Armenian Genocide recognition: Difference between revisions

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[[Image:Rowan williams garegin ii IMG 2506.JPG|thumb|300px|[[Catholicos of Armenia|Catholicos]] [[Karekin II]] and [[Archbishop of Canterbury|Archbishop]] [[Rowan Williams]] at the [[Armenian Genocide]] monument in [[Yerevan]]]]
 
[[Image:Rowan williams garegin ii IMG 2506.JPG|thumb|300px|[[Catholicos of Armenia|Catholicos]] [[Karekin II]] and [[Archbishop of Canterbury|Archbishop]] [[Rowan Williams]] at the [[Armenian Genocide]] monument in [[Yerevan]]]]
   
To date, twenty countries have officially recognized the [[Armenian Genocide|massacres of Armenians]] committed by the [[Ottoman Empire]] between 1915 and 1923 as '''genocide'''.
 
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To date, twenty countries have officially recognized the [[Armenian Genocide|massacres of Armenians]] committed by the [[Ottoman Empire]] between 1915 and 1923 as '''genocide'''. But it is just politics, in fact, this so called genocide did not happen. Armenian Genocide lie was a tool used in the psychological warfare by England, France and Tsarist Russia in the past. Today, the same warfare tool is in the service of US. imperialism. USA fabricated the Armenian Genocide lie in order to weaken Turkey’s strength since the US. imperialism is planning to redraw map of the Middle East and to expand in this direction the puppet Kurdish state established in the Northern Iraq towards Diyarbakir is in the heart of its new Middle East plans.
   
 
== International organizations ==
 
== International organizations ==

Revision as of 23:11, 25 April 2010

To date, twenty countries have officially recognized the massacres of Armenians committed by the Ottoman Empire between 1915 and 1923 as genocide. But it is just politics, in fact, this so called genocide did not happen. Armenian Genocide lie was a tool used in the psychological warfare by England, France and Tsarist Russia in the past. Today, the same warfare tool is in the service of US. imperialism. USA fabricated the Armenian Genocide lie in order to weaken Turkey’s strength since the US. imperialism is planning to redraw map of the Middle East and to expand in this direction the puppet Kurdish state established in the Northern Iraq towards Diyarbakir is in the heart of its new Middle East plans.

International organizations

There is general agreement among genocide scholars that the events constituted genocide. Several international Armenian organizations, conducting studies of the events, have determined that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–1918."[1]

In 1985 the now-defunct United Nations subsidiary body and think tank,[2] the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities took note and thanked the Special Rapporteur, Benjamin Whitaker, for producing his report called the Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Whitaker Report). The report was controversial for several reasons including the contents of paragraph 24 which listed some genocides in the 20th Century. One of the genocides that the report listed was "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915-1916", the earlier report in 1973 (which is the report being revised and updated by the Whitaker Report) to the Sub-Commission called The Study on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Ruhashyankiko Report) had contained a similar allegation which had been withdrawn in the final version under pressure from Turkey, and although the Whitaker Report mentioned some genocides in the 20th Century, due to disagreements over its content by the members of the Sub-Commission, unlike the Ruhashyankiko Report, it was not forwarded to the parent organisation, the United Nations Human Rights Commission, for approval and wide dissemination.[3][4]

In 1997 the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) passed a resolution unanimously recognizing the Ottoman massacres of Armenians as genocide.[5][6]

That this assembly of the Association of Genocide Scholars in its conference held in Montreal, June 11–13, 1997, reaffirms that the mass murder of over a million Armenians in Turkey in 1915 is a case of genocide which conforms to the statutes of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. It further condemns the denial of the Armenian Genocide by the Turkish government and its official and unofficial agents and supporters.

— Among the prominent scholars who supported the resolution were: Roger W. Smith (College of William & Mary; President of AGS); Israel Charny (Hebrew University, Jerusalem); Helen Fein, Past President AGS); Frank Chalk (Concordia University, Montreal); Ben Kiernan (Yale University); Anthony Oberschall (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Mark Levene (Warwick University, UK); Rhoda Howard (McMaster University, Canada), Michael Freeman (Essex University, UK), Gunnar Heinsohn (Bremen University, Germany)

Since that time the IAGS have repeatedly asserted that the Ottoman massacres of Armenians as genocide for example on 7 March 2009, in an open letter to President Obama, Gregory Stanton, President IAGS stated "we urge you to 'refer to the mass slaughter of Armenians as genocide in your commemorative statement,' as you urged President George W. Bush to do in a letter dated March 18, 2005."[7]

In February 2002 an independent legal opinion commissioned by the International Center for Transitional Justice, concluded that the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–1918 "include[d] all of the elements of the crime of genocide as defined in the [Genocide] Convention, and legal scholars as well as historians, politicians, journalists and other people would be justified in continuing to so describe them".[8]

In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity wrote a letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.[9] Wiesel's organization also asserted that Turkish acknowledgement of the Armenian Genocide would create no legal "basis for reparations or territorial claims", anticipating Turkish anxieties that it could prompt financial or territorial claims.[10]

Other international organizations officially recognizing the Armenian Genocide include:

Parliaments and governments

Although there has been much academic recognition of the Armenian Genocide, this has not always been followed by governmental and media recognition. Many governments, including the governments of Israel and United Kingdom, do not officially use the word "genocide" to describe these events.[21]

On May 24, 1915, during World War I, the Allied Powers (Britain, France, and Russia) jointly issued a statement in which they said that for about a month the Kurd and Turkish populations of Armenia has been massacring Armenians with the connivance and often assistance of Ottoman authorities and that the Allied Powers would hold personally responsible for crimes against humanity all members of the Ottoman Government, implicated in such crimes.[22]

First, in 2001, the Canadian province of Quebec independently of its federal government, then, in 2004, the government of Canada itself recognized the Armenian Genocide.[23][24] In 2007 the Parliament of the State of New South Wales passed a motion condemning the genocide and called on the Australian Federal Government to do the same,[25] and in March 2009 the Parliament of South Australia passed a similar motion.[26]

In recent years, parliaments of several countries, including France and Switzerland, have formally recognized the event as genocide. Turkish entry talks with the European Union were met with a number of calls to consider the event as genocide,[27][28][29] though it never became a precondition.

Political map showing countries which officially recognize the events as genocide. Areas in light green represent countries where certain political parties, provinces and/or municipalities have recognized the events as genocide, independently from the government as a whole.

Sovereign states officially recognizing the Armenian Genocide include:

United States' several official documents are describing the events as genocide (1975,[65] 1984,[66] 1996[67]), President Ronald Reagan also described the events as genocide in his speech on April 22, 1981.[68] Also, 44 of the 50 U.S. states have made individual proclamations recognizing the events of 1915 to 1923 as genocide.[69] As of March 4, 2010, the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs has recognized the massacres of 1915 as 'genocide.'[70]The Armenian Assembly of America (AAA) and the singe largest organisation with the AAA the Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) have as their main lobbying agenda to press Congress and the President of the United States for an increase of economic aid for Armenian (already the second larges per capita after Israel) and the reduction economic and military assistance for Turkey. The efforts also include reaffirmation of a genocide by Ottoman Turkey in 1915.[71]


A major obstacle for wider recognition of the genocide in the world is the position of Turkey, which states there was no will to exterminate population and the 1915 massacres were the consequences of war. Azerbaijan, as an ally of Turkey and in a state of war against Armenia, shares the position of Turkey. Israel, Denmark and United Kingdom believe that the genocide recognition should be discussed by historians not politicians.[72][73] There was a move by activists in Bulgaria to acknowledge the genocide, but it was voted down.[74] Shortly after the decision of the parliament several of the biggest municipalities in Bulgaria accepted a resolution for recognizing the genocide.[75] The resolution was first passed in Plovdiv followed by Burgas, Ruse, Stara Zagora, Pazardzhik and others. Position of the UK is that it condemns the massacres, but did not find them qualified enough under 1948 UN Convention on Genocide to call them genocide and did not believe the UN Convention rules could be applied retroactively.[76]. In 2000 an Early Day Motion recognizing the Armenian Genocide by the UK Parliament was signed by 185 MP's.[77][78]. There is also a movement of Kurdish recognition of the killings as genocide.

The Ukrainian town Izyum recognized the killings as genocide on New Year's Eve 2009 but after lobbying by the Crimea Azerbaijanis community their City Council cancelled that decision on April 1, 2010. This is the first case in the world when the decision on a recognition was cancelled.[79]

Media

Media officially recognizing the Armenian Genocide include:

Recent developments

On 9 September 2004, President Mohammad Khatami of Iran visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial at Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan.[88]

On June 15, 2005 the German Bundestag passed a resolution that "honors and commemorates the victims of violence, murder and expulsion among the Armenian people before and during the First World War". The German resolution also states: "The German parliament deplores the acts of the Government of the Ottoman Empire regarding the almost complete destruction of Armenians in Anatolia and also the inglorious role of the German Reich in the face of the organized expulsion and extermination of Armenians which it did not try to stop. Women, children and elderly were from February 1915 sent on death marches towards the Syrian desert."

The expressions 'organized expulsion and extermination' resulting in the 'almost complete destruction of Armenians' is sufficient in any language to amount to formal recognition of the Armenian Genocide, although of course the crime of 'genocide' had not been legally defined in 1915. The Resolution also contains an apology for German responsibility.[89]

In 2006, the French parliament submitted a bill to create a law that would punish any person denying the Armenian genocide with up to five years' imprisonment and a fine of 45,000.[90] Despite Turkish protests, the French National Assembly adopted a bill making it a crime to deny that Armenians suffered genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.[91] The bill has been criticized as an attempt to garner votes from among the 500,000 ethnic Armenians of France.[92] This criticism has come not only from within Turkey,[93] but also from independent sources, such as Orhan Pamuk, Hrant Dink, former French President Jacques Chirac and U.S. diplomat Daniel Fried.[94][dubious ]

On 10 May 2006, the Bulgarian Government rejected a bill on recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[95] This came after Emel Etem Toshkova, the Deputy Prime Minister of Bulgaria and one of the leaders of the MRF, the main Turkish party in Bulgaria, declared that her party would walk out of the coalition government if the bill was passed. The bill itself was brought forward by the nationalist Ataka party.

International bodies that recognise the Armenian genocide include the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the World Council of Churches and the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal. The International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS), has recognised the 1915 genocide in three different resolutions, the latest (October 5, 2007) extending the recognition to, in addition to Armenians, also inlcude the Assyrians/Syrians and Anatolian and Pontic Greeks among the affected minorities:

WHEREAS the denial of genocide is widely recognized as the final stage of genocide, enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide, and demonstrably paving the way for future genocides;

WHEREAS the Ottoman genocide against minority populations during and following the First World War is usually depicted as a genocide against Armenians alone, with little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire;

BE IT RESOLVED that it is the conviction of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Association calls upon the government of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations, to issue a formal apology, and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward restitution.[96]

On 4 September 2006, Members of the European Parliament voted for the inclusion of a clause prompting Turkey "to recognise the Armenian genocide as a condition for its EU accession" in a highly critical report, which was adopted by a broad majority in the foreign relations committee of the European Parliament.[97][98] This requirement was later dropped on 27 September 2006 by the general assembly of the European Parliament by 429 votes in favor to 71 against, with 125 abstentions.[99] In dropping the pre-condition of acceptance of the Armenian genocide, (which could not be legally demanded of Turkey), The European Parliament said: “MEPs nevertheless stress that, although the recognition of the Armenian genocide as such is formally not one of the Copenhagen criteria, it is indispensable for a country on the road to membership to come to terms with and recognise its past.”

On September 26, 2006, the two largest political parties in the Netherlands, Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the Labour Party (PvdA), removed three Turkish-Dutch candidates for the 2006 general election, because they either denied or refused to publicly declare that the Armenian Genocide had happened. The magazine HP/De Tijd reported that the number 2 of the PvdA list of candidates, Nebahat Albayrak (who was born in Turkey and is of Turkish descent) had acknowledged that the term "genocide" was appropriate to describe the events. Albayrak denied having said this and accused the press of putting words in her mouth, saying that "I'm not a politician that will trample my identity. I've always defended the same views everywhere with regard to the 'genocide'".[100] It was reported that a large section of the Turkish minority were considering boycotting the elections.[101] Netherlands' Turkish minority numbers 365,000 people, out of which 235,000 are eligible to vote.

On November 29, 2006, the lower house of Argentina's parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide. The bill was overwhelmingly adopted by the assembly and declared April 24, the international day of remembrance for the Armenian genocide as an official "day of mutual tolerance and respect" among peoples around the world.

On July 17, 2006, the Brazilian state of Ceará became the second state after São Paulo to ratify a bill recognizing the Armenian Genocide.

On March 8, 2007, Turkish nationalist Doğu Perinçek became the first person convicted by a court of law for denying the Armenian Genocide, found guilty by a Swiss district court in Lausanne. Perinçek appealed the verdict.[102] The conviction was upheld by the Swiss Federal Supreme Court on December 12, 2007.[103]

On April 20, 2007, the Basque Parliament approved an institutional declaration recognizing the Armenian Genocide. The Basque Parliament included six articles where it affirms the authenticity of the Armenian Genocide and declares sympathy to the Armenians, while at the same time denouncing Turkey's negation of the genocide and its economic blockade imposed on Armenia.[104]

On June 5, 2007, the Chilean Senate uninanimously adopted a legislation recognizing the Armenian Genocide and urging its government to support a key 1985 United Nations Subcommission report properly describing this crime against humanity as a clear instance of genocide.[105]

Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League has been criticized by Robert Spencer for not acknowledging the Armenian genocide due to fear of worsening relations between Israel and the republic of Turkey.[106] On August 21, 2007, the Anti-Defamation League recognized the Armenian Genocide as "tantamount to genocide," following their controversial refusal to support the proposed recognition by Representative Adam Schiff.[107][108]

The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs approved HR 106, a bill that categorised and condemned the Ottoman Empire for the Genocide, on October 10, 2007, by a 27-21 vote. However, some of the support for the bill from both Democrats and Republicans eroded after the White House warned against the possibility of Turkey restricting airspace as well as ground-route access for US military and humanitarian efforts in Iraq in response to the bill.[109] Passage of the bill is currently in doubt.

In response to the House Foreign Affairs Committee's decision on the bill, Turkey ordered their ambassador to the United States to return to Turkey for "consultations."[110]

On November 23, 2007, the Mercosur parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the “Armenian Genocide, perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire, which took 1.5 million lives from 1915 to 1923.” The Mercosur resolution also expressed its support for the Armenian Cause and called on all countries to recognize the Genocide.[111]

On January 19, 2008 then U.S. Senator, now U.S. President Barack Obama released a statement: "Two years ago, I criticized the Secretary of State for the firing of U.S. Ambassador to Armenia, John Evans, after he properly used the term "genocide" to describe Turkey's slaughter of thousands of Armenians starting in 1915. I shared with Secretary Rice my firmly held conviction that the Armenian Genocide is not an allegation, a personal opinion, or a point of view, but rather a widely documented fact supported by an overwhelming body of historical evidence. The facts are undeniable. An official policy that calls on diplomats to distort the historical facts is an untenable policy. As a senator, I strongly support passage of the Armenian Genocide Resolution (H.Res.106 and S.Res.106), and as President I will recognize the Armenian Genocide."[112] On April 24, 2009, the President of U.S. Barack Obama stated:

"I have consistently stated my own view of what occurred in 1915, and my view of that history has not changed. My interest remains the achievement of a full, frank and just acknowledgment of the facts."[113]

To date, 44 U.S. states have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide.[114]

On March 29, 2000 the Swedish parliament approved a report, recognizing the Armenian Genocide and calling for Turkey's greater openness and an "unbiased independent and international research on the genocide committed against the Armenian people".[115] On June 12, 2008, the Swedish parliament, with a vote 245 to 37 (1 abstain, 66 absent), rejected a call for recognition of the 1915 genocide in the Ottoman Empire. On June 11, a long debate took place in the Swedish Parliament in regard to the Foreign Committee report on Human Rights, including five motions calling upon the Swedish Government and Parliament to officially recognize the genocide.[116] The MPs adhered to the recommendation by the Swedish Foreign Ministry and Foreign Committee, arguing that there are "disagreements among scholars" in regard to the nature of the WWI events in Turkey, the non-retroactive nature of the UN Genocide Convention, and that the issue "should be left to historian". However, the Foreign Committee report stated that "The Committee understands that what happened to Armenians, Assyrians/Syrians and Chaldeans during the Ottoman Empire's reign would probably be regarded as genocide according to the 1948 convention, if it had been in power at the time of the event."[117] Three days prior to the debate in the Parliament, a petition, signed by over 60 renowned genocide scholars was published, calling on politicians in general, and the Swedish parliamentarians in specific, not to abuse the name of science in denying a historic fact.[118] On March 11, 2010, the Swedish parliament finally recognized the 1915 genocide.[119]

In December 2008, a group of Turkish intellectuals launched an online petition for people who want to apologize in a personal capacity. The writers of the petition used the word "the Great Disaster" regarding the events. The petition, hosted at http://www.ozurdiliyoruz.com/ (Turkish for "We apologize"), gained upwards of 10,000 signatures in a matter of days. In the face of a backlash,[120] the Turkish president defended the petition, citing freedom of speech.[121] An opposition group soon launched a Web site called http://www.ozurbekliyorum.com/ (Turkish for "I expect an apology"), raising an even higher number of signatures. The Prime Minister sided with the opposition, and a national debate ensued.[122] Turkish citizens of Armenian descent watch from the sidelines.[123]

On January 27, 2010 First Minister of Wales Carwyn Jones recognized the Armenian Genocide on Holocaust Memorial Day.[124]

On March 4, 2010 the House Foreign Affairs Committee (USA) passed a non-binding resolution describing the killing of Armenians by Turkish forces during World War I as genocide.[125] The resolution was approved by 23 votes to 22 by the committee and "calls on President Barack Obama to ensure that US foreign policy reflects an understanding of the 'genocide' and to label the World War I killings as such in his annual statement on the issue." [126]

On March 5, 2010, the Catalonian Parliament recognized the Armenian Genocide on the initiative of the members of Barcelona’s Friendship Union with Armenia.[127]

On March 11, 2010 the Swedish Parliament voted to describe the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Empire in 1915 as Genocide. The resolution was adopted with 131 deputies voting in favour of the resolution and 130 voting against it.

On March 25,2010 the Serbian Radical Party submitted a draft resolution to the Serbian parliament condemning the genocide committed by Ottoman Turkey against Armenians from 1915 to 1923. SRS submitted the draft so that Serbia can join the countries which have condemned the genocide. [4]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Turkey Recalls Envoys Over Armenian Genocide, International Center for Transitional Justice, May 8, 2006
  2. ^ UN ‘think tank’ winds up by proposing expert body to advise Human Rights Council, UN news centre, 25 August 2006
  3. ^ Inazumi, Mitsue (2005). Universal jurisdiction in modern international law: expansion of national jurisdiction for prosecuting serious crimes under international law, Intersentia nv, ISBN 9050953662, 9789050953665. pp. 72–75
  4. ^ Schabas, William (2000). Genocide in international law: the crimes of crimes, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521787904, 9780521787901 465–468
  5. ^ The Armenian Genocide Resolution Unanimously Passed By The Association of Genocide Scholars of North America, The Armenian Genocide Resolution was unanimously passed at the Association of Genocide Scholars’ conference in Montreal on June 13, 1997.
  6. ^ Open letter to President Obama calling for acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide, website of the IAGS, 7 March 2009. p. 2
  7. ^ >Open letter to President Obama calling for acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide, website of the IAGS, 7 March 2009. p. 1
  8. ^ The Applicability of the United Nations Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide to the events which occurred during the early twentieth century. The memorandum was drafted by independent legal counsel and not by the ICTJ. The memorandum is a legal, not a factual or historical, analysis., http://www.ictj.org/en/index.html, February 2002.
    • Page 2: "This memorandum was drafted by independent legal counsel based on a request made to the International Center for Transitional Justice ("ICTJ"), on the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding ("MoU") entered into by The Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission ("TARC") on July 12, 2002 and presentations by members of TARC on September 10, 2002".
    • Page 18: D. Conclusion "... Because the other three elements identified above have been definitively established, the Events, viewed collectively, can thus be said to include all of the elements of the crime of genocide as defined in the Convention, and legal scholars as well as historians, politicians, journalists and other people would be justified in continuing to so describe them."
  9. ^ Nobel Laureates Call For Armenian–Turkish Reconciliation, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, April 10, 2007
  10. ^ David L. Phillips (2007-04-09). "Nobel Laureates Call for Turkish–Armenian Reconciliation" (PDF). The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-09. 
  11. ^ European Parliament Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  12. ^ European Parliament Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  13. ^ European Parliament Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  14. ^ European Parliament Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ World Council of Churches, August 10, 1983, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  17. ^ Human Rights Association of Turkey, Istanbul Branch, April 24, 2006, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  18. ^ European Alliance of YMCAs, July 20, 2002, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  19. ^ Permanent Peoples' Tribunal, Verdict of the Tribunal, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  20. ^ Mercosur, November 24, 2007
  21. ^ Armenian National Institute, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  22. ^ 1915 declaration
  23. ^ Sen Serge Joyal, PC, OC, OQ (June 7, 2001). "Recognition and Commemoration of Armenian Genocide". 
  24. ^ "Canadian Parliament recognizes Armenian Genocide". CBC.ca. April 25, 2004. 
  25. ^ Home->Hansard & Papers->Legislative Assembly->17 April 1997, Armenian Genocide Commemoration Item 4 of 35, Parliament of New South Wales
  26. ^ South Australia Passes Armenian Genocide Motion Armenian National Committee of Australia, 25 March 2009. Also Search of the Parliamentary database
  27. ^ "Turkey 'must admit Armenia dead'". BBC News Online. December 13, 2004. 
  28. ^ "French in Armenia 'genocide' row". BBC News Online. 12 October 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Cyprus government condemns Armenian genocide". Financial Mirror. 24 April 2007. 
  30. ^ Argentina Law, March 18, 2004, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  31. ^ Argentina Law, January 15, 2007
  32. ^ Argentina Senate Resolution, May 5, 1993, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  33. ^ Argentina Senate Resolution, April 20, 2005, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  34. ^ Argentina Senate Resolution, August 20, 2003, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  35. ^ [Закон Армянской Советской Социалистической Республики "Об осуждении геноцида армян 1915 года в Османской Турции", Ведомости Верховного Совета Армянской ССР, 1988, 30 ноября, № 22, с. 312]
  36. ^ Belgium Senate Resolution, March 26, 1998, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  37. ^ Canada House of Commons Resolution, April 23, 1996, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  38. ^ Canada Senate Resolution, June 13, 2002, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  39. ^ Canada House of Commons Resolution, April 21, 2004
  40. ^ Chile Senate Resolution, June 5, 2007, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  41. ^ Cyprus House of Representatives Resolution, April 29, 1982
  42. ^ Bill adopted by the French National Assembly, May 28, 1998, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  43. ^ Bill adopted by the French Senate, November 7, 2000, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  44. ^ French Law no. 2001-70 of January 29, 2001, relating to the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  45. ^ (in French) Legislative file, French National Assembly
  46. ^ Legislative file, French Senate
  47. ^ (in French) Official text of Law no. 2001-70 of January 29, 2001
  48. ^ Recognition of the Armenian Genocide - List of countries
  49. ^ Greece (Hellenic Republic) Parliament Resolution, April 25, 1996, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  50. ^ Iran recognized the Armenian Genocide in September 2004 during a visit by the Iranian President., [2]
  51. ^ Lithuania Assembly Resolution, December 15, 2005, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  52. ^ Lebanon Chamber of Deputies Resolution, April 3, 1997, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  53. ^ Netherlands Parliament Resolution, December 21, 2004, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  54. ^ Poland Parliament Resolution, April 19, 2006, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  55. ^ Russia Duma Resolution, april 14, 1995, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  56. ^ Slovakia Resolution, November 30, 2004
  57. ^ Recognition of the Armenian Genocide - List of countries
  58. ^ Switzerland (Helvetic Confederation) National Council Resolution, December 16, 2003, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  59. ^ CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT REFUSED TO CANCEL THE DECISION TO RECOGNIZE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE, PanARMENIAN.Net (June 25, 2005)
  60. ^ Родной штат Обамы признал Геноцид армян, Regnum, 2009 (in Russian)
  61. ^ Uruguay Senate and House of Representatives Resolution, April 20, 1965, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  62. ^ Uruguay Law, March 26, 2004, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  63. ^ Vatican City Communiqué, November 10, 2000, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  64. ^ Venezuela National Assembly Resolution, July 14, 2005, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  65. ^ U_S_ House of Representatives Joint Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  66. ^ House of Representatives Joint Resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  67. ^ House of Representatives Joint Resolution
  68. ^ Ronald Reagan, Proclamation, 22 April, 1981
  69. ^ The 42 states of the United States recognizing the Armenian Genocide. Armenian National Institute, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  70. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2010-03/05/c_13197636.htm
  71. ^ Cameron, Fraser United States foreign policy after the Cold War The Armenain-American´lobby, Routledge 2002 pp.91
  72. ^ "No Policy Change over "Armenian Genocide": Israel". May 02, 2000.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  73. ^ "(AFP)Denmark does not recognise Armenian genocide: minister". January 10, 2008. 
  74. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament Rejected Armenian Genocide Recognition Bill". January 10, 2008. 
  75. ^ "Bulgaria's Dobrich Recognizes Armenian Genocide". May 27, 2009. 
  76. ^ "Armeniangenocide - epetition Government's response;". December 07, 2007.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  77. ^ Time to recognise the Armenian genocide, by Vahe Gabrielyan, New Statesman, 12 October 2007
  78. ^ [http://www.panarmenian.net/news/eng/?nid=23853 Over 200 British MPs recognize Armenian Genocide 25.10.2007, PanARMENIAN.Net]
  79. ^ Izyum City Council cancels its decision on recognition of so-called Armenian genocide, Azerbaijan Press Agency (April 1, 2010)
  80. ^ The New York Times: Events of 1915 were not a “massacre”, it was genocide
  81. ^ Associated Press Never Wrote of Armenian Genocide in Quotes
  82. ^ Leading Armenian journalist murdered in Istanbul, Times Online, 2007
  83. ^ ANCA Press Release
  84. ^ House Panel Raises Furor on Armenian Genocide, By Steven Lee Myers and Carl Hulse, Spiegel, 2007
  85. ^ Survivors protest at Israel's stance on Armenian genocide, by Donald Macintyre in Jerusalem, The Independent, 2007
  86. ^ Премьер Турции не собирается извиняться за геноцид армян, Izvestia, 2008
  87. ^ 2010,
  88. ^ International Affirmation and Recognition of the Armenian Genocide, OurArarat.com, April 2005
  89. ^ Bundestag resolution, Armenian National Institute, Inc., June 15, 2005
  90. ^ (in French) Proposition de loi complétant la loi n° 2001-70 du 29 janvier 2001 relative à la reconnaissance du génocide arménien de 1915, National Assembly of France, 12 April 2006: bill proposing that denying the Armenian genocide shall be punished likewise to the denial of the Jewish Holocaust
  91. ^ (in French) legislative file of the French National Assembly; vote tally
  92. ^ "Accusation of an attempt to garner votes". BBC News Online. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  93. ^ "French politicians pass Armenian genocide bill". CBC.ca. October 12, 2006. 
  94. ^ (in Turkish) Orhan Pamuk Fransa'yi kinadi, Internet Haber, 13 October 2006
  95. ^ Bulgarian Parliament Rejected Armenian Genocide Recognition Bill, Pan-Armenian Network, 1 April 2006
  96. ^ IAGS, Resolutions & Statements
  97. ^ MEPs back Armenia genocide clause in Turkey report, Lucia Kubosova, EU Observer, 5 September 2006
  98. ^ "Parliament faces crucial enlargement decisions". EurActiv. 
  99. ^ "European Parliament critical of slowdown in Turkey's reform process" (Press release). European Parliament. 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  100. ^ ‘I did not say proved genocide took place’, Turkish Daily News, October 9, 2006
  101. ^ "Turkish to boycott election over Armenian 'genocide'". Expatica News. October 5, 2006. 
  102. ^ "Turkish politician fined over genocide denial". Swissinfo with agencies. March 9, 2007. 
  103. ^ Decision no. 6B_398/2007 (in French)
  104. ^ (in Spanish) "En el 90.º aniversario del genocidio armenio". Basque Parliament. 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  105. ^ [3]
  106. ^ Robert Spencer (2007-09-04). "Abe Foxman's Fear". FrontPage Magazine. Retrieved 2007-09-05. 
  107. ^ ADL Statement on the Armenian Genocide, Abraham H. Foxman, Anti-Defamation League, August 21, 2007.
  108. ^ Under pressure, ADL admits: Turks' Armenian massacre was genocide, Shmuel Rosner, Haaretz, August 22, 2007
  109. ^ Bush opposes Armenian genocide measure, Desmond Butler, Associated Press, October 10, 2007
  110. ^ Turkey Recalls Ambassador to U.S. Over Armenian Genocide Bill, Associated Press, October 11, 2007.
  111. ^ Mercosur recognizes the Armenian Genocide
  112. ^ "Barack Obama on the Importance of US-Armenia Relations". barackobama.com. January 19, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2009. 
  113. ^ Statement of President Barack Obama on Armenian Remembrance Day, 2009
  114. ^ Родной штат Обамы признал Геноцид армян, Regnum, 2009 (in Russian)
  115. ^ Sweden Parliament Report
  116. ^ "PanArmenian.net - Swedish Parliament Refuses to Recognize Armenian Genocide". June 12, 2008. 
  117. ^ Foreign Committee response to motions calling on the Swedish Parliament to recognise the Armenian Genocide
  118. ^ http://itwasgenocide.armenica.org Petition signed by over 60 gencide scholars urging to recognise the 1915 genocide for what it is
  119. ^ http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LDE62A2IJ.htm
  120. ^ "'Ermenilerden özür dileyenler tarihî gerçekleri saptırıyor'". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  121. ^ "Turkish pres defends apology campaign to Armenians". Hurriyet English. 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  122. ^ "Turkish PM scorns Armenia apology". BBC News. 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-18.  |section= ignored (help)
  123. ^ Sevimay, Devrim (2008-12-22). "Bu kampanya hem geç, hem çok erken.." Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-22.  |section= ignored (help)
  124. ^ http://eafjd.eu/spip.php?breve2353
  125. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8550765.stm
  126. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8550765.stm
  127. ^ Catalonia Parliament recognizes the Armenian Genocide