesbian couple had already married the state's capital, Tuxtla Gutiérrez.[114][115]

A new same-sex marriage bill was presented to Chiapan Congress in May 2016.[116][117]


In December 2012, lawmakers in Chihuahua were presented with a proposal to amend Article 143 of the Civil Code of the State to allow same-sex marriage.[118] As of July 2014, 33 amparos had been filed in the state, 22 in the capital and 11 in Ciudad Juárez, and nine had been approved.[119] After years with no legislative action, in July 2014, the PAN bloc announced that they would consider approving civil unions in the state but not same-sex marriage.[120] In response to legislative inaction, a collective injunction was filed in July 2014 with the aim of having the Civil Code declared "unconstitutional."[121] The collective injunction #3937-2014, approved 13 November 2014, ruled that Articles 134 and 135 of the Civil Code were unconstitutional and required the State Congress to legislate same-sex marriage.[122] In early February 2015, Judge Cuenca Zamora ruled that the state of Chihuahua had an obligation to abide by the findings of the injunction. His legal opinion was forwarded to the Parliamentary Coordination Board to begin the legislative processes to implement change in the Civil Code.[123] After the SCJN issued its directive that courts must approve injunctions for same-sex marriage based on the federal constitution protections that rights must be equally provided without distinction to all people, the PAN deputy María Eugenia Campos Galván, presented an initiative for the Chihuahuan Congress to limit marriage to one man and one woman for the purpose of procreation. Her proposal was supported by the PAN block of legislators.[124]

On 11 June 2015, the state governor announced the state would no longer prevent same-sex marriage, making Chihuahua the fourth jurisdiction to have legal same-sex marriage without having to resort to individual injunction.[125] Governor César Duarte Jáquez announced that licenses would be available as of 12 June 2015.[126] On 16 June 2015, the President of the Chihuahuan Congress announced that the state would debate the legal codification of the court ruling.


The legalization of same-sex civil unions in Coahuila had started to be discussed as early as November 2006, simultaneously with the discussion on-going in Mexico City.[127] On 11 January 2007, the state congress legalized same-sex civil unions under the name Pacto Civil de Solidaridad (PCS, Civil Pact of Solidarity), which gave property and inheritance rights to same-sex couples.[128][129] Twenty days after the law had passed, the country's first same-sex civil union took place in Saltillo, Coahuila. It was between 29-year-olds Karina Almaguer and Karla Lopez, a lesbian couple from Tamaulipas.[130]

On 5 March 2013, Congressman Samuel Acevedo Flores, Social Democratic Party, introduced a bill to the Congress of Coahuila to legalize same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples.[131] 11 February 2014, Congress approved adoptions by same-sex couples[132] and passed the same-sex marriage bill on 1 September 2014.[133] It took effect on 17 September,[134] and the first couple married on 20 September.[135]


In July 2009, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) introduced a formal initiative to legalize civil unions in the western state of Colima.[136] Nevertheless, the following month, the local legislature decided not to take up the initiative, following widespread opposition from right-wing groups.[137] In December 2009, Governor of Colima Mario Anguiano Moreno agreed to discuss the legalization of civil unions and adoption by same-sex couples in the current legislature.[138]

On 4 July 2013, the State Congress approved a new form of union, called "enlace conyugal" (conjugal bond) for same-sex couples, which according to PRI Deputy Martín Flores Castañeda grants the same rights and obligations as marriage, but it is doubtful whether such rights and obligations would be recognized outside the state.[139]

A bill to legalise same-sex marriage in the state was unanimously approved by the Congress of Colima on 25 May 2016.[140][141] The bill was passed 24 to 0.[142] The existing same-sex civil unions was repealed simultaneously.[143] The same-sex marriage law was published in the state's official gazette on 11 June 2016 and came into effect on 12 June 2016. The new law allows couples who previously contracted civil unions before the legislation was repealed to have them recognised by the state or converted to a marriage.[144] It also allows same-sex couples to adopt children jointly.[145]


In September 2013, PRD deputy in Durango, Israel Soto Peña, introduced a bill to legalize same sex marriage in the state. As no action had been taken on the bill, in February 2014, he requested that it be expedited.[146] On 10 April 2014, the bill was rejected claiming that it would not sufficiently address the legal changes necessary to correct the Civil Code.[147] In May, Soto Peña announced that he would revamp the initiative and resubmit it,[148] which he did on 1 November 2014.[149]

In December 2013, the first same-sex male couple was able to marry in Durango after obtaining an injunction. It was appealed and the Supreme Court of the Nation ruled in favor of the couple.[150] On 13 November 2014, it was announced that 18 people had filed an injunction in Durango against the civil code defining marriage as only the union between a man and a woman.[151] A first hearing was scheduled for 27 November 2014.[152] On 28 November 2014, the State Congress and Government rejected the injunction stating that challenges to the Civil Code had to be made within 30 days of it being enacted thus were 66 years too late. In that regard, activists then escalated the injunction request to the Supreme Court of the Nation.[153][154] On 1 April 2015, it was announced that the 18 couples had hit another setback when the State claimed they could not seek an injunction because their residency was questioned. The couples reiterated their intention to file a case before the Mexican Supreme Court.[155]

On 10 February 2016, the Justice Commission of the Congress of Durango approved a draft bill to legalise same-sex marriage in the state.[156] However, the bill's plenary discussion was postponed for 6 months in order to organise discussions on the matter and to inform legislators on the subject before a vote.[157]


On 2 September 2013, a lesbian couple was denied their request to marry by the Civil Registry of Guanajuato. The couple appealed the decision in federal court. The Civil Registry argued that article 72 of the Rules of the Civil Registry define marriage as the union of a man and a woman, whereas the couple's attorneys argued that the state Civil Code does not define marriage and thus does not define marriage as the union of a man and a woman. On 18 September 2013, the judge approved the couple's amparo.[158] On 19 March 2014, the couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in the state.[159][160] As such, other same-sex couples became interested in using the amparo process.[161]

On 4 March 2014, Guillermo Romo Méndez, PRI deputy in Guanajuato, agreed to assist a group of 45 same-sex couples in submitting individual amparos to register their marriages in the state. 33 couples came from León while 12 came from Silao. 40 of them were male same-sex couples and 5 of them were lesbian couples [162] On 19 March 2014, the first collective injunction for Guanajuato was filed for 30 couples in León.[163] On 3 July 2014, a male same-sex couple were denied a marriage license by the civil registry of León and filed for an injunction. On 25 November 2014, a judge in the first district ruled on amparo 02495/2014 and no appeal was filed by the state. The couple planned to marry in January 2015.[164] On 17 January 2015, the first male same sex couple to be married in the state were joined in León.[165]

On 16 September 2014, it was announced by the Association of Human Development and Sexuality in Irapuato that a collective amparo of 320 persons was to be filed.[166]

In response to the first amparo approval, on 21 February 2014, the PRD introduced a bill in Congress to amend the Civil Code of the State so that marriages between people of the same sex are allowed.[167] The plan was endorsed by the PRI on 26 February 2014.[168] A detailed plan to move the initiatives forward was introduced on 19 January 2015. The plan calls for review by area university law schools, the bar association, the state legislature, local officials in all municipalities and creation of a website for public input.[169] On 13 April 2015, the Justice Committee with a majority from the state's lead PAN party, voted 3-2 to shelve both bills citing PAN's objection to same-sex unions. The bill now goes to a plenary session where legislators will discuss whether to approve the dismissal of the bill.[170]

On 29 April 2016, the Guanajuato City Council unanimously passed a resolution allowing a lesbian couple to marry in the municipality. They also announced they would help any same-sex couple with an injunction. Additionally they urged Governor Miguel Márquez Márquez to change the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriages.[171]

As of April 2016, thirteen individual injunctions filed by same-sex couples are pending in the state of Guanajuato. The Civil Registry announced they've already married nine of these couples.[172] On 27 May 2016, a federal judge granted an amparo to a same-sex couple, and ruled it is discriminatory to limit marriage to opposite-sex couples.[173]


After the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation's ruling went into effect on 22 June, officials in Guerrero began announcing plans for a collective group wedding.[174] The governor, Rogelio Ortega submitted a same-sex marriage bill to Congress on 7 July 2015. Legislators lamented they would have preferred to have the bill passed before marriages took place, but given the time line presented, it was unlikely.[175] On 10 July 2015, twenty same-sex couples were married by Governor Rogelio Ortega in Acapulco.[176] On January 13, the head of the Civil Registry of Acapulco claimed that the 20 same-sex couples that married on 11 July 2015 in Acapulco were only deceived by the governor and his wife, as there is no law that permit same-sex marriage in the state, unless an amparo is granted.[177] On 13 February 2016, a day before mass Valentine's Day weddings were planned statewide, the head of Guerrero's State Civil Registry department announced that same-sex couples could marry in any of the jurisdictions that want to marry the couples and criticised Acapulco's Civil Registry for not allowing these kinds of weddings. The department head also stated that any marriage conducted in Guerrero will be legally valid.[178] Same sex marriages will depend on the civil registry of each municipality, if the registry does not want to conduct same sex marriages the couples might go to another municipality or ask for an amparo to be granted.[179]

In April 2016, an LGBT rights group in the state began the process of filing lawsuits to have existing marriages in the region recognised if the municipality refuses to do so.[180]


As Mexico City and Coahuila had recently legalized civil unions, a similar Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia was introduced in Hidalgo in July 2007.[181] However, it stalled in the legislature as well as in successive congresses.[182] In October 2013, the legislature indicated there was not sufficient "maturity" in the society to accept same-sex marriage and that the legislature would instead consider a conjugal partnership bill.[183]

Due to the lack of legislative action, on 8 August 2014, a collective injunction for 6 same-sex couples was presented to the twenty-ninth circuit of the Third District Court for the state of Hidalgo to contest the constitutionality of Articles 8, 11 and 143 of the Family Code and secure the right to marry.[184]

The first injunction was approved in June 2016. The Civil Registry has set a date for the first same-sex wedding in the state to occur in October.[185]


In April 2013, a cross-party group of deputies presented the Free Coexistence Act (Ley de Libre Convivencia).[186] In it is established that same-sex civil unions can be applied in the state, as long as they are not considered as marriages, there is no adoption and they are performed with a civil law notary.[186][187] On 31 October 2013, the Jalisco Congress approved the Act in a 20–15 vote,[3] one abstained and three were absent.[187] The law took effect on 1 January 2014.[188]

The first same-sex marriage in the state occurred via amparo in December 2013. In January 2016, the full bench of the Mexican Supreme Court unanimously declared the Civil Code unconstitutional for limiting marriage to heterosexual couples. The relevant articles mentioned in Jalisco's Civil Code will be struck down once the ruling is published and Civil Registries will be ordered to marry all couples.[189][190] The Jalisco State Civil Registry Directory changed all marriage licenses to gender-neutral on 22 March 2016 so that couples can already begin receiving them.[191] On 21 April 2016, the Supreme Court ruling was printed in the Official Diary of the Mexican Federation.[192]

On 12 May 2016, the Congress of Jalisco complied with the Mexican Supreme Court ruling by amending Articles 258, 260 and 267 of the Civil Code in order for same-sex marriages to be fully legal and performed in all of Jalisco's municipalities.[193][194][195]


In 2008, an initiative for the legalization of civil unions was launched in the State of México, but never advanced. In 2010, a citizen's initiative was presented to Congress for same-sex marriages. After 3 years, it had not been reviewed and thus in mid-2013 PRD deputy, Octavio Martinez, introduced a measure.[196] In January 2014 Martinez advised the PRD would continue to press for same-sex marriage and insist that it be discussed by Congress.[197] In January, 2015, Israfil Filós Real, president of the Civil Association of Vulnerable Groups called on the legislature of Edomex to act on proposals for same-sex marriage[198] and hate crimes as they have been pending without resolution for nine years.[199] The state's governor submitted a marriage bill while PRD submitted a proposal to legalize same-sex adoption on 5 March 2015.[200] A Congress session for the possible approval of the Governor's same-sex marriage bill was scheduled for 31 May 2016.[201] However two political parties, PAN and New Alliance, requested more time to study the proposal.[202] José Manzur Quiroga, Secretary General of the State Government, announced that the bill may be voted upon during Congress' next extraordinary session.

On 15 February 2013, four same-sex couples filed documents to marry at the Civil Registry of Toluca[203] and after their refusal, filed for an "amparo." On 24 June 2013, a federal judge granted the injunction ruling that the Civil Code of the state prohibiting their marriages was discriminatory,[204] but the state filed an appeal. The appellate Court on Administrative Matters of the Second Circuit in the State, declared itself unable to resolve the dispute in January 2014, whereupon it was escalated to the State Supreme Court.[205] Disposition of the case was set for 6 November 2014, however, the judge postponed the decision for an additional ten days.[206] On 25 February 2015, the SCJN granted the injunction, and declared the Civil Code of the State to be unconstitutional and discriminatory, and contrary to the international treaties Mexico has signed.[207] A lesbian couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in Edomex on 18 April 2015.[208]


On 27 August 2015, the Justice and Human Rights Committee announced it would enact a civil union law for same-sex couples. It was approved unanimously in a 34-0 vote by the full Michoacán Congress on 7 September 2015.[209][210] The law was published on 30 September 2015 in the state's official journal.[211]

On 9 February 2016, a new Legislature's Justice and Human Rights Committee approved a Family Code that would allow same-sex marriage and joint adoption.[212] It was stated that the full Michoacán Congress would vote on the proposal in the coming days.[213] However the vote was postponed until sometime in May 2016.[214] On 18 May 2016, the State Congress eventually approved the proposal by a vote of 27 in favour, none opposed and 8 abstentions.[215][216] The law was published in the state's official diary on 22 June 2016 and came into effect on 23 June. The law allows couples to adopt children jointly.[217]


On 18 May 2016, the Congress of Morelos voted 20 to 6 to approve a constitutional change to legalize same-sex marriage. A constitutional change requires the ratification of at least 17 of the 33 municipalities in the state. The Government expected the ratification process to finish within a month. Governor Graco Ramírez welcomed the approval of the bill.[218][219] The 33 municipalities had until 25 June 2016 to act on the constitutional change.[220] If they did not act, then on 29 June the reform would be approved by constructive assent (silence from the authority with respect to a request, in this case, the reform from Congress).[221] At the end of the process, a total of 17 municipalities had ratified the constitutional change and 15 had voted against ratification, while 1 municipality was awarded an extra week, although the clear majority being in favor meant that same-sex marriage would become legal in the state.[222][223] The law was promulgated and published in the state's official gazette on 4 July 2016.[224] It took effect on 5 July.[225] The state adoption agency clarified that the law shall allow same-sex couples to adopt jointly as the process is open to all spouses in Morelos.[226]


On 25 June 2015, Luis Manuel Hernández Escobedo, deputy from the Party of the Democratic Revolution, introduced a bill allowing same-sex couples to marry and making the definition of concubinage gender-neutral.[227] On 17 December 2015, the State Congress approved the bill, in a 26-1 vote, with 1 abstention.[228][229] The bill was published in the official journal, following the governor's signature, on 22 December 2015, and took effect the following day.[230][231]

Nuevo León[edit]

In September 2013, a federal judge ordered the Civil Registry of Nuevo León to register the marriage of a female same-sex couple.[232] Governor Rodrigo Medina said his administration would abide by the order, but only for that specific case.[233] On 13 November 2013 a male same-sex couple went to the Civil Registry Administrative Office 4 in San Pedro, Nuevo León, made an application for marriage [234] and were told to expect a response within one week. In December 2013, they filed a complaint at the headquarters of the Ombudsman in the State Commission on Human Rights against the Registry for failure to provide them with an official response.[235] In June 2014, Mariaurora Mota, the legal representative of Strategic Litigation, reported that nine injunctions have been filed in the state, but only one has been resolved.[236] The State Constitutional Court held a hearing on 12 September 2014, to rule on an "amparo" filed by 50 members of the LGBT community claiming discrimination against their human rights contained in Articles 147 and 291 of the Civil Code for the State of Nuevo León.[237] On 16 October 2014 the Supreme Court declared articles 147 and 219 of the Civil Code of the state unconstitutional and granted an injunction to 48 applicants for same-sex marriages.[238] When approval of an amparo was announced for Tamaulipas on 26 March 2015, it was confirmed that an amparo for 35 couples was pending for Nuevo León.[239]

On 17 February 2016, the First Chamber of the Federal Supreme Court ordered the Governor of Nuevo León, Jaime Rodríguez Calderón, to recognize cohabitation between same-sex couples. Former Governor Rodrigo Medina de la Cruz and the local Congress both filed appeals challenging the ruling of a federal judge who ruled it is discriminatory to limit concubinage to opposite-sex couples.[240]

On 17 June 2015, the Nueva Alianza party announced their intention to introduce a same-sex marriage bill. An Independent congressman will also submit his own civil union proposal with the support of the ruling PAN. On 22 June 2015, Nueva Alianza member and Congress President, María Dolores Leal Cantú, presented the same-sex marriage bill.[241] On 16 May 2016, the president of the Legislative Commission of the State Congress announced that the bill will be voted upon sometime in September.[242]


As of 26 August 2012, a Mexican federal court judge has ordered the state of Oaxaca to perform same-sex marriages based on a recent constitutional amendment which bans discrimination based on sexual orientation. This ruling was reviewed by the Mexican Supreme Court and the Court issued a unanimous ruling overturning the ban on same-sex marriage.[243][244]

In August 2011, three same-sex couples, four women and two men, applied to be married and were denied by the Civil Registry in Oaxaca.[245] In January 2012 an injunction was sought, but was denied on 31 January. The couples appealed the judgment to the Collegiate Courts in Civil and Administrative Matters for the State.[246] On 9 April 2012, one of the lesbian couples was granted permission by a judge to marry in Oaxaca, thus becoming the first approval for same-sex marriage in the state. The case was appealed. On 5 December 2012 the three couples won their appeal from the Supreme Court,[247] but local officials refused to perform the marriages. The case returned to the Supreme Court and an additional ruling in favor of the couples was issued. The first lesbian couple received authorization to marry from the Civil Registrar on 25 February 2013.[245] They were the first same-sex couple married in Oaxaca and celebrated their marriage on 22 March 2013.[248] The male couple, received notice of their authorization on 3 June 2013[247] and on 5 June 2013, the third couple, the second injunction for a lesbian couple, was authorized.[249] On 23 April 2014, the Mexican Supreme Court set further precedent in the State of Oaxaca. The case brought before the Court involved 39 same-sex couples who sought the right to marry, and marked the fourth of five necessary decisions.[250] It was announced in November 2014 that a fourth same-sex marriage had been performed.[251] On 5 July 2016, two men won an injunction allowing them to wed.[252] This was the fifth injunction in the state.


On 7 December 2006, a similar bill to that of Mexico City was proposed in Puebla, but it faced strong opposition and criticism from deputies of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN), who declared that "the traditional family is the only social model, and there cannot be another one."[253] On 15 March 2011, the Law of Society for Coexistence was first proposed.[254] After five reviews in the ensuing years,[255] on 8 June 2014 the law was postponed until a later session.[256] On 29 September 2014, the legislature announced that there would be no discussion in this term.[257]

On 7 March 2013, a group of activists presented to the Legislature of Puebla a proposal, "The Law of Agnès Torres," which aimed at transforming Articles 831, 931, 932 and 935 of the Civil Code of Puebla and Article 751 of the Code of Civil Procedure to allow legal identity documents which are consistent with the personality and sex/gender identity of personal choice and protect LGBT citizens against discrimination.[258] On 8 November 2014, a march was held by activists and supporters, urging the Congress to pass the law to protect gender identity and approve same-sex marriage.[259] The local Congress vetoed a civil unions bill in December 2014.[260] PRD, who backed the civil nions bill, have announced their intention to re-introduce the bill in 2015.[261] On 11 June 2015, a member of PRD submitted a marriage bill instead citing the national court decisions in favor of same-sex couples wanting to marry.[262] On 18 June 2015, it was announced that the marriage proposal will be reviewed in October, giving deputies time to become educated about the proposal before it is submitted for analysis.[263] In June 2016, representatives of the Congress of Puebla announced that they would not legalize same-sex marriage, at least not until the Mexican Supreme Court rules on the action of unconstitutionality filed in early May (see below).[264]

An important recognition case was granted via injunction on 29 January 2014. A same-sex couple, married in 2012 in Mexico City had filed an injunction against the IMSS (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) after it refused to register the partner of one of the men for spousal benefit. In a landmark ruling, the Supreme Court of the Nation ruled that the IMSS was required to recognize the marriage.[265]

Equal Marriage Mexico, The Citizens Observatory of Sexual and Reproductive Rights, and El Taller AC began collecting signatures for a collective injunction in Puebla in early October 2014 with plans to submit the demand on 12 October.[266] On 15 October 2014, it was confirmed a collective injunction for same-sex marriage had been filed[267] by 36 people from throughout the state hoping to gain the right to same-sex marriage and have Article 294 of the Civil Code declared unconstitutional.[268] In March 2015, reports surfaced that the judge had not ruled for the couples citing a requirement of the plaintiffs to "prove their homosexuality". Activists slammed this as a delay tactic and have appealed to both the local court and the Mexican Supreme Court.[269] On 5 May 2016, the Mexican Supreme Court ruled that Articles 294 and 297 of Puebla's Civil Code are unconstitutional. These two articles denied marriage rights to same-sex couples.[270] On 1 June 2016, the First Chamber of the Mexican Supreme Court, upheld an amparo to 30 gay people who challenged Articles 294 and 297 of the State Civil Code.[271]

In November 2014, a lesbian couple filed for an amparo and were granted an injunction to marry. The state appealed the decision. On 10 July 2015, the Appellate Court upheld the ruling in favor of the couple. Their wedding, which was the first same-sex marriage in the state of Puebla[272] took place on 1 August 2015.[273] On 27 April 2016, an action of unconstitutionality was filed before the Mexican Supreme Court.[274][275]


On 28 February 2014, two same-sex couples filed for an injunction against the Civil Registry in Querétaro.[276] In August 2014, an injunction in favor of a lesbian couple was granted making them the first in the state to be allowed to marry.[277] On 25 August 2014, the second injunction was also approved.[278] As the officials did not object to the ruling within the 10-day period required by law, the first same-sex marriage was scheduled for October 2014.[279] The ceremony was held, at the same registry which had previously denied them permission, on 4 October 2014.[280] The third injunction in the state was requested in the first week of October 2014.[281] On 17 January 2015 the male same-sex couple who had applied for an injunction in February wed in Querétaro.[282][283] The third same-sex marriage in Querétaro was celebrated for a male couple on 28 January 2015 and a fourth same-sex marriage took place on 31 January 2015.[284] On 23 April 2015, an injunction filed in August 2014 involving 55 couples was successful after articles 137 and 273 of the state's Civil Code were declared unconstitutional. Another mass injunction is scheduled for May 2015.[285]

On 10 September 2014, it was announced that the legislature would be considering, in the present session, a civil unions bill, as the two prior injunctions obtained were insufficient to require Congress to evaluate same-sex marriage.[286] On 28 November 2014, Luis Bernardo Nava Guerrero, President of the Congressional Joint Commission, announced that the legislation would be postponed to 2015.[287] On 4 February 2016, the Youth Legislature 2016 approved a motion, in a 38-8 vote, expressing support for same-sex marriage.[288] On 13 June 2016, Eric Salas González, President of the Board of the LVIII Legislature of Querétaro, announced that the Congress of Querétaro would wait until same-sex marriage is legislated at the federal level before changing the Queretan Civil Code.[289]

On 21 July 2015, the civil registrar of the municipality of Santiago de Querétaro, which comprises around 40% of the state's population, announced that same-sex coupes may marry in the municipality without the need for an amparo.[290]

Quintana Roo[edit]

Same-sex marriages can be performed in Quintana Roo after a decision by the state's Secretary of State.[11] In November 2011, some public officials in the state began performing same-sex marriages after reviewing the state's civil code. The Civil Code of Quintana Roo does not state sex or gender requirements for marriage, only specifying "people interested in getting married".[9] A same-sex couple filed for a marriage license in Cancún and Chetumal after discovering this legal quirk, but both cities rejected their applications, arguing that a man-woman marriage was implied. The couple then applied in Lázaro Cárdenas Municipality, where authorities accepted the application. Quintana Roo's first two same-sex marriages were held in the community of Kantunilkin on 28 November 2011.[291]

In November 2014, it was announced that a bill to officially legalize same-sex marriage in the state would be introduced and voted on in the current legislative session, thereby replacing the loophole used by couples.[292]

San Luis Potosí[edit]

On 28 April 2014, a citizens initiative to legalize same-sex marriage was submitted to the Congress of San Luis Potosí. On 8 August 2014, the Deputy Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights and Gender Equity, Miguel Maza Hernández said that analysis of the proposal would begin.[293] On June 17, 2015, Hernández announced the state's commitment to extending marriage to same-sex couples and stated that deliberations would happen after a June 2015 national Supreme Court ruling declaring all laws against same-sex marriage unconstitutional is published in the judicial gazette. Hernández added that although no laws preventing same-sex couples from adopting exist,[294] Congress would prefer to amend the Family Code to codify equal adoption rights along with adding a new marriage law.[295] On 6 June 2016, it was announced that a special committee would study the marriage bill and vote on it within 90 days. If the committee vote is negative, activists will file an action of unconstitutionality before the Mexican Supreme Court to nullify the state's statutory ban.[296]

In July 2013, a male same-sex couple applied under amparo 459/2014 for the right to marry. On 30 May 2014 the first district court found that Article 15 of the Family Code of San Luis Potosí was discriminatory and 3 June 2014[297] granted the couple an injunction to marry in the state.[298]

On 26 March 2014,[299] a male couple went to the registrar at San Luis Potosí, were refused marriage, and applied for an injunction 391/2014-III, which was approved 4 August 2014 by the 6th District Court.[300] On 7 August 2014, the First Official of the Civil Registry filed a counter-injunction to avoid recording the marriage.[301] In October 2014, the appeal was denied by the second Appellate Court of the Ninth Circuit and the registrar was ordered to conduct the marriage.[302] In November 2014, the State Commission of Human Rights (ECHR) announced that it was reviewing two complaints from parties who had received injunctions to marry but were being denied by the Civil Registry.[303]

In early September 2014, a lesbian couple applied for the first same-sex marriage license in Ciudad Valles and were advised that state law forbids their union and the previous amparo granted applied only to the couple previously approved.[304] An amparo involving 20 couples was granted in June 2016.[305]


In January 2013, the Family Code of the state of Sinaloa was changed to limit marriage or cohabitation to couples consisting of a man and a woman. Three injunctions were filed to contest the changes, but two were dismissed.[306] On 12 July 2013, Seventh District Judge Teddy Abraham Torres López, of Los Mochis, granted injunction 262/2013/1 ruling that the Legislature of the state must comply with its obligations of equality and non-discrimination.[307] The case was elevated to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, which on 15 April 2015 ruled against the state's Family Code citing discrimination.[308][309] Within the state, 7 gay couples are seeking injunctions against the Civil Registry—3 in Culiacán, 2 in Mazatlán, and 2 in Los Mochis.[310] On 24 September 2014,[311] the Supreme Court granted the 3 injunctions sought in Culiacán and declared Articles 40 and 165 of the Civil Code unconstitutional.[312] In mid-October 2014, 70 people from Mazatlán applied for an injunction in the Ninth District Court, which is the fourth Sinaloan injunction requested in the state.[313]

On 23 November 2014, it was announced that for the first time, the Supreme Court of the Nation extended concubinage to same-sex couples in response to an injunction requested by a lesbian couple.[314]

On 2 September 2014, the deputy Sandra Lara, launched an initiative to amend articles 40 and 165 of the Family Code and allow for same-sex marriage in the state.[315] On 7 October 2014, the first reading of the proposal occurred.[316] On 5 November 2014, the Party of Social Encounter (PES) introduced an initiative into the Sinaloan Congress to prevent same-sex couples from adopting children.[317] In February, 2015, the conservative National Action Party (PAN) introduced a civil unions bill which bans children of same-sex partners from residing with their same-sex parents.[318]

In March 2016, the First Chamber of the Mexican Supreme Court declared Articles 40 and 165 of the Family Code unconstitutional when it ruled against the state in two appeals Congress had filed against earlier verdicts in favor of several same-sex couples. The Supreme Court warned the state that if they did not modify the law then the Court would take measures similar to Jalisco's if it approved enough injunctions to create a jurisprudence. According to several news outlets, three similar rulings are required for the Supreme Court to invalidate Sinaloa's Family Code.[319] On 14 April 2016, a prominent member of Sinaloa's Congress stated that the Legislature would modify the Family Code, but did not give any indication of when that would happen.[320] On 24 May 2016, the President of the Political Coordination Board of Sinaloa' State Congress announced that a bill allowing for same-sex marriage to be legal will be voted upon in the upcoming days.[321]


Same-sex couples could marry only with the assistance of an amparo (court order) until 11 May 2016, when the Director of the State Civil Registry, Martha Julissa Bojórquez Castillo, announced that same-sex couples could begin marrying in the state without the need for an amparo.[322] However, on 18 May 2016 the Governor ordered all civil registries in the state to retain the existing statutory ban on same-sex marriage and only provide same-sex couples with marriage certificates if they successfully received an amparo.


After Mexico City's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and LGBT adoption in December 2009, debate resurged in states where civil unions had been previously proposed. In 2009 in the southeastern state of Tabasco, 20 same-sex couples sent a motion to the state legislature asking to allow them to marry.[323] The state's largest political parties, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced their support for same-sex marriage in the 2010 agenda.[324] Despite the support of political parties, there was no legislative will to change the law, so in April 2014 an initiative to reform Article 154 of the Civil Code of the State of Tabasco was presented by the organization Tabasqueños United for Diversity and Sexual Health (Tudysex) to legalize same-sex marriage in Tabasco.[325] In May 2014, the PRD announced that they would be willing to consider civil unions in Tabasco.[326] PRD submitted a same-sex marriage and adoption bill on 3 July 2015.[327] On 18 May 2016, a member of the State Congress announced there is consensus in Congress to approve the bill submitted by the PRD.[328]

According to a social media post by Alex Ali Mendez, lead attorney for Matrimonio Igualitario México, an amparo for Tabasco was prepared 20 January 2014.[329][330]

On 18 February 2015, the local newspaper announced that the first same-sex marriage had occurred on 13 February after a legal appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice.[331]


In June 2015, Deputy Olga Sosa Ruiz confirmed that the Congress of Tamaulipas was working on a bill to legalize same-sex marriage. She stated that the reform is complex as they are attempting to remove all discriminatory terms and are working with the gender equality commission awaiting input from the commission of vulnerable groups. She predicted that the law would be passed within the next legislative session.[332]

In 2011, a bill to provide "coexistence" for same-sex couples was promoted by local organizations in Tamaulipas.[333] In 2012, organizers presented legislators with 25,000 signatures in favor of same-sex marriage.[334] In 2013 the PRD agreed to bring the issue to the legislature and support the proposal.[335] As there appeared to be no legislative desire to act, activists in June 2014 planned to organize a group of LGBT community members to begin the injunction process for marriage in Tamaulipas.[336] On 27 June 2014, an Indirect Collective Amparo challenging the constitutionality of the Civil Code Articles 124 and 43 of the State of Tamaulipas was filed in the Nineteenth Circuit Court.[337][338] 57 persons were granted the right to marry in Tamaulipas on 1 October 2014 by federal judges in both the Third District Court based in Nuevo Laredo and the Ninth District court, based in Tampico. The state has 10 days to file an appeal. This was the first time that an injunction has been sought for individuals rather than just couples. Should any of the single parties wish to marry, their partners will be covered.[339] It was also announced by the attorneys representing those seeking injunction, that an additional 68 persons had requested another collective injunction from Tampico.[340][341] 80 persons interested in a collective injunction in Matamoros filed in early October 2014.[342] The amparo for 68 couples filed in Tampico was approved 26 March 2015.[343] On 23 May 2016, another amparo was granted to two women who successfully challenged the civil registry's refusal to allow them to legally marry.[344] This amparo was Tamaulipas' fifth and as such the state's same-sex marriage ban in its Civil Code is now inoperable.


Two bills were presented to the Tlaxcala Congress on 2 October 2009 to legalize same-sex marriage and eliminate discrimination.[345] The initiative was blocked in 2010 by officials [346] and in fact, the state, along with officials from Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos and Sonora, sent a formal challenge to the acceptance of same-sex marriage passed by the Federal District.[347] In June 2011, activists questioned why no action had been taken and were told that the initiatives were still "climbing the roster."[348][349] In February 2014, a PRD deputy, Eréndira Montiel Jiménez, promised to present new initiatives to eradicate discrimination and for a law of coexistence.[350] The proposed law, introduced on 3 April 2014, outlined the legal framework to eliminate discrimination, to develop a form of coexistence "that has the purpose of marriage or concubinage," and to amend rules of adoption.[351] In June 2014, activists urged Congress to act in favor of same-sex marriages and anti-discrimination ordinances which had been submitted by Montiel Jiménez.[352] President of the Committee for Gender Equality and Anti-Trafficking of Persons of the Congress of Tlxacala, María Antonieta Stankiewicz Ramírez, announced that a same-sex marriage bill will be debated within the committee sometime in July 2016.[353]

In June 2015, it was announced that since the SCJN's ruling, 15 couples have gone to the Civil Registry in Tlaxcala asking to marry. All have been rejected per state law. The State Commission for Human Rights (ECHR) is helping a lesbian couple with the amparo process and advised that they will assist others in obtaining injunctions.[354] On 18 January 2016, the first marriage via amparo took place in Tlaxcala. The lesbian couple had applied in June 2015, were denied approval, and were granted the amparo only after the State Commission of Human Rights (ECHR) interceded on their behalf.[355]


In March 2014, Cuauhtémoc Pola, deputy MP of "Citizens Movement," presented an initiative to introduce a Partnership of Coexistence law for Veracruz, but no legislative action occurred.[356] In July 2014 a federal judge deemed the current marriage law of Veracruz to be discriminatory.[357] Due to lack of action on the civil unions bill and the federal ruling, Cuauhtémoc Pola introduced to Congress on 31 July 2014 a reform initiative to amend Article 75 of the Civil Code and legalize same-sex marriage.[358] In September 2014 Pola confirmed that the bill was still awaiting review by committees.[359] In April 2015, citing disappointment with the stalled civil unions bill, the President of Veracruz's Human Rights Committee announced an intention to hand Congress a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[360] In July 2016, deputy Mónica Robles Barajas (PVEM) submitted a new initiative to change article 75 of the state Civil Code in order to legalize same-sex marriage.[361]

In February 2014, a male same-sex couple applied for a marriage license at the Civil Registry in Veracruz and were denied. They filed for an injunction[362] which was granted 22 July 2014.[363] Despite the approval the registrar in Veracruz refused to schedule a ceremony for the couple. After presenting their injunction to the registrar in Boca del Río, the wedding was scheduled for 6 December 2014.[362] The ceremony was conducted at the Civil Registry and it was announced that a second wedding for a lesbian couple is being planned.[364] On 29 January 2015, it was announced that a lesbian couple had won an injunction and would be married in the state on 4 April 2015.[365] It was also announced that there are 8 other pending amparos.[366] On 18 June 2015 the civil registrar of the municipality of Veracruz reported that four same-sex couples requested to marry and were denied due to constitutional prohibitions. The couples were advised they must file an amparo.[367] On 16 May 2016, a local LGBT group, Comunidad Jarochos, announced that the four same-sex couples have filed an amparo.[368] On 26 May 2016, the injunctions of three more same-sex couples (two lesbian couples and one gay couple) was granted, taking the number of granted injunctions in the state to seven.[369]


In the southeastern state of Yucatán, the local Congress overwhelmingly approved a ban on same-sex marriage in a 24–1 vote on 21 July 2009. The law raised heterosexual marriage and families to the constitutional level via the approval of amendments to the state's Civil Code. The bill was promoted by right-wing organization Pro Yucatán Network to reject all efforts by people of the same sex to form a family and adopt children. PAN politicians justified the ban alleging that "there still aren't adequate conditions within Yucatán society to allow for unions between people of the same sex."[370] The event led to protests outside the local Congress by LGBT organizations, whose leaders were expected to appeal the case to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.[371]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 14 14
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 9 9
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 1 1
PT Party (Mexico).svg Labor Party / CON Party (Mexico).svg Convergence 1 1
Total 25 24 1

On 26 March 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registar of Yucatán to marry. The Civil Registar rejected the bid saying that the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. The couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 1 July the Third District Court of the Yucatán State recognized that they have the right to marry. Since the Civil registrar did not appeal the District Court decision the order (amparo) will take effect.[372] [373]

Four male couples and two lesbian couples went to the civil registry office on 14 August 2013 to request to be married and were denied. They applied for individual injunctions and 3 of them were approved on 4 and 15 November and 17 December 2013 by the Courts in the First, Fourth and Third District, respectively. Both of the lesbian couples and one male couple were approved.[374] On 6 January 2014 the first lesbian marriage in Yucatán took place.[375] The second lesbian couple married on 25 January 2014.[376][377] On 18 February 2014, the male couple wed at the Civil Registry of Mérida.[378]

On 17 May 2014 a group of civil society organizations brought a legal action before the Constitutional Court of the State under the guise of "correcting a legislative omission." It was the first time a mechanism to correct an omission had been used in the nation as the basis of a suit. The organizations claimed 10 injunctions had been approved in the state without legislative action. The suit asked for Articles 49 and 94 of the Family Code which limits marriage to one man and one woman to be "considered in the broadest sense and that the gender of its members be undefined."[379] On 26 February 2015, the Constitutional Court of the State of Yucatán announced that it will decide on 2 March whether state prohibitions against same-sex marriage are in violation of the federal constitution and international agreements.[380] On 2 March 2015, the Constitutional Court of Yucatán dismissed the appeal for constitutional action to change the Civil Code. Supporters of amending the code have promised to appeal the decision.[381] In June 2015, they filed a lawsuit against the state's constitutional court in federal court. The suit contends that the constitutional court erred in their decision as the Mexican Constitution states that discrimination against the LGBT community is banned.[382]

In June 2015, a lesbian couple, who married in Yucatán in 2014 via amparo, obtained an injunction to register the birth of their son with both mother's names. They had attempted to register the birth six months earlier and were denied.[383]

On 24 May 2016, a prominent member of Yucatán's state Congress stated that Yucatán would wait for the Federal Congress to legislate on same-sex marriage before the state takes the proper steps to legalize it.[384]


A proposal for civil unions was submitted to the Congress of Zacatecas on 30 June 2011 [385] and lawmakers admitted in 2013 that it was not prioritized.[386] In March 2014, legislators again refused to approve the measure.[387]

On 18 June 2015, a member of PRD announced that she will submit a bill to reform the state's Civil and Family Codes to give same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual married couples.[388]

The first injunction filed by a same-sex couple in the state was approved in May 2016.[389]

Public opinion[edit]

In a Parametría poll, conducted from 17 to 20 November 2006, 1,200 Mexican adults were asked if they would support a constitutional amendment that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico. 17% responded yes, 61% said no and 14% had no opinion. The same poll showed 28% in support of same-sex civil unions, 41% were opposed and 28% had no opinion.[390] From 27 to 30 November 2009, major Mexican newspaper El Universal polled 1,000 Mexico City citizens concerning the legalization of same-sex marriage in the city. 50% supported it, 38% were against it and 12% had no idea. The same poll showed that support was stronger among the youngest population (age: 18–29), 67%, and weaker among the oldest (age: 50-onwards), 38%. With 48% the most cited reason was "right of choice" for the supporters, followed by "everybody is equal" with 14%. 39% of the opposers cited "it is not normal" as the main reason to not support same-sex marriage, followed by "we lose values" with 18%.[391]

Guillermo Bustamante Manilla, a PAN member and president of UNPF, as well as the father of Guillermo Bustamante Artasánchez, a law director of the Secretary of the Interior, opposes abortion and same-sex civil unions[392] and has called the latter as "anti-natural."[393] He has publicly asked voters not to cast votes for "abortionists" parties and those who are in favor of homosexual relationships.[394]

A study conducted by Vanderbilt University in 2010 concluded that 37.8% of Mexicans support same-sex marriage.[395]

A poll conducted in July 2013 found a significant increase in support for same-sex marriage, with 52% of Mexicans in favour of legalising same-sex marriage. When broken down by religion, support was 52% among Roman Catholics and 62% among non-religious people. However, in the same poll, only 24% of respondents supported same-sex adoption.[396]

According to Pew Research Center survey, conducted between October 30 and November 12, 2013, 49% of Mexicans supported same-sex marriage, 43% were opposed.[397][398]

In early 2014 the Strategic Communication Cabinet, a statistical consulting services company, published a report called "Social Intolerance In Mexico",[399] in which polls that covered several social issues were conducted in the 45 largest cities and municipalities. The study found that the strongest support for same-sex marriages was registered in Mexico City, Tijuana, San Luis Potosí, Colima and La Paz; whereas it was the weakest in Durango, Ciudad Victoria, Aguascalientes, Chihuahua and Monterrey. Additionally, adoption by same-sex couples was more widely accepted in Mexico City, the border cities of Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, as well as Xalapa and Cancun; meanwhile the least support was found in Chihuahua, Guadalajara, Aguascalientes, Durango and Campeche.

Following President Enrique Peña Nieto's proposal to legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico, a poll on the issue was carried out by Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica. 69% of respondents were in favor of the change. 64% said they saw it as an advance in the recognition of human rights. Public opinion has changed radically over the course of 16 years. In 2000, 62% felt that same-sex marriage should not be allowed under any circumstances. Today, only 25% feel that way.[400]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Government of Canada (29 April 2008). "Marriage and Divorce in Mexico". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  2. ^ "Legalizan bodas gays en Campeche". SDP Noticias. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Jalisco, cuna de charros y tequila, da primer paso hacia el matrimonio gay" (in Spanish). CNN México. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  4. ^ (Spanish) Aprueban Código Familiar en Michoacán; no incluye matrimonios gay
  5. ^ Agren, David (10 August 2010). "Mexican States Ordered to Honor Gay Marriages". New York Times. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Mónica Archundia (5 January 2010). "La primera unión gay, para marzo" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "Mexican court upholds capital's gay marriage law". United States.: The Daily Caller. AP. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  8. ^ Carlos Áviles Allende (10 August 2010). "Ratifica corte, bodas gay, válidas en todo el país" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  9. ^ Santana, Rosa (17 April 2012). "Anula gobernador de Quintana Roo dos bodas gay; lo acusan de homofóbico". Proceso (in Spanish). Comunicación e Información, S.A. de C.V. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Varillas, Adriana (3 May 2012). "Revocan anulación de bodas gay en QRoo" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court rules for marriage equality". 2012-12-06. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  12. ^ J. Lester Feder (2013-02-18). "Mexican Supreme Court: American Cases Demand Marriage Equality". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  14. ^ "Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  15. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court rules against marriage ban". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  16. ^ "Legal el matrimonios de personas del mismo sexo". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  17. ^ Salud (2013-02-22). "En Puebla, matrimonio homosexual gana amparo contra IMSS". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  18. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court rules on gay partner benefits". 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  19. ^ Langner, Ana (29 January 2014). "Matrimonios gay, con igual derecho de afiliación al IMSS" (in Spanish). Mexico: Periódico El Economista. 
  20. ^ "Mexico supreme court says state laws limiting marriage to man and woman unconstitutional". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 12 June 2015. 
  21. ^ "Suprema Corte ampara matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Mexico: Animal Politico. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  22. ^ "SCJN abre la puerta a matrimonio gay en todo el país" (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: La Journada. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  23. ^ "México avalará el matrimonio gay a partir del lunes". El Universo. 
  24. ^ "Mexico is the latest Latin American country to introduce marriage for same-sex couples". The Independent. 16 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "With Little Fanfare, Mexican Supreme Court Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage". New York Times. 16 June 2015. 
  26. ^ "Organizaciones civiles demandan a tribunal de Yucatán por obstaculizar el matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). Mérida, Mexico: Animo Politico. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  27. ^ "Puebla entre los estados que violan la Constitución por impedir matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: Periodico Central. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  28. ^ Rodríguez Castro, Óscar (14 June 2014). "Genera división de opiniones aprobación de la SCJN a la legalización de la unión entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Mexico: El Diario de Delicias. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  29. ^ Por José Antonio Román. "Emite CNDH recomendación general para permitir matrimonio gay — La Jornada" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  30. ^ "Mexican president proposes legalizing gay marriage". Associated Press. 18 May 2016. 
  31. ^ "Oficio con el que remite Iniciativa de decreto por el que se reforma el primer párrafo del artículo 4º de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (in Spanish). Senate of Mexico. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  32. ^ "Oficio con el que remite Iniciativa de decreto por el que se reforman, adicionan y derogan diversas disposiciones del Código Civil Federal" (in Spanish). Senate of Mexico. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  33. ^ "Iniciativa sobre matrimonio igualitario se discutirá en septiembre: Ordoñez". Noticias MVS. 19 June 2016. 
  34. ^ Latin American Herald Tribune (16 March 2009). "First Openly Gay Mayoral Candidate Runs in Mexico". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  35. ^ a b c Erich Adolfo Moncada Cota (19 November 2006). "Mexico City Approves Same Sex Unions". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  36. ^ a b New York Times (17 March 2007). "A Milestone in Mexico City". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  37. ^ Fernando Martínez (25 December 2009). "Sociedades de convivencia, 97% en pie" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  38. ^ "Discriminatorio, artículo 21 de Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia: SCJN". La Jornada. 
  39. ^ Latin American Herald Tribune (24 November 2009). "Mexico City Lawmakers to Consider Gay Marriage". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  40. ^ Mónica Archundia (25 November 2009). "Proyecto de matrimonio gay "divorcia" a la ALDF" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  41. ^ Anodis (11 December 2009). "Preparan dictamen de matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  42. ^ Horacio Jiménez y Ella Grajeda (16 December 2009). "PAN amaga con impedir bodas gay" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  43. ^ Notimex (15 December 2009). "Recurrirá PAN a Corte de legalizarse 'matrimonio' entre homosexuales" (in Spanish). Yahoo! México. Retrieved 16 December 2009. [dead link]
  44. ^ Rocío González Alvarado (18 December 2009). "Rechaza ALDF referéndum para bodas gay" (in Spanish). La Jornada. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  45. ^ "Mexico City 1st in region to approve gay marriage". Associated Press. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  46. ^ a b "Mexico City assembly legalizes same-sex marriage". Associated Press. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  47. ^ Mark Stevenson (Associated Press) (29 December 2009). "Mexico City enacts region's 1st gay marriage law". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2010-01-02. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  48. ^ "Ratifica Corte: bodas gay, vбlidas en el paнs". El Universal. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  49. ^ Itzel Acero (2014-05-16). "Anuncian la primera solicitud de matrimonio igualitario en Aguascalientes &#124". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  50. ^ "Interponen amparo para primer matrimonio gay en Aguascalientes &#124" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  51. ^ "Obtiene pareja gay amparo federal". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  52. ^ "Interponen amparo para primer matrimonio gay en Aguascalientes" (in Spanish). 2014-05-15. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  53. ^ "Realizarían en octubre doble boda 'gay' en Querétaro". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  54. ^ "Matrimonio gay Será un Hecho en el Estado: Colectivo SerGay | Página 24". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  55. ^ 04 Sep, 2014 Print this article Font size -16+ (2013-10-17). "Ya se Podrá Realizar la Primera Boda Homosexual en Aguascalientes". La voz de la nacion. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  56. ^ "Confía comunidad gay de Aguascalientes en la viabilidad de matrimonios entre parejas del mismo sexo". Aguasdigital. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  57. ^ "El Registro Civil ha recibido 9 solicitudes de matrimonio gay". El Heraldo - Noticias de Aguascalientes. 30 May 2016. 
  58. ^ Itzel Acero (2015-02-17). "Se debe legislar en cuanto a las sociedades de convivencia y matrimonio igualitario". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  59. ^ "Presentará PRD iniciativa de unión civil para parejas del mismo sexo". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  60. ^ Carlos Alonso López (2014-11-18). "Tiene el Poder Legislativo tres iniciativas sobre matrimonio igualitario". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  61. ^ Huerta, Alejandra (15 June 2016). "Prepara PAN figura alternativa a matrimonios igualitarios". La Jornada Aguascalientes. 
  62. ^ a b "Initiative to change article 7 of the Constitution" (PDF). Congress of Baja California. 2015-02-12. 
  63. ^ "Mexico's Supreme Court backs gay marriage in Baja California". 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  64. ^ "Listado de Comunicados". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  65. ^ comScore (2012-02-07). "Demanda de amparo contra gobernador y alcaldes por matrimonios gays - Baja California". Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  66. ^ "Mexico: Baja California Congress may legalize gay marriage". San Diego Gay & Lesbian News. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  67. ^ "Lista la modificación para matrimonio gay". 
  68. ^ UniradioInforma. "Sin fecha de matrimonio segunda pareja homosexual". 
  69. ^ Lorena Lamas. "Ordena juzgado al ayuntamiento de Ensenada permitir boda gay". Semanario ZETA. 
  70. ^ "Ensenada también permitirá matrimonio entre dos hombres que se ampararon ante la SCJN". 
  71. ^ UniradioInforma. "Víctor y Fernando los primeros en casarse en Baja California". 
  72. ^ "Víctor y Víctor: Primer matrimonio gay en Baja California". 
  73. ^ "Víctor y Fernando en la primera boda gay". 
  74. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court Rules Against Same-Sex Marriage Ban". Washington Blade. 25 June 2014. 
  75. ^ Gabriela Martinez. "Registro Civil de Mexicali acepta casar a pareja gay". Infobaja. 
  76. ^ UniMexicali. "Amenaza de bomba y 'desacato' impiden boda gay - Baja California". 
  77. ^ "UPDATED! Chaos ensues when Baja California's first gay marriage is denied". San Diego Gay and Lesbian News. 
  78. ^ "Nueva fecha para boda entre personas de mismo sexo en BC". Expresiones (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. 
  79. ^ "Por cuarta vez impiden primera boda gay en Baja California; "están locos", los denuncian". Animal Político. 
  80. ^ "Prevén los matrimonios gay, si llenan requisitos". 
  81. ^ García, Jayme (14 January 2015). "Pareja gay ya puede casarse en Ensenada". Frontera. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  82. ^ "Demandan al alcalde de Mexicali por impedir la primera boda gay pese a un fallo de la Suprema Corte". Animal Político. 
  83. ^ "Mexicali y la democracia que quisieron frenar.". México Igualitario. 
  84. ^ "Celebra Baja California su primer matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo". 
  85. ^ UniradioInforma. "Mexicali interpone recurso legal contra matrimonios gay". 
  86. ^ Martinez, Yerson (4 January 2015). "Dan amparo a pareja gay; tiene aún recurso autoridad". Frontera. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  87. ^ "Niegan en Tijuana boda a una pareja de mujeres". 
  88. ^ Andrade, Luis Gerardo (22 January 2015). "Pareja gay intenta casarse en Ayuntamiento". Frontera. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  89. ^ Molina, Óscar (26 August 2014). "Presentarán tres amparos más para lograr jurisprudencia en bodas gay". La Cronica. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  90. ^ "Programan tercer matrimonio gay en Mexicali; 2 mujeres" (in Spanish). 13 May 2016. 
  91. ^ Ramírez, Saúl Alejandro (15 June 2015). "10 parejas del mismo sexo han solicitado matrimonio ante Registro Civil de Tijuana" (in Spanish). Tijuana, Mexico: Zeta Tijuana. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  92. ^ @MX_Igualitario ganó otro amparo colectivo en Baja California a favor del #MatrimonioIgualitario
  93. ^ "Activistas de Baja California Sur proponen matrimonio gay en la entidad". 
  94. ^ "BCS, lejos del matrimonio gay". Peninsular Digital. 
  95. ^ "No debe tomarse a la ligera la aprobación de los matrimonios gay". Peninsular Digital. 
  96. ^ Antonio de Jesús Cervantes. "Matrimonio igualitario no está en agenda del Congreso local". Semanario ZETA. 
  97. ^ "El Tribunal Superior propuso la legalización del matrimonio gay en BCS". BCS Noticias. 
  98. ^ "En mayo legislarán sobre matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo". Peninsular Digital. 
  99. ^ "Este año quedarán homologados los matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Peninsular Digital. 17 May 2016. 
  100. ^ "Se amparan 18 personas por el matrimonio gay en BCS; buscan la adopción". BCS Noticias. 
  101. ^ Resuelve Primera Sala asuntos sobre violencia de género y no discriminación
  102. ^ "Sentencian a favor del matrimonio igualitario en BCS". 
  103. ^ "SCJN permite el matrimonio gay en Baja California Sur". BCS Noticias. 
  104. ^ "Insistirán en legalizar el matrimonio igualitario en BCS". 
  105. ^ "Gana segundo amparo comunidad LGBT en BCS; se alistan cuatro matrimonios". 
  106. ^ IV Sesión
  107. ^ "Aprueba Campeche la Ley de Sociedades Civiles de Convivencia". La Jornada. 
  108. ^ Entra en vigor Ley de Matrimonios Igualitarios
  109. ^ "Mexico: Campeche Becomes 7th Mexican State with Same-Sex Marriage". The Perchy Bird Blog. 10 May 2016. 
  110. ^ "Rechaza Congreso de Chiapas iniciativa ciudadana para legalizar matrimonio homosexual". Your Site NAME Goes HERE. 
  111. ^ "Photoimage of document" (JPG). Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  112. ^ Hermes Chávez. "Gana colectivo gay amparo para celebrar bodas en Chiapas". Milenio. 
  113. ^ "51 chiapanecos esperan fallo para contraer matrimonio igualitario". Oye Chiapas. 5 May 2016. 
  114. ^ "Se realiza el primer matrimonio igualitario en Chiapas". Alerta Chiapas. 4 May 2016. 
  115. ^ Legislar a fondo en torno a Matrimonios Igualitarios
  116. ^ Consensan iniciativa para unión legal entre personas del mismo sexo
  117. ^ "Segunda pareja gay gana amparo para boda en Ciudad Juárez". ElPueblo. 
  118. ^ "Amparos para matrimonios gay costaron 30 mil pesos". ElPueblo Mexico. 
  119. ^ "Gays de Chihuahua buscarán legalizar Matrimonio Igualitario vía amparo colectivo". 
  120. ^ "Boy4ME - Gays de Chihuahua buscarán legalizar el Matrimonio Igualitario vía amparo colectivo". 
  121. ^ Patricia Mayorga
    El Diario (13 November 2014). "Gana comunidad gay amparo a favor de matrimonio igualitario".
  122. ^ "Juez del Estado mexicano de Chihuahua ordena legalizar el matrimonio igualitario". Cscara amarga. 
  123. ^ Salmón Aguilera, Alejandro (18 June 2015). "Propone AN elevar a rango constitucional el matrimonio hombre con mujer" (in Spanish). Chihuahua, Mexico: La Cronica de Chihuahua. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  124. ^ Lavers, Michael K. (12 June 2015). "Mexican state to allow same-sex marriage". Washington Blade. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  125. ^ Morgan, Joe (12 June 2015). "Mexico state of Chihuahua officially approves same-sex marriage". London: Gay Star News. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  126. ^ BBC News (10 November 2006). "Mexico City passes gay union law". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  127. ^ S. Lynne Walker (5 March 2007). "New law propels gay rights in Mexico". Mail & Guardian Online. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  128. ^ Mail & Guardian Online (13 January 2007). "Mexican state approves gay civil unions". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  129. ^ "Mexico's first civil union". UK & Ireland. Associated Press. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 30 May 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  130. ^ "Congreso de Coahuila inicia discusión sobre matrimonio gay". 
  131. ^ "Aprueban adopción gay en Coahuila". 
  132. ^ "Aprueban matrimonios gay en Coahuila". 1 September 2014. 
  133. ^ "Legales desde hoy matrimonios entre homosexuales en Coahuila". Vanguardia. 17 September 2014. 
  134. ^ "First Gay Couple Marries In Coahuila, Mexico". On Top Magazine. 21 September 2014. 
  135. ^ Verónica González (30 July 2009). "Proponen en Colima ley en favor de gays" (in Spanish). La Jornada. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  136. ^ Francisco Iglesias (15 August 2009). "Debaten en Colima Sociedades de Convivencia, la rechazan la mayoría" (in Spanish). Milenio. Retrieved 15 December 2009. [dead link]
  137. ^ El Universal (23 December 2009). "Acepta gobernador de Colima debatir sobre sociedades en convivencia" (in Spanish). Yahoo! México. Retrieved 26 December 2009. [dead link]
  138. ^ Pedro Zamora Briseño (4 July 2013). "Aval en Colima a "enlace conyugal" entre parejas gay" (in Spanish). Proceso. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  139. ^ Flores, Juan Carlos (2016-05-25). "Aprueba congreso matrimonios igualitarios y protestan grupos conservadores". Colima Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-05-26. 
  140. ^ Colima aprueba matrimonio igualitario
  141. ^ "Ultima Hora: Por un voto de 24 a 0 Colima se convierte en el 9o estado de MEXICO que el #matrimoniogualitario
  142. ^ Anula Congreso Enlaces Conyugales
  143. ^ DECRETO No. 103 Colima, Col., Sábado 11 de Junio del año 2016
  144. ^ "Parejas del mismo sexo pueden adoptar en Colima: funcionario del DIF". Ángel Guardián. 14 June 2016. 
  145. ^ "Matrimonio gay sigue "congelado" en Durango". 
  146. ^ ""No acepto"; dicen legisladores de Durango al matrimonio gay". 
  147. ^ Silvia Ayala. "'Sin fondo' iniciativa para matrimonios gay en Durango". Milenio. 
  148. ^ "Promoverán matrimonios igualitarios en Durango". 
  149. ^ "Se celebra en Durango la primera boda gay". Periódico Contexto de Durango. 
  150. ^ "Se amparan 18 personas contra el Congreso para que se permitan uniones personas del mismo sexo". Departamento de Programación de Canal 10. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  151. ^ Silvia Ayala. "Durango se une contra las leyes "homofóbicas"". Milenio. 
  152. ^ "Ahora Diario – Rechazan amparo de matrimonio igualitario con "Argumentos homófogos": Comunidad Gay". Ahora Diario. 
  153. ^ "Responden a amparo de comunidad gay". 
  154. ^ "Resuelven en contra del matrimonio igualitario en Durango". Noticieros Garza Limon. 
  155. ^
  156. ^
  157. ^ "Pareja lésbica de Guanajuato obtiene amparo para contraer matrimonio". NotieSe. 19 September 2013. 
  158. ^ "Primera boda gay en #Guanajuato". Soy Vallense. 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  159. ^ "Lesbian Couple Marries In Mexican State Of Guanajuato". On Top Magazine. 20 March 2014. 
  160. ^ ALBERTO MARTÍNEZ (18 February 2014). "Amparo despierta interés en comunidad gay". 
  161. ^ "PRI apoyará a 45 parejas gays para que se casen en Guanajuato". 
  162. ^ "Estado - Asi Sucede Guanajuato - Page 55". 
  163. ^ "Periódico Correo Pareja 'gay' obtiene amparo para casarse". Periódico Correo. 
  164. ^ "Impiden a pareja gay casarse en plaza de León; lo hacen en pizzería". Proceso. 
  165. ^ "Promueven amparo para legalizar bodas gay en Guanajuato". Guanajuato Informa. 
  166. ^ UNIÓN GUANAJUATO, Redes de Información y Educación del Siglo XXI de EL UNIVERSAL y UNO TV. "PRD propone que Guanajuato permita matrimonios gay". 
  167. ^ UNIÓN GUANAJUATO, Redes de Información y Educación del Siglo XXI de EL UNIVERSAL y UNO TV. "PRI se suma a matrimonios gay en Guanajuato". 
  168. ^ "Ahora Congreso de Guanajuato va por "matrimonio" homosexual". Yo Influyo. 
  169. ^ Carmen Pizano. "Voto panista archiva iniciativas para legalizar el matrimonio gay en Guanajuato". ZonaFrancaMX. 
  170. ^ "Ayuntamiento de Guanajuato otorga amparo para matrimonio gay". Radio Fórmula Bajio. 29 April 2016. 
  171. ^ "En trámite, 13 amparos de parejas gay para casarse". El Sol de León. 29 April 2016. 
  172. ^ "Juez federal ordena boda gay en Guanajuato". Proceso. 27 May 2016. 
  173. ^ La Jornada. "A partir de julio, en Guerrero se permitirá casarse a parejas del mismo sexo". Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  174. ^ "Recibe el Congreso iniciativa que permitirá matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Acapulco, Mexico: El Sur Periódico de Guerrerro y Acapulco. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  175. ^ "Se casan 20 parejas en boda colectiva de personas del mismo sexo en Guerrero" (in Spanish). Acapulco, Mexico: El Sur. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  176. ^
  177. ^ Pueden casarse parejas del mismo sexo en las bodas del Día del Amor, informa el Registro Civil
  178. ^
  179. ^ Promueve Iglesia ataques de homofobia, señala comunidad gay
  180. ^ "Presentan iniciativa de Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia para Hidalgo". 
  181. ^ "El Universal - - Hidalgo no legislar bodas gay". 19 June 2013. 
  182. ^ "Matrimonios gay dependen de "madurez" - Criterio - Hidalgo". 
  183. ^ Gisselle Acevedo. "Se amparan en Hidalgo para realizar bodas gay". Milenio. 
  184. ^ Ya hay fecha para el primer matrimonio gay en Hidalgo
  185. ^ a b "Jalisco aprueba ley para uniones gay... pero recortada". Animal Político. Elephant Publishing, LLC. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  186. ^ a b "Acuerdo PRD-PRI, clave para aprobar Libre Convivencia" (in Spanish). El Informador. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  187. ^ Same sex civil unions now approved in Jalisco - but they won't be called marriage
  188. ^ Inconstitucional, prohibir matrimonio gay en Jalisco: SCJN
  189. ^ MEXICO: Same-Sex Marriage Legalized In Jalisco State After Unanimous Ruling By Supreme Court
  192. ^ (Spanish) Quieren gays adopter
  193. ^ "Exhortan a Ejecutivo a cumplir con matrimonios gays" (in Spanish). El Informador. 12 May 2016. 
  194. ^ Acata Congreso resolución de SCJN sobre matrimonios igualitarios
  195. ^ "Plana Mayor - Periodismo que se Escribe". 
  196. ^ "PRD insistirá en legalizar matrimonio gay en Edomex". 
  197. ^ "Políticos solo hablan de la diversidad sexual en tiempos de campaña". Al Momento Noticias. 
  198. ^ "Denuncian "limbo" judicial de la PGJ del Edomex en crímenes contra gays". Al Momento Noticias. 
  199. ^ DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S.A. de C.V. "La Jornada: Plantean regular bodas y adopción por parte de gays". 
  200. ^ Edomex aprobará matrimonio igualitario el 31 de mayo
  201. ^ "Saldrá adelante matrimonio gay en Edoméx: Manzur". 31 May 2016. 
  202. ^ "Parejas gays sueñan con casarse". El Universal EdoMex. 
  203. ^ [1]
  204. ^ Editor Portal. "Persiste lucha de la comunidad LGBT por derecho al matrimonio". Portal - Diario del Estado de Mexico. 
  205. ^ "Aplazan 10 días amparo de cuatro parejas gay de Toluca para casarse". 
  206. ^ Redacción Plana Mayor. "Reconoce SCJN matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Edomex; ordena modificar legislación". 
  207. ^ "Celebran primer matrimonio homosexual en Edo. de México" (in Spanish). Etcétera. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  208. ^ Añadirán al Código Familiar del estado la figura de “sociedades de convivencia”
  209. ^ "Aprueban Código Familiar en Michoacán; no incluye matrimonios gay". Quadratín. 
  211. ^ Con el matrimonio igualitario Michoacán libra una batalla de activismo ideológico y jurídico
  212. ^ Reforman el Código Familiar del Estado
  213. ^ "A partir de mayo podrían contraer matrimonio parejas homosexuales en Michoacán". Cambio de Michoacán. 26 April 2016. 
  214. ^ Diputados aprueban matrimonios igualitarios en Michoacán
  215. ^ Aprueban en el Congreso de Michoacán el matrimonio igualitario
  216. ^ Ahora sí, Michoacán entre los 8 estados que permiten matrimonios igualitarios
  217. ^ Aprueba Morelos matrimonio igualitario
  218. ^ Mexico: Morelos Approves Same-Sex Marriage Bill
  219. ^ “Cuau” suspende cabildo por protesta contra matrimonio igualitario
  220. ^ "Pide Edwin Brito a cabildos votar sin prejuicios sobre matrimonio igualitario". La Unión de Morelos. 4 June 2016. 
  221. ^ Emite Congreso declaratoria de validez de reforma constitucional que permitirá el matrimonio igualitario en Morelos
  222. ^ "Anuncian diputados que municipios aprobaron matrimonio igualitario en Morelos". Zona Centro Noticias. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016. 
  223. ^ (Spanish) Morelos promulga Matrimonio Igualitario
  224. ^ (Spanish) PERIÓDICO OFICIAL “TIERRA Y LIBERTAD” 04 de julio de 2016
  225. ^ Abren adopciones a matrimonios gay
  226. ^ Iniciativa con proyecto de decreto, que reforma diversas disposiciones del Código Civil para el Estado de Nayarit, para reconocer el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo
  227. ^ "Aprueba el Congreso de Nayarit los matrimonios gay" (in Spanish). La Jornada. December 17, 2015. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  228. ^ Fourth Mexico state legalizes gay marriage
  229. ^ "Periodico Oficial, Organo Del Gobierno Del Estado De Nayarit" (PDF). 22 December 2015. 
  230. ^ Gerardo Herrera (30 December 2015). "Nayarit tiene matrimonio igualitario". Quadratin. 
  231. ^ Daniela Mendoza y Reynaldo Ochoa. "Amparo abre puerta al matrimonio gay en NL". Milenio. 
  232. ^ adminbarrio. "Con los excluidos del Congreso de Nuevo León". El Barrio Antiguo. 
  233. ^ "Pareja homosexual pide apoyo a CEDH para casarse en NL". Terra. 4 December 2013. 
  234. ^ Prensa. "Registro Civil incumple con respuesta oficial a pareja gay en Nuevo León, México". OrbitaGay. 
  235. ^ "Sí hay bodas gay en NL". Periódico ABC. 
  236. ^ Daniela Mendoza Luna. "Con amparo luchan por matrimonios igualitarios". Milenio. 
  237. ^ Daniela Mendoza. "Juzgado abre la puerta a 48 bodas gay en NL". Milenio. 
  238. ^ Huerta, Erik (26 March 2015). "Ganan Amparo para matrimonios gay" (in Spanish). El Mañana. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  239. ^ "Ordena la Corte a El Bronco reconocer concubinato gay" (in Spanish). Proceso. 17 February 2016. 
  240. ^ "Presentan iniciativa que permita matrimonio gay en NL". Periódico ABC. 
  241. ^ "Alistan discusión de matrimonio igualitario en NL". 16 May 2016. 
  242. ^ "Mexican judge orders state to perform homosexual 'marriages'". 23 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  243. ^ "Mexico Supreme Court Rules In Favor Of Marriage Equality". ThinkProgress. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  244. ^ a b "Todo listo para el primer matrimonio homosexual en Oaxaca". 
  245. ^ "Abren puerta al matrimonio universal en Oaxaca". 
  246. ^ a b "Notifica Corte segundo amparo sobre matrimonio universal en Oaxaca". 
  247. ^ "Oaxaca celebra su primer matrimonio gay tras un amparo de la Suprema Corte". 28 March 2013. 
  248. ^ "Suprema Corte avala segundo matrimonio gay en Oaxaca". Animal Político. 
  249. ^ "La SCJN declara inconstitucional prohibición del matrimonio gay en Oaxaca" (in Spanish). CNN México. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  250. ^ "Al menos cuatro parejas gay se han casado en Oaxaca". 
  251. ^ (Spanish) Pareja gay gana amparo y podrá casarse en Tuxtepec; cuatro más se motivan para contraer matrimonio
  252. ^ Alejrandro Velázquez (27 January 2007). "Más estados van por Ley de Convivencia" (in Spanish). Crónica. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  253. ^ "Iniciativa que expide la Ley de Sociedad de Convivencia para el Estado de Puebla". 
  254. ^ "Puebla - Ley de Sociedad de Convivencia - Poblanerías en línea". 
  255. ^ "Puebla no aprobará aborto, Leyes de Sociedades de Convivencia y Agnes". 
  256. ^ Congreso de Puebla no abordará despenalización del aborto y sociedades de convivencia
  257. ^ Lado B. "Presentan propuesta de Reforma de Ley Agnes Torres". 
  258. ^ Marchan en Puebla para exigir legislación que proteja los derechos de la población LGBTT
  259. ^ "Bloquea el Congreso durante cuatro legislaturas la despenalización del aborto". La Jornada de Oriente. 
  260. ^ Marisol Córdoba. "PRD propondrá legalizar aborto y sociedades de convivencia en Puebla". 
  261. ^ "PRD presenta ante el Congreso de Puebla inciativa para permitir el matromonio gay". 
  262. ^ "Hasta octubre el Congreso analizará matrimonio gay" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: Diario Cambio. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  263. ^ Olivera, Alejandra (26 June 2016). "Congreso de Puebla aprobará matrimonio gay hasta que SCJN lo "obligue"". Ángulo 7. 
  264. ^ Gay Couples In Mexico To Access Social Security, Health Benefits
  265. ^ Josué Cantorán. "Van por el matrimonio igualitario en Puebla". 
  266. ^ Staff Puebla On Line. "Homosexuales en Puebla iniciarán proceso jurídico para casarse". 
  267. ^ Interponen amparo para que se reconozcan matrimonios gay en Puebla
  268. ^ "Juez de Puebla viola el Protocolo contra homofobia de la SCJN". El Big Data. 
  269. ^ AMPARO EN REVISIÓN 48/2016
  270. ^ "SCJN reitera la constitucionalidad del matrimonio gay". Noticias - Gaceta Mexicana. 1 June 2016. 
  271. ^ Hernández Alcántara, Martín (31 July 2015). "Mañana se celebrará el primer matrimonio gay en la historia de Puebla" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: La Jornada de Oriente. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  272. ^ Fernández, Tuss (2 August 2015). "Se celebra en Puebla la primera boda de personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: La Dobe. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  273. ^ (Spanish) Índice de Acciones de Inconstitucionalidad
  274. ^ "CNDH impugna reforma en Puebla que excluye el matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Periódico Central. 17 May 2016. 
  275. ^ "Amparo a parejas gay". 
  276. ^ "Amparo logra otro matrimonio gay en México esta vez en Querétaro". SDPNoticias. 22 August 2014. 
  277. ^ "Ordenan segunda boda gay en Querétaro". Quadratin. 
  278. ^ "Primera boda gay será en octubre entre Fernanda y Mariana". 
  279. ^ "Primera boda gay". 
  280. ^ "En trámite, amparo para tercera boda gay". 
  281. ^ "Celebran primera boda entre dos hombres en Querétaro". ADN Informativo Querétaro @ADNQro. 
  282. ^ "Pareja de hombres contrae matrimonio en Querétaro". Códice Informativo. 
  283. ^ Plaza de Armas (28 January 2015). "Celebran hoy tercera boda gay". Plaza de Armas. 
  284. ^ "Garantiza juez federal fallo de bodas gay". 
  285. ^ "Proxima semana se discutirá iniciativa para matrimonios gay". Retrieved 10 September 2014. [dead link]
  286. ^ "Discusión sobre modificaciones legales para permitir matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo no será este año". 2014-11-27. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  287. ^ Nieto, Alejandro (4 February 2016). "Legislatura Juvenil aprueba matrimonio igualitario en Querétaro". Códice Informativo. 
  288. ^ "Discusión sobre matrimonio igualitario en Querétaro, solo si se aprueba a nivel federal: Eric Salas". Códice Informativo. 13 June 2016. 
  289. ^ Espinoza ,Jovana (21 July 2015). "En Querétaro parejas homosexuales ya no necesitan amparo para casarse" (in Spanish). Diario Rotativo de Querétaro. 
  290. ^ Brisa Muñoz (30 November 2011). "Sin hacer una reforma legal, Quintana Roo realiza sus primeras bodas gay" (in Spanish). CNN México. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  291. ^ (Spanish) Ingresan al Congreso uniones gay
  292. ^ "En análisis iniciativa del matrimonio igualitario". 
  293. ^ "Nada impide a parejas gay adoptar niños en SLP". GlobalMedia Noticias. 
  294. ^ "Acatará Congreso de SLP exhorto sobre leyes en favor de los homosexuales". 
  295. ^ Matrimonios igualitarios, dictamen en 90 días
  296. ^ "Más homosexuales pueden casarse en SLP". 
  297. ^ "Adecuarán la ley para bodas gay". PulsoSLP. 7 June 2014. 
  298. ^ Antonio González Vázquez. "Pareja gay de SLP busca amparo para casarse". Milenio. 
  299. ^ "Conceden primer amparo a pareja gay en San Luis Potosí; se prevé cascada de nuevas demandas". La Orquesta. 
  300. ^ "Registro Civil trata de impedir boda gay en SLP". 
  301. ^ "Justicia federal se pronuncia a favor del matrimonio homosexual, EL EXPRÉS, San Luis Potosí". 
  302. ^ "Emitiría CEDH recomendación al Registro Civil". GlobalMedia Noticias. 
  303. ^ " - Periódico Electrónico - Primer pareja gay Vallense busca contraer matrimonio Civil". 
  304. ^ (Spanish) Con amparo 20 parejas del mismo sexo se han casado, informa Registro Civil
  305. ^ "Suprema Corte decidirá si prohibir matrimonio gay en Sinaloa es constitucional". 
  306. ^ Avanza matrimonio igualitario en Sinaloa
  307. ^ "Avala Corte matrimonio gay en Sinaloa". 15 April 2015. 
  308. ^ Listado de Comunicados
  309. ^ "EL DEBATE - Pareja del mismo sexo logra casarse en Sinaloa - Culiacán". EL DEBATE. 
  310. ^ "Periódico Noroeste". 
  311. ^ "Avala la SCJN matrimonios del mismo sexo en Sinaloa". 
  312. ^ "Buscan en Mazatlán unión igualitaria". 
  313. ^ AGENCIA REFORMA (24 November 2014). "Corte protege concubinato homosexual". 
  314. ^ "EL DEBATE - Personas del mismo sexo podrían casarse en Sinaloa - Culiacán". EL DEBATE. 
  315. ^ "Se Pronuncia El Pas Por Analizar En Profundidad Propuesta Sobre Matrimonios Entre Personas Del Mismo Sexo". Critica Politica. 
  316. ^ "Busca el PES evitar que parejas del mismo sexo adopten niños - Línea Directa Portal". 
  317. ^ "Proponen panistas ley de convivencia". 
  318. ^ Cerca de legalizarse las bodas gay en Sinaloa
  319. ^ El Congreso sí modificará el Código Familiar, pero no dice cuando
  320. ^ ""Cosa de unos días" para que se legisle el matrimonio igualitario: Chuquiqui". 24 May 2016. 
  321. ^ "Da Registro Civil apertura a matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo". UniObregon. 11 May 2016. 
  322. ^ Ioan Grillo (24 December 2009). "Mexico City's Revolutionary First: Gay Marriage". Time. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  323. ^ Fernando Hernández (15 January 2010). "A favor PRI y PRD del aborto y matrimonios gays" (in Spanish). El Heraldo de Tabasco. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 
  324. ^ "Presentarán iniciativa de matrimonio gay en Tabasco". 
  325. ^ propondra bodas gay en Tabasco.html
  326. ^ "Presentan propuesta a favor de matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo". H. Congreso del Estado de Tabasco 1. 
  327. ^ "Aprobarían bodas gay en 2do. Periodo de Sesiones". El Heraldo de Tabasco. 18 May 2016. 
  328. ^ "A casi un año… esto hemos avanzado. - México Igualitario". México Igualitario. 
  329. ^ "amparo - Tonatiuh Maximiliano". 
  330. ^ "Boda gay en Tabasco". 
  331. ^ "Abrirán Código Civil a matrimonios gays" (in Spanish). Tampico, Mexico: El Mercurio de Tamaulipas. 21 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  332. ^ "HoyTamaulipas - Congreso del Estado podría legalizar el matrimonio gay en Tamaulipas". 
  333. ^ "Insisten en legalizar las bodas gay en Tamaulipas". 2012-04-28. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  334. ^ "Impulsará el PRD 'matrimonios gay' en Tamaulipas". 2013-08-19. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  335. ^ "Matrimonios gay, casi un hecho en Tamaulipas | Noticias de Matamoros". 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  336. ^ "Photoimage of document" (JPG). Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  337. ^ "Quieren matrimonios del mismo sexo en Tamaulipas". El 5inco. 
  338. ^ Ganan amparos y se casarán parejas gay en Tamaulipas
  339. ^ Anahy Meza. "Avalan amparo para bodas gay en Tamaulipas". Milenio. 
  340. ^ Avalan amparo para bodas gay en Tamaulipas
  341. ^ Retrieved 2 October 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  342. ^ "Ganan amparo 68 parejas gay de Tamaulipas" (in Spanish). Milenio. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  343. ^ "Realizarán primer matrimonio gay en septiembre". El Quiosco. 23 May 2016. 
  344. ^ ":: Comunic@te Digital - Parejas homosexuales celebraron bodas simbólicas gay en Tlaxcala::". 
  345. ^ "El Universal - - Tlaxcala, en contra de matrimonios gay". 22 June 2013. 
  346. ^ "Las tendencias retrogradas y ultra conservadoras de los gobiernos panistas.". Pan y Circco. 
  347. ^ "Marcha comunidad gay de Tlaxcala en demanda de ley". Animal Político. 
  348. ^ "Demanda comunidad gay de Tlaxcala ley contra discriminación". 
  349. ^ "Anuncia diputada agenda legislativa que permita el respeto a la diversidad sexual en Tlaxcala". 
  350. ^ Víctor Manuel Acosta Pérez. "Presentan en Tlaxcala iniciativa para crear Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia". 
  351. ^ "Comunidad gay de Tlaxcala no cejará en su lucha por defender derechos; dicen que también pagan impuestos". 385 Grados México. 
  352. ^ Pérez, Lucía (5 July 2016). "En este mes estará lista la reforma pro matrimonios igualitarios: Stankiewicz". 
  353. ^ Santillán, Gerardo (29 June 2015). "Al menos 15 parejas del mismo sexo han pedido informes para casarse en el Registro Civil capitalino" (in Spanish). Tlaxcala, Mexico: E-Consulta Tlaxcala. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  354. ^ "Celebra Tlaxcala primer matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Tlaxcala, Mexico: E-Consulta. 18 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  355. ^ "Ley de Sociedad de Convivencia no contempla el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo". 
  356. ^ "Ordenan al Registro Civil de Veracruz reconocer bodas gay". e-consulta. 31 July 2014. 
  357. ^ Veraz News: Aprobada la primera boda gay en el Estado de Veracruz
  358. ^ "Google Translate". 
  359. ^ "Comunidad Lésbico-Gay exige al Congreso de Veracruz aprobar ley de equidad e igualdad". Al Calor Político. 
  360. ^ "Propone Mónica Robles Código Civil Para Garantizar Matrimonio Igualitario" (in Spanish). AVIVeracruz. July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016. 
  361. ^ a b ¡Sí... acepto! , le dijo Jair a Víctor
  362. ^ "Aprobada la primera boda gay en el Estado de Veracruz". 
  363. ^ "¡Lo lograron! Celebra Veracruz primer matrimonio gay". 
  364. ^ "Se efectuará segundo patrimonio gay con amparo en Veracruz". Plumas libres. 
  365. ^ "Gana pareja del mismo sexo juicio en Veracruz y se casará en abril". 
  366. ^ "Niegan matrimonio en Veracruz a 4 parejas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Veracruz, Mexico: E-consulta. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  367. ^ "Tramitan amparos cuatro parejas del mismo sexo para celebrar matrimonio". 16 May 2016. 
  368. ^ "Ganan amparos 3 parejas lésbico-gay de Veracruz-Boca; podrán casarse". Noticias de Veracruz. 26 May 2016. 
  369. ^ Jennifer Woodard Maderazo (22 July 2009). "Yucatan Will Penalize Gay Marriage, Abortion". Vivir Latino. Retrieved 27 November 2009. 
  370. ^ Anodis (21 July 2009). "Aprueba Yucatán ley contra matrimonio gay" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  371. ^ (Spanish) [2]
  372. ^ Edward V. Byrne (30 April 2013). "MGR - the Mexico Gulf Reporter: Yucatán federal court orders recognition of gay marriage". the Mexico Gulf Reporter. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  373. ^ "Avanza reconocimiento de matrimonio homosexual en Yucatán". 2013-12-19. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  374. ^ "Libertad de Expresión Yucatán: Celebran primera boda entre dos mujeres en Yucatán". 
  375. ^ Tras amparo, se realizará segundo Matrimonio Igualitario en Yucatán
  376. ^ "Libertad de Expresión Yucatán: Celebran tercera boda gay en Yucatán". 
  377. ^ "4 "bodas gays" en Yucatán y contando". 
  378. ^ "Denuncia contra Congreso de Yucatán abre la puerta a matrimonios gay". Animal Político. 
  379. ^ "Bajo análisis una demanda en contra del Congreso estatal - El Diario de Yucatán". El Diario de Yucatán. 
  380. ^ Castrillón, Luis (2 March 2015). "El Tribunal de Yucatán rechaza que Congreso estatal legisle sobre matrimonios gay". Animal Político. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  381. ^ "Organizaciones civiles demandan a tribunal de Yucatán por obstaculizar el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo". Animal Político. 
  382. ^ Castillo, Flor (21 June 2015). "Pareja gay registra a bebé en Yucatán" (in Spanish). Mexico: Excelsior. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  383. ^ Yucatán esperará a que el Congreso federal legisle
  384. ^ "Legislador zacatecano presenta Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia". 
  385. ^ "En la congeladora, desde 2011, iniciativa de Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia: Jorge Alvarez". Noticias de Zacatecas - La Jornada Zacatecas. 
  386. ^ "Rehúyen diputados tema de matrimonio gay". NTR Zacatecas .com. 
  387. ^ "Promoverá PRD reformas a códigos Civil y de lo familiar". NTR Zacatecas .com. 
  388. ^ Contraerá matrimonio primera pareja del mismo sexo en el estado de Zacatecas
  389. ^ Angus Reid Global Monitor (27 December 2007). "Mexicans Flatly Reject Same-Sex Marriage". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  390. ^ El Universal (27–30 November 2009). "Same-sex marriage poll in Mexico City" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  391. ^ Álvaro Delgado (13 April 2007). "Calderón, cómplice del clero" (in Spanish). Proceso. Archived from the original on 1 May 2007. 
  392. ^ "Mexico City's law on civil unions draws mixed reaction". Noticias, Voz e Imágen de Oaxaca. 16 March 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. 
  393. ^ ACI Prensa (30 April 2007). "Padres de familia mexicanos piden no votar por partidos abortistas" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  394. ^ "Support for Same‐Sex Marriage in Latin America" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  395. ^ "Matrimonio gay a debate: 52% de los mexicanos apoya legalización - Terra México". Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  396. ^ "Social Attitudes on Moral Issues in Latin America - Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 13 November 2014. 
  397. ^ "Appendix A: Methodology". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 13 November 2014. 
  398. ^ Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica (2014). "Intolerancia Social en México" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  399. ^ "69% approve EPN's gay marriage changes". Mexico News Daily. 30 May 2016. 

External links[edit]