Same-sex marriage in Mexico

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State recognition of same-sex relationships in Mexico
  Same-sex marriage (SSM) legalized at the state level
  Legalization not implemented, though required by 5+ court orders supporting SSM
  Partial precedent of 1–4 court orders supporting SSM
  Other type of partnership, with at least one court order supporting SSM
  No state law or court precedent, but recognition of SSM performed in other states under federal law
Legal status of same-sex unions
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper

* Not yet in effect

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In Mexico, only civil marriages are recognized by the law, and all its proceedings fall under state legislation.[1] Same-sex marriage is performed without restriction in Mexico City and in the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Guerrero and Quintana Roo, but explicitly banned in the state of Yucatán.[2] In addition, courts in all states must approve marriage licenses for same-sex couples when petitioned to do so; so far, individual cases of same-sex marriage have occurred in all states but Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, and Zacatecas. Same-sex civil unions are legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Coahuila, Colima,[2] Jalisco,[3] Campeche[4] and Michoacán.[5] Since August 2010, same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception, and fundamental spousal rights (such as alimony payments, inheritance rights, and the coverage of spouses by the federal social security system) also apply to same-sex couples across the country.[6]


In late November 2009, the leading party at the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (ALDF), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced that it was fine-tuning an amendment to the civil code to legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City, a project endorsed by the local head of government, Marcelo Ebrard, but strongly opposed by the second largest political force in the country, the right-of-center National Action Party (PAN) and the Roman Catholic Church. The bill found support from over 600 non-governmental organizations, including the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) and Amnesty International (AI). On 21 December 2009, Mexico City became the first Latin American jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage. The law became effective on 4 March 2010.[7]

On 5 August 2010, the Supreme Court voted 8-2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[8] The Court later ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the entire country.[9]

On 28 November 2011, the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after discovering that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage,[10] but these marriages were later annulled by the governor of Quintana Roo in April 2012.[11] In May 2012, the secretary of state of Quintana Roo reversed the annulments and allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.[12]

The 2012 Oaxaca case was pivotal in opening the door to legal same-sex marriage in every state in Mexico, through the injunction (amparo) process. Using international decisions, whose verdicts serve as legal precedent in Mexican courts, like the protections in the American Convention on Human Rights Karen Atala Riffo y Niñas v. Chile case,[13] the U.S. cases Loving v. Virginia and Brown v. Board of Education[14] and Mexico's own anti-discrimination ordinances, they ruled[15] 5 December 2012 that: 1) Laws limiting marriage to one man and one woman, or for the purposes of perpetuating the species, violated federal law requiring that they "correspond to all persons without any distinction" and 2) That such laws were unconstitutional on the basis of discrimination by sexual orientation and usurpation of the right, not only of the individual but also the couple's right, to form a family.[16] Barring legislative will to change State laws, a provision in the Mexican Code allows that five rulings in a state with the same outcome on the same issue override a statute and establish the legal jurisprudence to overturn it.[17] Thus, marriages obtained by injunction could be performed in any state, regardless of whether the state Civil Code had been changed.[18] It is also important to notice that a same sex marriage performed in any state is valid in all of the other states in Mexico, even if any particular state has no laws that allow it, according to federal law.

A landmark decision, issued on 29 January 2014, was the first injunction for marriage recognition in Puebla. The case involved a same-sex couple who legally married in Mexico City in 2012 and filed for spousal benefits with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in the state of Puebla, but were denied.[19] Because the complainant died during the injunction process, a lower court had dismissed the case, but the Supreme Court of the Nation, granted the injunction and ordered recognition of the marriage by both the state of Puebla and the IMSS. The injunction will require IMSS to extend benefits equal to married heterosexual couples' benefits to gays and lesbians who are married or have entered into civil unions throughout Mexico.[20][21]

A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling that found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and does not invalidate any state laws, meaning gay couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico, to approve all applications for same-sex marriage,[22][23] and made the approval mandatory.[24] The ruling was published in the country's Judicial Gazette on 19 June 2015 and became binding on 22 June 2015.[25] Some have suggested the ruling "effectively legalises" same-sex marriage in Mexico,[26][27] though without legislative change, civil registrars are still bound to follow the state constitutions.[28][29][30]

Same-sex marriage by state[edit]

States and territories that fully license and recognize same-sex marriage[edit]

Note: This table shows only states that regularly license same-sex marriages or have legalized them. It does not include states where same-sex couples have been able to marry in individual cases.

Federal entities with same-sex marriage
Federal entity Population Date of Enactment/Ruling Date Effective Legalization method Details
Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua 3,406,465 June 11, 2015 June 12, 2015 Gubernatorial decree
Coahuila Coahuila 2,841,657 September 1, 2014 September 17, 2014 Legislative statute Passed by the Congress of Coahuila
Mexico City Mexico City 8,851,080 December 29, 2009 March 4, 2010 Legislative statute Passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District
Guerrero Guerrero 3,442,564 June 25, 2015 July 10, 2015 Gubernatorial decree
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo 1,468,469 May 3, 2012 May 3, 2012 Decision by the state's Secretary of State
Total 24,578,331 (20.2% of Mexico population)
State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.1
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding decision overturning a ban on same-sex marriage not in effect
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.

Mexico City (Federal District)[edit]

On 24 November 2009, PRD assemblyman David Razú proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[31] Luis González Plascencia, chairman of the Humans Rights Commission of Mexico City, backed the bill and said that it was up to the Legislative Assembly to consider LGBT adoption.[32] The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), International Amnesty (AI), the AIDS Healthcare Foundation and over 600 non-governmental organizations supported the legalization of same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[33] The PAN has announced it will either go to the courts to appeal the law or demand a referendum.[34][35] However, a referendum on same-sex marriage was rejected by the Legislative Assembly in a 36-22 vote on 18 December 2009.[36] On 21 December 2009, the Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriage (39-20) in Mexico City. The bill changes the definition of marriage in the city's Civil Code from "a free union between a man and a woman" to "a free union between two people."[37] The law would grant same-sex couples the same rights as opposite-sex couples, including adopting children.[38] The PAN vowed to challenge the law in the courts.[38] On 29 December 2009, Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard signed the bill into law, which became effective on 4 March 2010.[7][39] On 5 August, the Supreme Court voted 8–2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[8] The Court ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the country.[40]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
Party of the Democratic Revolution 34 34
National Action Party 15 15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 8 2 5 1
Labor Party 5 5
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 3 3
New Alliance Party 1 1
Total 66 39 20 5 2


In May 2014, a male same-sex couple requested an injunction against the Registry in Aguascalientes for refusing to allow them to marry and against the constitutionality of sections 143 and 144 of the Civil Code.[41][42] The injunction 1015/14 was approved 29 August 2014.[43] A lesbian couple also applied for an amparo in May[44] and received a favorable response 2 September 2014.[45] On 1 September 2014, Julián Elizalde Peña, coordinator of the organization, Collective SerGay of Aguascalientes, announced a third injunction had been requested.[46] 3 September 2014, the first same-sex wedding was held in Aguascalientes.[47] 13 October 2014 Elizalde Peña announced that a fourth individual amparo is pending and that a collective injunction is in process.[48]

In September 2014, Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejada, legislative member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that a civil unions bill and possibly a same-sex marriage initiative were to be introduced by the Governor of the state for consideration. Escobeda Tejada further announced that if the Governor did not introduce a bill, the PRD would.[49] On 4 November 2014, Escobedo presented a Civil Unions initiative arguing that "marriage means protection to the mother, matrem, monium, protect, care for the mother," which is an insufficient concept for a civil contract which defines a partnership for "living together, forming a heritage, having children if they wish, and dealing with situations that arise for a couple." He acknowledged that a citizen's initiative on same-sex marriage had been presented a few weeks prior to his initiative.[50] Debate on three initiatives with different schemes for marriage and civil unions began on 21 November 2014.[51]

Baja California[edit]

On 13 November 2014, the Supreme Court of Mexico ruled that Baja California's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.[52][53] Because the legislature had made no efforts since 2011 to reform the civil code, a complaint was filed with the Comisión Ciudadana de Derechos Humanos del Noroeste (CCDH) on 27 November 2014. On 14 January 2015, Raúl Ramírez Baena, director of the CCDH, filed a petition with the governor and five municipal officers of the state requiring them to provide notification to the registrars throughout the jurisdiction on how to proceed with same-sex marriages in compliance with the Mexican constitution.[54] A bill was introduced in the Baja California Congress on 12 February 2015 to fully legalise same-sex marriage in the state.[55] In March 2015, politicians in Tijuana began work on an initiative to legalise same-sex marriage in the city.[56]

On 18 March 2013, a male same sex couple applied to marry in Ensenada, Baja California. They were denied on the 21st and filed for an amparo 12 April 2014.[57] On 31 October 2014 the Seventh District Court ordered the City of Ensenada to allow their marriage,[58] which had been denied by the registrar a year and a half earlier.[59]

On 17 June 2013, a male same-sex couple were denied the right to marry in Mexicali and applied for an injunction.[60] The injunction was approved in October 2013,[61] but was appealed by the Registrar to the Supreme Court.[62] On 25 June 2014 the initial injunction was upheld and Mexico's Supreme Court deemed the state's marriage ban unconstitutional.[63] On 31 October 2014, the officer of civil registrar of Mexicali, Adriana Guadalupe Ramirez, notified the couple the decision would not be appealed, the refusal was withdrawn, and the marriage could proceed.[64] Though Ramirez scheduled the ceremony for 21 November 2014, when the couple appeared in the Wedding Hall to marry, the judge refused to perform the ceremony and the celebrants were evacuated after a bomb threat was received.[65][66] The Civil Registry claimed that discrepancies in documents had been rectified and announced a rescheduling of the wedding for 10 January 2015.[67] On 10 January 2015, the couple again returned to the registry for their marriage ceremony which was declined for the 4th time, under a citizen's allegation that the couple suffers from insanity. The citizen who made the allegation is an official who performs premarital counseling required by the city and who had refused to give the couple the certificate that they had completed the counseling.[68] In response to the ongoing controversy in Mexicali, the officials in Tijuana announced that they were willing to comply with an amparo and offer premarital counseling to LGBT couples.[69] Officials in Ensenada have also stated that they would honor an injunction and noted that though one was approved there, the couple did not ask for a ceremony.[70] Lawyers for the couple filed contempt of court proceedings against the mayor and registrar for failure to carry out the instructions of the Supreme Court. A hearing will be held before the Appellate Court and could result in the officials losing their positions or being disqualified from public office.[71] During a protest march scheduled by the LGBT community, officials in Mexicali announced that they were dismissing the accusation of "madness" and were ready to perform the marriage. On 17 January 2015, the first same-sex couple were married in Baja California.[72][73] In March 2015, it was announced that the Government has asked for a review of the amparos granted in the state thus far with the intent of delaying the issuance of jurisprudence. If the state's request is granted, a legal precedent shall not be applied in Baja California until each case is resolved once again.[74]

On 6 August 2013, a lesbian couple were denied marriage by the Civil Registrar in Mexicali and filed for an injunction. They received notice of their approval 524/2013 on 30 December 2013.[75] On 22 January 2015, a lesbian couple applied to marry at the Civil Registry in Tijuana and were denied. The couple have vowed to fight the denial and insist that as federal law trumps local law, an injunction is unnecessary since the SCJN has declared Baja California's code unconstitutional.[76][77]

Three additional injunctions to create the jurisprudence for the law to be changed have been scheduled for filing in September 2014.[78] It was announced in June, 2015 that ten persons have filed for a collective amparo in Tijuana.[79]

Baja California Sur[edit]

On 9 April 2010, the organization La Comunidad Sudcaliforniana en Diversidad Sexual proposed reforms to the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage and adoption.[80] No action was taken by the legislature, as in both 2013[81] and 2014, local politicians deflected the issue saying that the public must be consulted.[82] Even after the granting of the collective amparo, the members of the local Congress advised that the issue of gay marriage had not been discussed and was not on the legislative agenda.[83] On 25 March 2015, the Chief Justice of the Baja California Sur Supreme Court handed Congress a proposal to legalise same-sex marriage.[84] On 15 April 2015, a member of Congress told the media that analysis of the initiative would begin in May.[85]

In August 2014, 14 women and 4 men requested a collective injunction against Articles 330 and 150 of the Baja California Sur Civil Code, which bans same-sex marriage.[86] On 21 October 2014, the first amparo in Baja California Sur was granted declaring articles 330 and 150 of the Civil Code unconstitutional, according to the lawyer[87] who represented the couples.[88] On 27 November 2014, a group of 20 members of the LGBT community of BCS presented an injunction for equal marriage in La Paz.[89] On 10 April 2015, a First District judge approved an injunction involving 36 couples.[90]


On 31 March 2014, a lesbian couple applied for marriage in Campeche but were denied in April 2014 based on a decision that same-sex couples must join via the state's Civil Union provisions.[91] In July 2014, Mexico's Supreme Court denied them an injunction, but declared the current marriage laws were unconstitutional and told the local government that they must modify their Civil Code to allow same-sex marriages. It was later announced that the couple could marry after a district judge granted them an injunction, but the law must still be revised. PAN has said it will abide by the ruling.[92] The couple was married on 30 August 2014.[93] In September 2014 the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that 16 persons, 10 from Campeche and 6 from Cuidad del Carmen have filed for injunctions and that analysis of changing the marriage statues is in progress.[94]


Various LGBT activist groups delivered documents to the executive and legislative branches of government and the State Board of Human Rights on 15 February 2012 recommending amendments to the marriage laws of Chiapas to comply with federal anti-discrimination provisions.[95] 29 November 2013, Diego Cadenas Gordillo, acting as a human rights activist, sent a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and reform the Civil Code and Civil Procedure for the state.[96][97] The proposal was rejected on 13 December 2013, citing that "popular initiatives" must be supported by 1.5% of the electorate, or 50,500 voters.[98] 3 January 2014[99] an injunction was filed before a federal judge because of the refusal of Congress to act on the initiative.[100] The judge denied the injunction against the Civil Code and an appeal was filed in the Twentieth Circuit Court.[99] In November 2014, the activist and lawyer Diego Cadenas Gordillo filed a request for formal intervention by the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR), claiming that the state legislature, the governor, nor the State Commission of Human Rights had responded to the discriminatory laws banning same-sex marriage in Chiapas.[101]

After January 2014 clashes between the mayor of Chilo, Chiapas[102] and religious groups, activists filed a complaint with the National Commission on Prevention of Discrimination (Conapred).[103] 27 March 2014, the Hon Alejandra Ruiz Soriano, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) filed an initiative to amend 19 articles of the Civil Code and 15 articles of the Code of Civil Procedure, to incorporate the concept of marriage as "the free union of two people for the community of life, where both respect, equality and mutual aid are sought." In addition, it also standardized the concept of cohabitation, disregarding a person's sexual preference.[104]

On 25 September 2014, a collective injunction was filed for same-sex marriage.[105] On 3 March 2015, 51 couples won the right to marry as the state's Civil Code was deemed unconstitutional[106] by the SCJN. On 26 March 2015, a document sent from the Chiapan Congress was publicised and denounced the ruling and asked for a review stating in their brief that same-sex marriage was unnatural while making comparisons of homosexual relationships to incest.[107] The Chairman of the Board of Congress later denied the filing of the review stressing that only he has the power to make the request and insisting that he never signed any document regarding the issue.[108] However, on 16 April 2015 the media revealed that the state's Judicial Council website received the request on 23 March 2015 and had already assigned a number to the case.[109]


In December 2012, lawmakers in Chihuahua were presented with a proposal to amend Article 143 of the Civil Code of the State to allow same-sex marriage.[110] As of July 2014, 33 amparos had been filed in the state, 22 in the capital and 11 in Ciudad Juárez, and nine had been approved.[111] After years with no legislative action, in July 2014, the PAN bloc announced that they would consider approving Civil Unions in the state but not equal marriage.[112] In response to legislative inaction, a collective injunction was filed in July 2014 with the aim of having the Civil Code declared "unconstitutional."[113] The collective injunction #3937-2014, approved 13 November 2014, ruled Articles 134 and 135 of the Civil Code were unconstitutional and required the State Congress to legislate for equal marriage.[114] In early February, 2015, the judge Cuenca Zamora ruled that the state of Chihuahua had an obligation to abide by the findings of the injunction. His legal opinion was forwarded to the Parliamentary Coordination Board to begin the legislative processes to implement change in the Civil Code.[115] After the SCJN issued its directive that courts must approve injunctions for same-sex marriage based on the federal constitution protections that rights must be equally provided without distinction to all people, the PAN deputy María Eugenia Campos Galván, presented an initiative for the Chihuahuan Congress to limit marriage to one man and one woman for the purpose of procreation. Her proposal was supported by the PAN block of legislators.[116]

On 11 June 2015, the state governor announced the state would no longer prevent same-sex marriage, making Chihuahua the fourth jurisdiction to have legal same-sex marriage without having to resort to individual injunction.[117] Governor César Duarte Jáquez announced that licenses would be available as of 12 June 2015.[118] On 16 June 2015, the President of the Chihuahuan Congress announced that the state would debate the legal codification of the court ruling.


On 5 March 2013, Congressman Samuel Acevedo Flores, Social Democratic Party, introduced a bill to the Congress of Coahuila to legalize same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples.[119] 11 February 2014, Congress approved adoptions by same-sex couples[120] and passed the same-sex marriage bill on 1 September 2014.[121] It took effect on 17 September,[122] and the first couple married on 20 September.[123]


On 22 January 2013 the Civil Registry in Cuauhtémoc received a request from a gay couple to marry. After a team of lawyers reviewed the petition,[124] on 27 February 2013, basing the decision on the declaration of the unconstitutionality of discriminatory laws, mayor Vizcaíno Indira Silva, from the municipality of Cuauhtémoc, granted the first same-sex marriage license in Colima.[125] On 25 March 2013, the second same-sex marriage, and first lesbian union occurred.[126] A third same-sex marriage in Cuauhtémoc was held on 4 April 2013 for a lesbian couple and the registrar announced at that time there were 20 to 30 marriages scheduled on the calendar.[127] On 9 June 2013, a male gay couple was granted an injunction to marry in Colima, making the state the second in Mexico to win the right to marriage via "amparo" (injunction).[128]

On 14 June 2013, Rosa Lilia Vargas Valle, a judge of the Second District Court of the Colima State, ruled that the Colima Civil Code is unconstitutional in limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples.[129][130]

On 4 July 2013 the state congress approved an amendment to Article 147 of the constitution which formalized same-sex civil unions. Within 30 days, seven of Colima's ten municipalities approved the change to the civil code.[2][131] An appeal to the changes was filed and the Supreme Court of the Nation agreed in August 2014 to review it.[132] Deliberations began at the Supreme Court in September 2014 to determine whether the new Civil Code which provides only "wedlock" for same-sex couples and "marriage" to opposite-sex couples is discrimination via sexual orientation.[133] On 18 March 2015, a district judge declared that "separate but equal treatment is discriminatory" and unconstitutional.[134] The decision also stated that section 201 of the Civil Code which defines gendered roles for men and women is discriminatory and reiterated that adoption open to heterosexual married couples must also be open to homosexual couples.[135] Shortly after the ruling, a local LGBT rights group announced that it will help any couple who joined in a civil union receive a marriage certificate.[136] The state appealed the ruling and on 17 June 2015, the Mexican Supreme Court agreed that the 'separate but equal' union laws were unconstitutional.[137] The government has since announced that the civil unions will cease and on 10 July 2015, PRD submitted a same-sex marriage bill to Congress.[138]


In September 2013 PRD deputy in Durango, Israel Soto Peña, introduced a bill to legalize same sex marriage in the state. As no action had been taken on the bill, in February 2014, he requested that it be expedited.[139] On 10 April 2014, the bill was rejected claiming that it would not sufficiently address the legal changes necessary to correct the Civil Code.[140] In May, Soto Peña announced that he would revamp the initiative and resubmit it,[141] which he did on 1 November 2014.[142]

In December 2013 the first same-sex male couple was able to marry in Durango after obtaining an injunction. It was appealed and the Supreme Court of the Nation ruled in favor of the couple.[143] On 13 November 2014, it was announced that 18 people had filed an injunction in Durango against the civil code defining marriage as only the union between a man and a woman.[144] A first hearing was scheduled for 27 November 2014.[145] On 28 November 2014, the State Congress and Government rejected the injunction stating that challenges to the Civil Code had to be made within 30 days of it being enacted thus were 66 years too late. In that regard, activists then escalated the injunction request to the Supreme Court of the Nation.[146][147] On 1 April 2015, it was announced that the 18 couples had hit another setback when the State claimed they could not seek an injunction because their residency was questioned. The couples reiterated their intention to file a case before the Mexican Supreme Court.[148]


In response to the first amparo approval, on 21 February 2014, the PRD introduced a bill to the Congress to amend the Civil Code of the State so that marriages between same sex are allowed.[149] The plan was endorsed by the PRI on 26 February 2014.[150] A detailed plan to move the initiatives forward was introduced on 19 January 2015. The plan calls for review by area university law schools, the bar association, the state legislature, local officials in all municipalities and creation of a website for public input.[151] On 13 April 2015, the Justice Committee with a majority from the state's lead PAN party, voted 3-2 to shelve both bills citing PAN's objection to same-sex unions. The bill now goes to a plenary session where legislators will discuss whether to approve the dismissal of the bill.[152]

On 14 February 2014, a lesbian couple who sued the state of Guanajuato was approved for an injunction to marry.[153] 19 March 2014,[154] the couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in the state.[155]

On 4 March 2014 Guillermo Romo Méndez, PRI deputy in Guanajuato, agreed to assist a group of 45 gay couples in submitting individual amparos to register their marriages in the state. 33 couples from León, 12 from Silao, 40 male same-sex couples and 5 lesbian couples made up the group of 45.[156] 19 March 2014 the first collective injunction for Guanajuato was filed for 30 couples in León.[157] On 3 July 2014, a male same-sex couple were denied marriage by the civil registry of León and filed for an injunction. On 25 November 2014, a judge in the first district ruled on amparo 02495/2014 and no appeal was filed by the state. The couple is planning to marry in January, 2015.[158] On 17 January 2015 the first male same sex couple to be married in the state were joined in León.[159]

16 September 2014, it was announced by the Association of Human Development and Sexuality in Irapuato that a collective amparo of 320 persons was to be filed.[160]


After the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation's ruling went into effect on 22 June, officials in Guerrero began announcing plans for a collective group wedding.[161] The governor, Rogelio Ortega submitted a same-sex marriage bill to Congress on 7 July 2015. Legislators lamented they would have preferred to have the bill passed before marriages took place, but given the time line presented, it was unlikely.[162] On 10 July 2015, twenty same-sex couples were married by the Governor Rogelio Ortega in Acapulco.[163]


A domestic partnership act was introduced in Hidalgo in 2007 [164] but stalled in the legislature as well as in successive congresses.[165] In October 2013, the legislature indicated there was not sufficient "maturity" in the society to accept same-sex marriage and that the legislature would instead consider a conjugal partnership bill.[166]

Due to the lack of legislative action, on 8 August 2014, a collective injunction for 6 LGBT people was presented to the twenty-ninth circuit of the Third District Court for the state of Hidalgo[167] to contest the constitutionality of Articles 8, 11 and 143 of the Family Code and secure the right to marry.[168]


A female same-sex couple was able to become the first same-sex couple to marry in the state on 14 December 2013.[169] In December 2013, 12 couples of the same sex—eight women and four men—filed an injunction after being denied marriage. The injunction was granted 12 June 2014 and became the 2nd ruling invalidating the Civil Code of Jalisco.[170] In January 2014 a male couple went to the Civil Registry in Guadalajara and were denied marriage based on Article 258 of the State Civil Code, which limits marriage to one man and one woman. They filed for an injunction in the Fourth District Court.[171] On 8 January 2015 because the municipal government of Guadalajara challenged the right to an injunction, the case was elevated to the Supreme Court of the Nation.[172] The couple received an injunction, but still contested the constitutionality of Jalisco's Civil Code.[173] The SCJN announced on 15 April 2015 that it would review article 258 of the State Civil Code which describes marriage as "An institution of public character and social interest, through which a man and a woman decide to share a state of life in search of personal fulfillment and the foundation of a family".[174] On 24 March 2014, ten same-sex couples, went to the registry office in Guadelajara[175][176] and were denied their request for marriage. With the support of CLADEM they filed for an injunction.[177]

In June 2014, PRI congressman Héctor Pizano Ramos introduced legislation to amend the Civil Code of Jalisco and endorse same-sex marriage.[178] After a national ruling from the SCJN labeling all bans and heterosexual definitions of marriage unconstitutional on 3 June 2015, it was announced on 17 June 2015 that Jalisco would begin work on amending the Civil Code after the ruling's official publication in the judicial gazette.[179] On 26 November 2015, The First Chamber of the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice declared an article of the Jalisco Civil Code, which prevented same-sex marriage, unconstitutional.[180] It is not known if this ruling legalises same-sex marriage or not in the state.


In 2008, an initiative for Civil Unions was launched in the State of México, but never advanced. In 2010, a citizen's initiative was presented to Congress for same-sex marriages. After 3 years, it had not been reviewed and thus in mid-2013 PRD deputy, Octavio Martinez, introduced a measure.[181] In January 2014 Martinez advised the PRD would continue to press for same-sex marriage and insist that it be discussed by Congress.[182] In January, 2015, Israfil Filós Real, president of the Civil Association of Vulnerable Groups called on the legislature of Edomex to act on proposals for same-sex marriage[183] and hate crimes as they have been pending without resolution for nine years.[184] The state's governor submitted a marriage bill while PRD submitted a proposal to legalize same-sex adoption on 5 March 2015.[185]

On 15 February 2013, four same-sex couples filed documents to marry at the Civil Registry of Toluca[186] and after their refusal, filed for an "amparo." On 24 June 2013, a federal judge granted the injunction ruling that the Civil Code of the state prohibiting their marriages was discriminatory,[187] but the state filed an appeal. The appellate Court on Administrative Matters of the Second Circuit in the State, declared itself unable to resolve the dispute in January 2014, whereupon it was escalated to the State Supreme Court.[188] Disposition of the case was set for 6 November 2014, however, the judge postponed the decision for an additional ten days.[189] On 25 February 2015, the SCJN granted the injunction, and declared the Civil Code of the State to be unconstitutional and discriminatory, and contrary to the international treaties Mexico has signed.[190] A lesbian couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in Edomex on 18 April 2015.[191]


Following the ruling of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 finding state bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional on a "jurisprudential" basis, a 7th district court judge in Michoacán ordered the state to accommodate a lesbian couple's injunction. The ruling gave the Governor and Congress until 15 July 2015 to revise the state's laws mentioning marriage.[192] It was announced on 13 July 2015 that Congress would abide by the judge's ruling and the following day [193] Governor Salvador Jara Guerrero declared that the changes will be applied on 15 July 2015.[194] Congress refused to amend sections 123 and 125 of the Civil Code and in the two and a half-hour meeting, there was talk of obtaining a time extension. If an extension is not granted, the terms of the amparo for non-compliance will be incurred which include a fine at the 100th day of non-performance and the removal of the president of Congress, among escalating penalties for delay.[195]

On 27 August 2015, the Justice and Human Rights Committee approved a new text of the Family Code that would maintain the heterosexual definition of marriage but enact a civil union law for homosexual couples. It was approved unanimously by the full Michoacán Congress on 7 September 2015.[196][197] The law was published on 30 September 2015 in the state's official journal.[198] Following the Family Code's passage, a lawsuit claiming discrimination and unconstitutionality was filed before the Mexican Supreme Court in October.[199]


In Morelos, bills concerning same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples were to be proposed by the Labor Party (PT) in mid-2010.[200] The proposal was rejected by PAN in February 2010.[201] A subsequent proposal was also rejected in March 2013.[202] On 30 July 2013 The Civil Partnership Equity and Community Participation asked a federal court to rule in favor of same-sex marriage in Morelos.[203] The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced in July 2014 that a vote on same-sex marriage would occur in September 2014.[204] On 19 September 2014, civil society organizations including members of the Lesbian and Gay Collective in Morelos launched impeachment procedures against the members of the Committee on Constitutional Issues for failure to follow Article 54 of the Internal Regulations of Congress. The impeachment proceeding declares the same-sex marriage initiative has been in committee for 20 months, but the committee is legally required to submit, to the full Congress within 60 days, their recommendations and analysis on initiatives.[205][206] On 27 July 2015, the governor of the state presented an initiative to reform the Civil Code to the Congress to permit same-sex marriage in the state.[207][208] The governor, Graco Ramírez Garrido's proposal is to reform article 120 of the Constitution of Morelos and articles 22, 65 and 68 of the Family Code to bring them into line with the jurisprudence set forth by the SCJN on 22 June.[209]

On 28 August 2013 a gay couple applied to marry in Morelos through an injunction.[210] In January 2014, the injunction 1202/2013-IV, was granted by the judge of the Second District in Morelos, who ordered the Civil Registry 1 Xochitepec, to process the marriage application. They planned to marry on 17 May 2014.[211] In January 2014, another gay couple began the process and in July were granted an injunction to marry.[212] An appeal was launched, but after losing the appeal,[213] the Registrar performed the marriage ceremony for the first same-sex marriage in the town of Ayala on 6 September 2014.[214] Marquez Edgar Ortega, director of Care for Sexual Diversity, announced at the wedding that six shelters have been requested in Moreos.[215] On 29 October 2014, a lesbian couple married in Cuernavaca.[216]

A lesbian couple has applied for an injunction in Cuernavaca[217] as the Civil Registry refused to recognize their same-sex marriage and allow them to divorce.[218]


In July 2014, a male same-sex couple was allowed to hold Nayarit's first gay wedding after a year of legal work.[219] On 8 July, a federal judge ruled the ban unconstitutional.[220] The couple married in the state's capital of Tepic. Four lesbian couples requested injunctions after being denied by the Civil Registry in early July 2014.[221] On 31 October 2014, it was announced by the Civil Association CODISE that nine couples were awaiting decisions on injunctions.[222] On 3 November 2014 a lesbian couple, the second marriage in the state, married in Tepic after being granted an injunction.[223] On 13 November 2014, the third same-sex marriage was held in Tepic for a lesbian couple who gained an amparo on 22 October 2014.[224] The 4th same-sex marriage in Nayarit took place in the second week of December, 2014, marking the third lesbian union in the state.[225] On 27 January 2015, the 5th same-sex marriage occurred in Tepic between lesbian partners. It was the first marriage in which the injunction had been approved by local authorities, rather than the federal district courts.[226][227] On 13 March 2015, members of CODISE handed Congress a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[228]

Nuevo León[edit]

In September 2013, a federal judge ordered the Civil Registry of Nuevo León to register the marriage of a female same-sex couple.[229] Governor Rodrigo Medina said his administration would abide by the order, but only for that specific case.[230] On 13 November 2013 a male same-sex couple went to the Civil Registry Administrative Office 4 in San Pedro, Nuevo León, made an application for marriage [231] and were told to expect a response within one week. In December 2013, they filed a complaint at the headquarters of the Ombudsman in the State Commission on Human Rights against the Registry for failure to provide them with an official response.[232] In June 2014, Mariaurora Mota, the legal representative of Strategic Litigation, reported that nine injunctions have been filed in the state, but only one has been resolved.[233] The State Constitutional Court will hold a hearing on 12 September 2014, to rule on an "amparo" filed by 50 members of the LGBT community claiming discrimination against their human rights contained in Articles 147 and 291 of the Civil Code for the State of Nuevo León.[234] On 16 October 2014 the Supreme Court declared articles 147 and 219 of the Civil Code of the state unconstitutional and granted an injunction to 48 applicants for same-sex marriages.[235] When approval of an amparo was announced for Tamaulipas on 26 March 2015, it was confirmed that an amparo for 35 couples was pending for Nuevo León.[236]

On 17 June 2015, the Nueva Alianza party announced their intention to introduce a same-sex marriage bill. An Independent congressman will also submit his own civil union proposal with the support of the ruling PAN. On 22 June 2015, Nueva Alianza member and Congress President, María Dolores Leal Cantú, presented the same-sex marriage bill.[237]


As of 26 August 2012, a Mexican federal court judge has ordered the state of Oaxaca to perform same-sex marriages based on a recent constitutional amendment which bans discrimination based on sexual orientation. This ruling was reviewed by the Mexican Supreme Court and the Court issued a unanimous ruling overturning the ban on same-sex marriage.[238][239]

In August 2011 three same-sex couples, four women and two men, applied to be married and were denied by the Civil Registry in Oaxaca.[240] In January 2012 an injunction was sought, but was denied on 31 January. The couples appealed the judgment to the Collegiate Courts in Civil and Administrative Matters for the State.[241] On 9 April 2012, one of the lesbian couples was granted permission by a judge to marry in Oaxaca, thus becoming the first approval for same-sex marriage in the state. The case was appealed. On 5 December 2012 the three couples won their appeal from the Supreme Court,[242] but local officials refused to perform the marriages. The case returned to the Supreme Court and an additional ruling in favor of the couples was issued. The first lesbian couple received authorization to marry from the Civil Registrar on 25 February 2013.[240] They were the first same-sex couple married in Oaxaca and celebrated their marriage on 22 March 2013.[243] The male couple, received notice of their authorization on 3 June 2013[242] and on 5 June 2013, the third couple, the second injunction for a lesbian couple, was authorized.[244] On 23 April 2014, the Mexican Supreme Court set further precedent in the State of Oaxaca. The case brought before the Court involved 39 same-sex couples who sought the right to marry, and marked the fourth of five necessary decisions.[245] It was announced in November 2014 that a fourth same-sex marriage had been performed.[246]


On 7 March 2013, a group of activists presented to the Legislature of Puebla a proposal, "The Law of Agnès Torres," which aimed at transforming Articles 831, 931, 932 and 935 of the Civil Code of Puebla and Article 751 of the Code of Civil Procedure to allow legal identity documents which are consistent with the personality and sex/gender identity of personal choice and protect LGBT citizens against discrimination.[247] 8 November 2014, a march was held by activists and supporters, urging the Congress to pass the law to protect identity and approve same-sex marriage.[248] The local Congress vetoed a Civil Unions bill in December 2014.[249] PRD, who backed the Civil Unions bill, have announced their intention to re-introduce the bill in 2015.[250] On 11 June 2015, a member of PRD submitted a marriage bill instead citing the national court decisions in favor of gay couples wanting to marry.[251] On 18 June 2015, it was announced that the marriage proposal will be reviewed in October, giving deputies time to become educated about the proposal before it is submitted for analysis.[252]

There have been as of August 2014, no marriages performed in the state but an important recognition case was granted via injunction 29 January 2014. A gay couple, married in 2012 in Mexico City had filed an injunction after IMSS refused to register the partner of one of the men for spousal benefit. The landmark ruling from the Supreme Court of the Nation required the state and Social Security Institute IMSS to recognize the marriage.[253]

Equal Marriage Mexico, The Citizens Observatory of Sexual and Reproductive Rights, and El Taller AC began collecting signatures for a collective injunction in Puebla in early October 2014 with plans to submit the demand on 12 October.[254] On 15 October 2014, it was confirmed a collective injunction for same-sex marriage had been filed[255] by 36 people from throughout the state hoping to gain the right to same-sex marriage and have Article 294 of the Civil Code declared unconstitutional.[256] In March 2015, reports surfaced that the judge had not ruled for the couples citing a requirement of the plaintiffs to "prove their homosexuality". Activists slammed this as a delay tactic and have appealed to both the local court and the Mexican Supreme Court.[257]

In November 2014 a lesbian couple filed for an amparo and were granted an injunction to marry. The state appealed the decision. 10 July 2015, the Appellate Court upheld the ruling in favor of the couple. Their wedding, which was the first same-sex marriage in the state of Puebla[258] took place on 1 August 2015.[259]


On 28 February 2014, two same-sex couples filed for an injunction against the Civil Registry in Querétaro.[260] In August 2014, an injunction in favor of a lesbian couple was granted making them the first in the state to be allowed to marry.[261] On 25 August 2014, the second injunction was also approved.[262] As the officials did not object to the ruling within the 10 day period required by law, the first same-sex marriage was scheduled for October 2014.[263] The ceremony was held, at the same registry which had previously denied them permission, on 4 October 2014.[264] The third injunction in the state was requested in the first week of October 2014.[265] On 17 January 2015 the male same-sex couple who had applied for an injunction in February wed in Querétaro.[266][267] The third same-sex marriage in Querétaro was celebrated for a male couple on 28 January 2015 and it was announced that the fourth equal marriage for a lesbian couple will take place on 31 January 2015.[268] On 23 April 2015, an injunction filed in August 2014 involving 55 couples was successful after articles 137 and 273 of the state's Civil Code were declared unconstitutional. Another mass injunction is scheduled for May 2015.[269]

10 September 2014, it was announced that the legislature would be considering, in the present session, a Civil Unions bill, as the two prior injunctions obtained were insufficient to require Congress to evaluate same-sex marriage.[270] 28 November 2014, Luis Bernardo Nava Guerrero, president of the Congressional Joint Commission, announced that the legislation would be postponed to 2015.[271]

Quintana Roo[edit]

Same-sex marriages can be performed in Quintana Roo after a decision by the state's Secretary of State.[12] In November 2011, some public officials in the state began performing same-sex marriages after reviewing the state's civil code. The Civil Code of Quintana Roo does not state sex or gender requirements for marriage, only specifying "people interested in getting married".[10] A same-sex couple filed for a marriage license in Cancún and Chetumal after discovering this legal quirk, but both cities rejected their applications, arguing that a man-woman marriage was implied. The couple then applied in Lázaro Cárdenas Municipality, where authorities accepted the application. Quintana Roo's first two same-sex marriages were held in the community of Kantunilkin on 28 November 2011.[272]

Cancún, Cozumel, and other resort areas in Quintana Roo planned to hold a same-sex group wedding in January 2012, but these weddings were suspended upon review by Luis González Flores,[11] the Secretary of State of Quintana Roo.[273][274] In April 2012, the two same-sex marriages performed in Kantunilkin were annulled by Quintana Roo Governor Roberto Borge Angulo,[11] but these annulments were later reversed by González Flores on 3 May 2012, in a decision that allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.[12]

In 2013, a lesbian couple were denied the right to marry and sought an injunction in Tulum. The Court concluded discriminatory acts had occurred and ordered the state to prevent further discrimination against homosexuals, requiring all Civil Registry offices in Quintana Roo to have marriage license applications for same sex couples.[275] After an initial approval, denial of acceptance by the Registry, and an appeal, the injunction was received on 29 July 2014 and the couple were wed on 12 August 2014.[276] A second lesbian couple were married in Tulum on 15 November 2014 and it was announced that the first male same-sex marriage was pending.[277]

In November 2014, it was announced that a bill to officially legalize same-sex marriage in the state would be introduced and voted on in the current legislative session, thereby replacing the loophole used by couples.[278]

San Luis Potosí[edit]

On 28 April 2014, a citizens initiative to change the laws in favor of same-sex marriage was submitted to the Congress of San Luis Potosí. On 8 August 2014, the Deputy Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights and Gender Equity, Miguel Maza Hernández said that analysis of the proposal would begin.[279] On June 17, 2015, Hernández announced the state's commitment to extending marriage to same-sex couples and stated that deliberations would happen after a June 2015 national Supreme Court ruling declaring all laws against same-sex marriage unconstitutional is published in the judicial gazette. Hernández added that although no laws preventing same-sex couples from adopting exist,[280] Congress would prefer to amend the Family Code to codify equal adoption rights along with adding a new marriage law.[281]

In July 2013, a male same-sex couple applied under amparo 459/2014 for the right to marry. On 30 May 2014 the first district court found that Article 15 of the Family Code of San Luis Potosí was discriminatory and 3 June 2014[282] granted the couple an injunction to marry in the state.[283]

26 March 2014,[284] a male couple went to the registrar at San Luis Potosí, were refused marriage, and applied for an injunction 391/2014-III, which was approved 4 August 2014 by the 6th District Court.[285] On 7 August 2014, the First Official of the Civil Registry filed a counter-injunction to avoid recording the marriage.[286] In October 2014, the appeal was denied by the second Appellate Court of the Ninth Circuit and the registrar was ordered to conduct the marriage.[287] In November 2014 the State Commission of Human Rights (ECHR) announced that it was reviewing two complaints from parties who had received injunctions to marry but were being denied by the Civil Registry.[288]

In early September 2014, a lesbian couple applied for the first same-sex license in Ciudad Valles and were advised that state law forbids their union and the previous amparo granted applied only to the couple previously approved.[289]


In January 2013, the Family Code of the state of Sinaloa was changed to limit marriage or cohabitation to couples consisting of a man and a woman. Three injunctions were filed to contest the changes, but two were dismissed.[290] On 12 July 2013, Seventh District Judge Teddy Abraham Torres López, of Los Mochis, granted injunction 262/2013/1 ruling that the Legislature of the state must comply with its obligations of equality and non-discrimination.[291] The case was elevated to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.[292] On 15 April 2015, the SCJN ruled against the state's Family Code citing discrimination.[293] Within the state, 7 gay couples are seeking injunctions against the Civil Registry—3 in Culiacán, 2 in Mazatlán, and 2 in Los Mochis.[294] On 24 September 2014,[295] the Supreme Court granted the 3 injunctions sought in Culiacán and declared Articles 40 and 165 of the Civil Code unconstitutional.[296] In mid-October 2014, 70 people from Mazatlán applied for an injunction in the Ninth District Court, which is the fourth Sinaloan injunction requested in the state.[297]

On 23 November 2014, it was announced that for the first time, the Supreme Court of the Nation extended concubinage to same-sex couples in response to an injunction requested by a lesbian couple.[298]

On 2 September 2014, the deputy Sandra Lara, launched an initiative to amend articles 40 and 165 of the Family Code and allow for same-sex marriage in the state.[299] On 7 October 2014, the first reading of the proposal occurred.[300] On 5 November 2014, the Party of Social Encounter (PES) introduced an initiative into the Sinaloan Congress to prevent same-sex couples from adopting children.[301] In February, 2015, the conservative National Action Party (PAN) introduced a civil unions bill which bans children of same-sex partners from residing with their same-sex parents.[302]


In the northwestern state of Sonora, an initiative to allow same-sex couples to marry was delivered to the state's Congress by former Labor Party candidate for governor, Miguel Angel Haro Moren, in January 2010.[303] The proposal was rejected in February 2010 and the state filed a constitutional challenge against imposing laws of the Civil Code of the Federal District, concerning same-sex marriage, upon Sonora.[304]

An important recognition case was filed in 2013. A male same-sex couple married in Mexico City in July 2012. They returned to Sonora and attempted to enroll as a couple in the Social Security program Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers Sonora. They were denied admittance on 8 October 2012 and filed for an injunction (amparo 2564/2013) with Court of Culiacan, Sinaloa. 9 October 2013 the court granted the injunction holding that the human right to form a family without discrimination had been violated.[305]

In early May, a female couple from municipality of Luis B. Sanchez were denied marriage by the Civil Registry. On 26 May 2014, they for filed an injunction in the Fifth District Court of the Fifteenth Circuit in Mexicali.[306] A hearing was held[307] on 17 September 2014[308][309] and the couple received a favorable ruling [310] on 22 October 2014.[311][312] The wedding was scheduled to take place at the Civil Registry for the municipality of Luis B. Sanchez on 13 February 2015,[313] but was held in a private home with the consent and participation of registry officials.[314]

A second lesbian couple applied for marriage on 11 August 2014 to begin the injunction process.[315] The injunction was granted in February, 2015.[316]

On 1 May 2015, six couples filed an injunction after being denied a marriage license from the Civil Registry in Hermosillo.[317]


After Mexico City's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and LGBT adoption in December 2009, debate resurged in states where civil unions had been previously proposed. In 2009 in the southeastern state of Tabasco, 20 same-sex couples sent a motion to the state legislature asking to allow them to marry.[318] The state's largest political parties, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced their support for same-sex marriage in the 2010 agenda.[319] Despite the support of political parties, there was no legislative will to change the law, so in April 2014 an initiative to reform Article 154 of the Civil Code of the State of Tabasco was presented by the organization Tabasqueños United for Diversity and Sexual Health (Tudysex) to legalize same-sex marriage in Tabasco.[320] In May 2014, the PRD announced that they would be willing to consider Civil Unions in Tabasco.[321] PRD submitted a same-sex marriage and adoption bill on 3 July 2015.[322]

According to a social media post by Alex Ali Mendez, lead attorney for Matrimonio Igualitario México, an amparo for Tabasco was prepared 20 January 2014.[323][324]

On 18 February 2015, the local newspaper announced that the first same-sex marriage had occurred on 13 February after a legal appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice.[325]


In June, 2015, Deputy Olga Sosa Ruiz confirmed that the legislature of Tamaulipas was working on a bill for same-sex marriage. She stated that the reform is complex as they are attempting to remove all discriminatory terms and are working with the gender equality commission awaiting input from the commission of vulnerable groups. She predicted that the law would be passed within the next legislative session.[326]

In 2011, a bill to provide "coexistence" for gay marriage and adoption was being promoted by local organizations in Tamaulipas.[327] In 2012, organizers presented legislators with 25,000 signatures in favor of same-sex marriage.[328] In 2013 the PRD agreed to bring the issue to the legislature and support the proposal.[329] As there appeared to be no legislative desire to act, activists in June 2014 planned to organize a group of LGBT community members to began the injunction process for marriage in Tamaulipas.[330] On 27 June 2014, an Indirect Collective Amparo challenging the constitutionality of the Civil Code Articles 124 and 43 of the State of Tamaulipas was filed in the Nineteenth Circuit Court.[331][332] 57 persons were granted the right to marry in Tamaulipas on 1 October 2014 by federal judges in both the Third District Court based in Nuevo Laredo and the Ninth District court, based in Tampico. The state has 10 days to file an appeal. This was the first time that an injunction has been sought for individuals rather than just couples. Should any of the single parties wish to marry, their partners will be covered.[333] It was also announced by the attorneys representing those seeking injunction, that an additional 68 persons had requested another collective injunction from Tampico.[334][335] 80 persons interested in a collective injunction in Matamoros filed in early October 2014.[336] The amparo for 68 couples filed in Tampico was approved 26 March 2015.[337]


Two bills were presented to the Tlaxcala Congress on 2 October 2009 to legalize gay marriage and eliminate discrimination.[338] The initiative was blocked in 2010 by officials [339] and in fact, the state, along with officials from Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos and Sonora, sent a formal challenge to the acceptance of same-sex marriage passed by the Federal District.[340] In June 2011, activists questioned why no action had been taken and were told that the initiatives were still "climbing the roster."[341][342] In February 2014, a PRD deputy, Eréndira Montiel Jiménez, promised to present new initiatives to eradicate discrimination and for a law of coexistence.[343] The proposed law, introduced on 3 April 2014, outlined the legal framework to eliminate discrimination, to develop a form of coexistence "that has the purpose of marriage or concubinage," and to amend rules of adoption.[344] In June 2014, activists urged Congress to act in favor of same sex marriages and anti-discrimination ordinances which had been submitted by Montiel Jiménez.[345]

In June, 2015, it was announced that since the SCJN's announcement, 15 couples have gone to the Civil Registry in Tlaxcala asking to marry. All have been rejected per state law. The State Commission for Human Rights (ECHR) is helping a lesbian couple with the amparo process and advised that they will assist others in obtaining injunctions.[346]


In March 2014, Cuauhtémoc Pola, deputy MP of "Citizens Movement," presented an initiative to introduce a Partnership of Coexistence law for Veracruz, but no legislative action occurred.[347] In July 2014 a federal judge deemed the current marriage law of Veracruz to be discriminatory.[348] Due to lack of action on the civil unions bill and the federal ruling, Cuauhtémoc Pola, introduced to Congress on 31 July 2014 a reform initiative for Article 75 of the Civil Code for same-sex marriage.[349] In September 2014 Pola confirmed that the bill was still awaiting review by committees.[350] In April 2015, citing disappointment with the stalled civil unions bill, the President of Veracruz's Human Rights Committee announced an intention to hand Congress a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[351]

In February 2014, a male same-sex couple applied for marriage at the Civil Registry in Veracruz and were denied. They filed for an injunction[352] which was granted 22 July 2014.[353] Despite the approval the registrar in Veracruz refused to schedule a ceremony for the couple. After presenting their injunction to the registrar in Boca del Río, the wedding was scheduled for 6 December 2014.[352] The ceremony was conducted at the Civil Registry and it was announced that a second wedding for a lesbian couple is being planned.[354] On 29 January 2015, it was announced that a lesbian couple had won an injunction and would be married in the state on 4 April 2015.[355] It was also announced that there are 8 other pending amparos.[356] On 18 June 2015 the Civil Registrar reported that 4 same-sex couples applied for marriage and were denied due to constitutional prohibitions. The couples were advised they must file an amparo.[357]


In the southeastern state of Yucatán, the local Congress overwhelmingly approved a ban on same-sex marriage in a 24–1 vote on 21 July 2009. The law raised heterosexual marriage and families to the constitutional level via the approval of amendments to the state's Civil Code. The bill was promoted by right-wing organization Pro Yucatán Network to reject all efforts by people of the same sex to form a family and adopt children. PAN politicians justified the ban alleging that "there still aren't adequate conditions within Yucatán society to allow for unions between people of the same sex."[358] The event led to protests outside the local Congress by LGBT organizations, whose leaders were expected to appeal the case to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.[359]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 14 14
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 9 9
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 1 1
PT Party (Mexico).svg Labor Party / CON Party (Mexico).svg Convergence 1 1
Total 25 24 1

On 26 March 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registar of Yucatán to marry. The Civil Registar rejected the bid saying that the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. The couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 1 July the Third District Court of the Yucatán State recognized that they have the right to marry. Since the Civil registrar did not appeal the District Court decision the order (amparo) will take effect.[360] [361]

Four male couples and two lesbian couples went to the civil registry office on 14 August 2013 to request to be married and were denied. They applied for individual injunctions and 3 of them were approved on 4 and 15 November and 17 December 2013 by the Courts in the First, Fourth and Third District. Both of the lesbian couples were approved and one male couple.[362] On 6 January 2014 the first lesbian marriage in Yucatán took place.[363] The second lesbian couple married on 25 January 2014.[364][365] On 18 February 2014, the male couple wed at the Civil Registry of Mérida.[366]

On 17 May 2014 a group of civil society organizations brought a legal action before the Constitutional Court of the State under the guise of "correcting a legislative omission." It was the first time a mechanism to correct an omission had been used in the nation as the basis of a suit. The organizations claimed 10 injunctions had been approved in the state without legislative action. The suit asked for Articles 49 and 94 of the Family Code which limits marriage to one man and one woman to be "considered in the broadest sense and that the gender of its members be undefined."[367] On 26 February 2015, the Constitutional Court of the State of Yucatán announced that it will decide on 2 March whether state prohibitions against same sex marriage are in violation of the federal constitution and international agreements.[368] On 2 March 2015, the constitutional court of Yucatán dismissed the appeal for constitutional action to change the Civil Code. Supporters of amending the code have promised to appeal the decision.[369] In June 2015, they filed a lawsuit against the state's constitutional court in federal court. The suit contends that the constitutional court erred in their decision as the Mexican constitution states that discrimination against the gay community is banned.[370]

In June, 2015, a lesbian couple, who married in Yucatán in 2014 via amparo, obtained an injunction to register the birth of their son with both mother's names. They had attempted attempted to register the birth six months earlier and were denied.[371]


On 18 June 2015, a member of PRD announced that she will submit a bill to reform the state's Civil and Family Codes to give same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual married couples.[372]

Civil unions[edit]

Mexico City[edit]

Being the seat of the Powers of the Union, Mexico City did not belong to any particular state but to all. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to directly elect the Head of Government of the Federal District and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly (ALDF) by popular vote in 1997. Ever since, the center-left Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both political powers.

In the early 2000s, Enoé Uranga, an openly lesbian politician and activist, unsuccessfully pushed a bill that would have legalized same-sex civil unions in Mexico City under the name Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia (LSC; "Law for Coexistence Partnerships").[373] Despite being passed four times by legislative commissions, the bill repeatedly got stuck in plenary voting for its sensitive nature, which could be attributed to the widespread opposition from right-wing groups and then-Head of Government Andrés Manuel López Obrador's ambiguity concerning the bill.[374] Nonetheless, since new left-wing mayor Marcelo Ebrard was expected to take power in December 2006, the ALDF decided to take up the bill and approved it in a 43–17 vote on 9 November.[374]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
Party of the Democratic Revolution 34 33 1
National Action Party 17 16 1
Institutional Revolutionary Party 4 4
New Alliance Party 4 2 1 1
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 3 3
Social Democratic Party 2 2
Labor Party 1 1
Convergence 1 1
Total 66 43 17 5 1

The law was well received by feminist and LGBT groups, including Emilio Álvarez Icaza, then-chairman of the Federal District's Human Rights Commission, who declared that "the law was not a threat to anyone in particular and that it will be a matter of time before it shows positive consequences for different social groups." It was strongly opposed by right-wing groups such as the National Parents' Union and the Roman Catholic Church, which labeled the assemblymen who voted for the law as "sinners" and complained it was "vengeance against the Catholic Church from the more radical groups from the left, who felt it was a demand for justice."[374] The law officially took effect on 16 March 2007.[375] Mexico City's first same-sex civil union was between Jorge Cerpa, a 31-year-old economist, and Antonio Medina, a 38-year-old journalist.[375] As of December 2009, 736 same-sex civil unions have taken place in the city since the law became effective, of which 24 have been annulled (3%).[376]

In early September 2014, modifications to the Civil Union agreement were drafted to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and dissolution support. In essence, the law had provided that upon termination, domestic partners were only allowed support for a period equal to half the length of the partnership. The Supreme Court ruled that the provision was discriminatory as it accorded differential treatment in cases of partnership for cohabitation, marriage or concubinage.[377]

Year Unions Annulled
2007 257 10
2008 268 14
2009 211
Total 736 24


11 April 2013 the Party of the Democratic Revolution introduced a measure to create a Civil Partnership of Coexistence for Campeche.[378] The bill was unanimously passed 20 December 2013, and while it covers both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, it specifically provides that it "shall not constitute a civil partnership of people living together in marriage and cohabitation." An additional distinction is that it is not filed with the Civil Registrar, but with the Public Registry of Property and Trade.[379]

Coahuila de Zaragoza[edit]

The legalization of same-sex civil unions in Coahuila had started to be discussed as early as November 2006, simultaneously with the discussion on-going in Mexico City.[380] On 11 January 2007, the state congress legalized same-sex civil unions under the name Pacto Civil de Solidaridad (PCS, Civil Pact of Solidarity), which gave property and inheritance rights to same-sex couples.[381][382] Twenty days after the law had passed, the country's first same-sex civil union took place in Saltillo, Coahuila. It was between 29-year-olds Karina Almaguer and Karla Lopez, a lesbian couple from Tamaulipas.[383]


In July 2009, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) introduced a formal initiative to legalize civil unions in the western state of Colima.[384] Nevertheless, the following month, the local legislature decided not to take up the initiative, following widespread opposition from right-wing groups.[385] In December 2009, Governor of Colima Mario Anguiano Moreno agreed to discuss the legalization of civil unions and adoption by same-sex couples in the current legislature.[386]

On 4 July 2013, the State Congress approved a new form of union, called "enlace conyugal" (conjugal bond) for same-sex couples, which according to PRI Deputy Martín Flores Castañeda grants the same rights and obligations as marriage, but it is doubtful whether such rights and obligations would be recognized outside the state.[387]


In 2013, deputies of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM), Citizens' Movement (MC) and an independent deputy presented the Free Coexistence Act (Ley de Libre Convivencia).[388] In it is established that same-sex civil unions can be applied in the state, as long as they are not considered as marriages, there is no adoption and they are performed with a civil law notary.[388][389] On 31 October 2013, Jalisco congress approved the Act in a 20–15 vote,[3] one abstained and three were absent.[389] The law took effect on 1 January 2014.[390]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 17 15 1 1
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 13 11 2
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 2 2
PVE Party (Mexico).svg Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 1 1
Movimiento Ciudadano.svg Citizens' Movement 5 1 3 1
     Independent 1 1
Total 39 20 15 1 3


On 27 August 2015, the Justice and Human Rights Committee announced it would enact a civil union law for homosexual couples. It was approved unanimously in a 34-0 vote by the full Michoacán Congress on 7 September 2015.[391][392] The law was published on 30 September 2015 in the state's official journal.[393]

Other states[edit]

Similar bills have been proposed by the PRD in at least six states.[394] On 7 December 2006, a similar bill to that of Mexico City was proposed in Puebla, but it faced strong opposition and criticism from deputies of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN), who declared that "the traditional family is the only social model, and there cannot be another one."[395] On 15 March 2011, the Law of Society for Coexistence was first proposed.[396] After five reviews in the ensuing years,[397] on 8 June 2014 the law was postponed until a later session.[398] 29 September 2014, the legislature announced that there would be no discussion in this term.[399]

A proposal for civil unions was submitted to the legislature of Zacatecas on 30 June 2011 [400] and lawmakers admitted in 2013 that it was not prioritized.[401] In March 2014, legislators again refused to approve the measure.[402]

Public opinion[edit]

In a Parametría poll, conducted from 17 to 20 November 2006, 1,200 Mexican adults were asked if they would support a constitutional amendment that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico. 17% responded yes, 61% said no and 14% had no opinion. The same poll showed 28% in support of same-sex civil unions, 41% were opposed and 28% had no opinion.[403] From 27 to 30 November 2009, major Mexican newspaper El Universal polled 1,000 Mexico City citizens concerning the legalization of same-sex marriage in the city. 50% supported it, 38% were against it and 12% had no idea. The same poll showed that support was stronger among the youngest population (age: 18–29), 67%, and weaker among the oldest (age: 50-onwards), 38%. With 48% the most cited reason was "right of choice" for the supporters, followed by "everybody is equal" with 14%. 39% of the opposers cited "it is not normal" as the main reason to not support same-sex marriage, followed by "we lose values" with 18%.[404]

Guillermo Bustamante Manilla, a PAN member and president of UNPF, as well as the father of Guillermo Bustamante Artasánchez, a law director of the Secretary of the Interior, opposes abortion and same-sex civil unions[405] and has called the latter as "anti-natural."[406] He has publicly asked voters not to cast votes for "abortionists" parties and those who are in favor of homosexual relationships.[407]

A study conducted by Vanderbilt University in 2010 concluded that 37.8% of Mexicans support same-sex marriage.[408]

A poll conducted in July 2013 found a significant increase in support for same-sex marriage, with 52% of Mexicans in favour of legalising same-sex marriage. When broken down by religion, support was 52% among Roman Catholics and 62% among non-religious people. However, in the same poll, only 24% of respondents supported same-sex adoption.[409]

According to Pew Research Center survey, conducted between October 30 and November 12, 2013, 49% of Mexicans supported same-sex marriage, 43% were opposed.[410][411]

In early 2014 the Strategic Communication Cabinet, a statistical consulting services company, published a report called "Social Intolerance In Mexico",[412] in which polls that covered several social issues were conducted in the 45 largest cities and municipalities. The study found that the strongest support for same-sex marriages was registered in Mexico City, Tijuana, San Luis Potosí, Colima and La Paz; whereas it was the weakest in Durango, Ciudad Victoria, Aguascalientes, Chihuahua and Monterrey. Additionally, adoption by same-sex couples was more widely accepted in Mexico City, the border cities of Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, as well as Xalapa and Cancun; meanwhile the least support was found in Chihuahua, Guadalajara, Aguascalientes, Durango and Campeche.

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]