Recreation Park (Pittsburgh)
|Former names||Union Park, 3A Park, Pittsburgh Coliseum|
|Location||Allegheny City, PA (pre-1907)
Pittsburgh, PA (post-1907)
Pittsburgh Enterprises, Xanthas and Olympics (circa. 1876–circa. 1887)
Pittsburgh Allegheny (IA) (1877-1878)
Pittsburgh Alleghenys (AA) (1884–1886)
Pittsburgh Alleghenys (NL) (1887-1890)
Pittsburgh Panthers football (1898–1904)
Pittsburgh Stars (NFL) (1902)
|Official name||First Professional Football Game|
|Designated||November 3, 1992|
Recreation Park was a sporting grounds and stadium located in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries. It was the first National League (NL) home for the Pittsburgh Pirates (at the time referred to as the Alleghenys) of Major League Baseball. It also hosted the football team of the University of Pittsburgh, (then known as the Western University of Pennsylvania). In November 1892, the park was the location of the first known American football game that included a professional player. There are no known pictures of the grounds situated in its baseball stadium format, though some newspaper photos of later football games played there do survive.
Known prior to 1885 as Union Park, the stadium had an initial capacity of 2,500, and was later expanded with wooden grandstands to allow up to 17,000 spectators. After the Alleghenys moved a few blocks south in 1890, the main tenant would become the Allegheny Athletic Association, and the grounds would eventually be referred to as 3A Park. Beyond the turn of the 20th century, it was called the Pittsburgh Coliseum in line with the cycling phase. The park was located within the blocks of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and Grant (now Galveston) Avenues and Boquet (now Behan) Street on what is now Pittsburgh's Northside. In 2001, the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pirates built stadiums not far from this site.
In the late 1860s and early 70s, no less than three local amateur baseball teams—the Enterprise Club, the Xanthas, and the Olympics—competed, most often at Union Park. In 1876 a professional Allegheny club played its first game against the Xantha club at Union Park, winning 7-3. This club lasted for three years, playing mostly other squads from the northeast within the International Association, but occasionally taking on National League teams in exhibition games. One long remembered match took place in early May, 1877, when Pud Galvin both threw a shutout and hit a home run for the only score in a 1-0 game against the Boston Red Stockings. The 1882-organized Pittsburgh Alleghenys of the American Association (AA) moved from an early rendition of Exposition Park to Union Park in 1884 . They posted a record of 18–37 at home that season, finishing 11th in the league. In 1887, owner William A. Nimick transferred the club into the NL, and on April 30, the Alleghenies defeated the Chicago White Stockings by a score of 6–2 in front of 10,000 spectators. This was the first officially recognized contest of the Pittsburgh Pirates franchise. Prior to one game during that season, Pittsburgh's catcher Fred Carroll, buried his pet monkey beneath home plate. Also during that season, a local businessman by the name of Walter Brown organized what would be an early attempt of a league for black ball players, with his Pittsburgh Keystones taking up residence at the park.
In 1891, after the collapse of the Pittsburgh Burghers baseball franchise of the Players' League, the Alleghenys moved to the third incarnation of Exposition Park, which had been constructed for the Burghers.
On November 12, 1892, the Allegheny Athletic Association football team hosted a game here against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. The Allegheny Athletic Association won the game, which was the first in professional football. In 1902, a Pittsburgh Pirates-backed football team, the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League, played all of its home games at the field. The Stars would go on to win the league's only championship against the Philadelphia Athletics, by a score of 11-0, at the field. The Western University of Pennsylvania (WUP) played their first game of the 1898 season at Recreation Park, defeating Westminster 5–0. Though WUP did play some games at Exposition Park as early as 1900, games were still hosted at Recreation Park until the University signed an exclusive contract with Exposition Park in 1904.
Pirates owner Barney Dreyfuss secured a lease on the park in 1901 as a preventative measure to keep the upstart American League from establishing a competing baseball franchise in Pittsburgh. Hoping also to profit from the grounds, Dreyfuss put in a modern bicycle track to be used for motor-paced races featuring the stars of the sport. Baseball umpire and boxing referee Tim Hurst was manager of the facility, which opened in May 1902 under a name variously spelled as "Colosseum" or "Coliseum." The track was a smooth wooden oval with 20-foot-high bankings and encompassed a multipurpose field. Surrounding the track was newly built seating for 7,000 spectators, comprising two covered grandstands—one each on the north and south sides—and open bleachers. The venture was not long in proving a failure: Cycling did not catch on as a spectator sport, and the stadium's alternative use as a football venue was less than lucrative. No longer fearing an invasion by an opposition baseball team, Dreyfuss let the lease expire in April 1904. The track was torn down and the grounds turned back over to the owners.
Beyond simply major sporting events, the park often also doubled as a venue for circuses, carnivals, various ethnic and holiday celebrations, and track meets. Prior to the evolution of the Exposition grounds for major gatherings, Union Park was a main local gathering place, sitting immediately next to the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway,, that could easily and closely accommodate large crowds for exhibitors. Popular national figures such as Adam Forepaugh and P. T. Barnum would often hold their shows here, spending sometimes up to three days before moving off to other, more typical one night shows in smaller towns.
Recreation Park has a reference in the city directory as late as 1914, but the open land was (even since the early 1900s) covered over by various industrial buildings
- "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (SEARCHABLE DATABASE). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- Lieb, Frederick (1948). The Pittsburgh Pirates. New York: GP Putnam's Sons reprinted 2003 by Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-2492-X.
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- "The Pittsburghs". Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette. March 5, 1885. p. 6.
- "Exposition Park". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 2006-07-11. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- "Pittsburgh Pirates Attendance, Stadiums and Park Factors". Pittsburgh Pirates. BaseballReference.com. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- "1884 Pittsburg Alleghenys". Pittsburgh Pirates. BaseballReference.com. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- "1887-1900". Pirates Timeline. PittsburghPirates.com. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- "Nov. 12: Birth of pro football". Pro Football History. ProFootballHOF.com. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- Carroll, Bob (1980). "Dave Berry and the Philadelphia Story" (PDF). Coffin Corner (Professional Football Researchers Association) 2 (Annual): 1–9.
- Western University of Pennsylvania. "Foot Ball.". Western University courant 14 (1): 27. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- Western University of Pennsylvania. "Athletics". Western University courant 16 (2): 46. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- Alberts, Robert C. (1986). Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh, 1787-1987. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7.
- "The Colosseum Track Will Be Destroyed". The Pittsburgh Gazette. 8 April 1904. p. 9.
- "The New Bicycle Track". The Pittsburg Post. 19 May 1902. p. 6.
- "Dreyfuss' Doings" (PDF). Sporting Life 42 (7): 2. 31 October 1903. (See also "Pittsburg Points" on the same page.)
- Flickr album with various photos of the park in its "Colosseum" phase
Exposition Park I
|Home of the Pittsburgh Pirates
Exposition Park III
Exposition Park III
|Home of the Pittsburgh Panthers
Exposition Park III