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A recording session in Denmark
|Names||Record producer, music producer|
|Competencies||Instrumental skills, keyboard knowledge, songwriting, arranging, vocal coaching|
|Recording engineer, executive producer, film producer, A&R|
A record producer or music producer or track producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process. The roles of a producer vary. He or she may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements.
A producer may also:
- Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos
- Propose changes to the song arrangements, and
- Coach the singers and musicians in the studio
The producer typically supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, and provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may also pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies' budget.
A record producer or music producer has a very broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, and supervising the entire process through audio mixing (recorded music) and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers also often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. In the 2010s, the recording industry has two kinds of producers with different roles: executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the creative process of recording songs or albums.
In most cases the music producer is also a competent arranger, composer, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer often selects or gives suggestions to the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools and creates a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, which is in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer. The producer will also liaise with the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording, whereas the executive producer keeps an eye on the overall project's marketability.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producer's job is to create, shape, and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will typically develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate.
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At the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live.
The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments. The development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos and orchestral parts) had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline, drums and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, and then the vocals and solos could be added later, using as many "takes" (or attempts) as it took. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, and then a horn section could be brought in a week later to add horn shots and punches, and then a string section could be brought in a week after that.
While this facilitated the recording process and allow multiple takes, multitrack recording had another profound effect on music production: it enabled producers and audio engineers to create new sounds that would be impossible to do in a live performance-style recording. Examples include the psychedelic rock sound effects of the 1960s, e.g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects. During the same period, the instruments of popular music began to shift from the acoustic instruments of traditional music (piano, upright bass and acoustic guitar) to electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers and speaker enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create sound.
Electric and electronic instruments and amplifiers enabled performers and producers to change the tone and sound of instruments to produces unique electric sounds that would be impossible to achieve with acoustic instruments and live performers, such as having a singer do her own backup vocals or having a guitarist play 15 layers of backing parts to her own solo.
New technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording: A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, the producer cut and edited sections together from extensive improvisation sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio. Other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in the 1960s was the emergence of the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys and The Kinks gained expertise in studio recording techniques, many of these groups eventually took over as (frequently uncredited) producers of their own work. Many recordings by acts such as The Rolling Stones, The Kinks and The Who are officially credited to their various producers at the time, but a number of these performers have since asserted that many of their recordings in this period were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or collaborations between the group and their recording engineer (e.g. The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which were made with Olympic Studios engineer Glyn Johns).[nb 1]
The Beach Boys are probably the best example of the trend of artists becoming producers – within two years of the band's commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian Wilson had taken over from his father Murry, and he was sole producer of all their recordings between 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Beatles and Martin, Wilson also pioneered many production innovations – by 1964 he had developed Spector's techniques to a new level of sophistication, using multiple studios and multiple "takes" of instrumental and vocal components to capture the best possible combinations of sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to assemble a perfect composite performance from these elements.
At the end of the 20th century, digital recording and producing tools, then widespread availability of relatively affordable computers with music software made music producing more accessible.
Equipment and technology
There are numerous technologies utilized by record producers. In modern-day recordings, recording and mixing tasks are commonly centralized within computers using Digital Audio Workstations such as Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and FL Studio, which all are often used with third party virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Pro and Pro Tools are considered the industry standard DAWs. However, there is also the main mixer, outboard effects gear, MIDI controllers, and the recording device itself.
While most music production is done using sophisticated software, some musicians and producers prefer the minutiae of older analog technology. Professor Albin Zak claims that the increased automation of both newer processes and newer instruments reduces the level of control and manipulation available to musicians and producers.
Production has changed drastically over the years with advancing technology. Where the producer's role has changed, they have always been seen as a jack of all trades, as their duties require a broad knowledge of the recording process.
Pre-production refers to all the steps that bands take to prepare before they record their song or album. Many producers begin their role at this phase, which also includes songwriting and arrangement. The songwriting process for the producer is usually much more a role of critiquing than actual writing, but it is not uncommon to see them collecting royalties from artists they have produced for lyrics in their songs.
Other aspects of pre-production include running through the song with the band and simply looking for what doesn't fit, then making the call to cut the area from the song or not. The producer may listen to the song and make suggestions about changing the arrangement or instrumentation (e.g., replacing an electric bass with an upright bass for a rockabilly song). In some cases, pre-production may involve recording the songs so that the producer and the band can hear how the arrangement and performance sounds. This pre-production recording may lead the band to modify the song and its arrangement.
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) or in some cases to tape. Even though digital technologies have widely supplanted the use of tape in studios, the older term "track" is still used in the 2010s. Tracking audio is primarily the role of the audio engineer. Producers work side by side with the artists while they play or sing their part and coach them on how to perform it and how to get the best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). In some cases the producer will even sing a backup vocal or play an instrument.
Post-production, commonly referred to as mixing, is the phase after tracking; the artist is far less involved in this stage. This will typically start with finalizing the arrangement via moving around audio files and cutting the instruments from the mix that are no longer necessary. After this the audio engineer will use effects to create the desired sound from each track within their DAW (Digital Audio Workstation). After this it is moved on to mastering, which is usually the end of the producer's role in the project. A mastering engineer makes the final adjustments to a recording (compression, levels, etc.) so that the song meets the professional standards of songs for radio airplay or CD release.
- Similarly, although The Beatles' productions were credited to George Martin throughout their recording career, many sources now attest that Lennon and McCartney in particular had an increasing influence on the production process as the group's career progressed, and especially after the band retired from touring in 1966. In an extreme example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation as The Beatles were recording The White Album; production of several completed tracks on the album were credited to The Beatles on internal paperwork at Abbey Road Studios, although the released LP gave sole production credit to Martin.
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