Red–Green Alliance (Denmark)
|Political spokesperson||Pernille Skipper|
|Founded||2 December 1989|
|Merger of||Left Socialists
Communist Party of Denmark
Socialist Workers Party
Communist Workers Party independents
|Headquarters||Studiestræde 24, 1
1455 København K
|Youth wing||None, though cooperating with Socialist Youth Front|
|Political position||Left-wing to far-left|
|European affiliation||Party of the European Left
European Anticapitalist Left
|European Parliament group||None|
14 / 179
0 / 13(Red–Green Alliance)
1 / 13(People's Movement against EU, which was supported by this party)
15 / 205
119 / 2,444
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The Red–Green Alliance (Danish: Enhedslisten – De Rød-Grønne, literally Unity List – The Red–Greens, abbreviated Enhl., Ø) is a socialist and green political party in Denmark. It is the most left-wing party in the Danish Parliament, advocating for socialist democracy in Denmark and internationally.
The Red–Green Alliance was formed in 1989. The party's objective is fundamental changes in the property rights to the means of production towards the domination of more collective-based property rights, as well as to establish a socialist economy, based on the principles of democratic socialism, solidarity, and ecology.
It is the only party in the Folketing that has a collective leadership.
Political and ideological position
The party's ideological position is set out in a manifesto from 2003. It defines socialism as a form of society which will, in the long-term, lead to classlessness. The methods advocated may be different, depending on the course of class struggle, but will eventually require a revolution. Through this revolution, ownership of private property of the means of production should be transferred to the working class, while still guaranteeing democratic rights.
- "The abolition of private ownership of the means of production is an important prerequisite for socialism, but it is far from sufficient. This is shown especially in the experience of the alleged socialist societies where a small, privileged minority exerted a dictatorship at the expense of the majority of the population."
The party often adopts particular views in relation to the other parties in the Folketing and opt out of many of the settlements reached, seen as an expression of class collaboration. Until the conditions for the party's long-term goal are presented, however, the party will use its seats in parliament to vote for any improvement and against any deterioration of working-class people's lives. In line with this, the party agreed at its national conference in 2010 that if Helle Thorning-Schmidt became Prime Minister after the 2011 election, the party would vote for a "red" budget bill that did not contain obvious flaws.
The party places great emphasis on the fight against social inequality and poverty, and is in favour of strengthening and expanding the welfare state. The party believes there is place in society for all forms of diversity, including gender, sexuality, disability and ethnic background. It also advocates for a larger public sector, among other things, to improve quality of life for public sector employees.
The party believes people should be free to choose when they want to get an education and is opposed to tuition fees, which they believe harm opportunities for everyone to acquire an education. The party does not see unemployment as being equal to laziness and seeks to abolish the Danish equivalent of workfare.
The party is decisively anti-capitalist and has particularly distinguished itself as an opponent of transfer pricing, whereby multinational companies minimise the amount they pay in tax by attributing their profits to countries with lower tax rates.
According to the party, the global economic crisis should be resolved through the stricter control of loans, the introduction of a Tobin tax, and the nationalisation of the banks and mortgage companies. It says the public sector must be expanded, the wages of the lowest-paid workers should be raised, and the insurance-based unemployment benefit period should be extended to a minimum of four years. At the same time, students should be given a greater state education grant. At minimum, all benefits should be raised to 13,500 kroner per month before taxes.
The party advocates for foreign policy based on respect for human rights, which it believes has not been appropriately prioritised in the past. It also proposes greater support for developing countries through a doubling of foreign aid, and campaigns for Denmark's withdrawal from NATO and the European Union.
The party operates on the fundamental belief that peace is preferable to war, and has been opposed from the beginning to Denmark's participation in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, that principle was challenged in 2011, when the party's parliamentary group voted in favour of Danish participation in the UN-sanctioned military action in Libya on the basis that it was a humanitarian action. However, the decision led to significant backlash, and the party's support was pulled back after the military intervention began.
The party was formed in 1989 as an electoral alliance of three left-wing parties: Left Socialists (VS), Communist Party of Denmark (DKP), and Socialist Workers Party (SAP). Originally the plan was to unite these parties alongside The Greens (De Grønne), Common Course, and Humanist to form a broad-based progressive movement, but this did not materialize. A fourth party, the Communist Workers Party (KAP), succeeded in joining the alliance in 1991, but its involvement was vetoed a year later by DKP.
Prior to the 2007 parliamentary election, the party enlisted Asmaa Abdol-Hamid, a Danish Muslim candidate who identified herself as a feminist, democrat, and socialist. She is endorsed by some imams, opposed by others (including those in Hizb-ut-Tahrir), wears an Islamic headscarf and will not shake hands with men. These facts, and some of her statements regarding politics and religion, made her the target of some criticism across the political spectrum, particularly from the Danish People's Party. Some left-wing figures cited her candidacy as a reason for withdrawing their support from the party. An anti-religious network was created within the party with the stated goal of turning the party into a solely atheist party with a materialist–Marxist basis.
During the campaign, there was some speculation as to whether her candidacy would attract or repel voters. The results of the election were 2.2% for the party, down from 3.4% in the 2005 parliamentary elections. Although not elected, Abdol-Hamid maintained that she had attracted voters to the party. The four seats won by the party went to Frank Aaen, Johanne Schmidt-Nielsen, Line Barfod, and Per Clausen.
In the 2011 parliamentary election, the party received 6.7% of the vote and tripled its representation from 4 seats to 12 seats.
As a support for Socialdemokraterne, Enhedslisten accepted the state budget twice and was in opposition twice in the period from 2011- 2015. At no point, however, did they report direct opposition to the government. In the 2015 general election, the party received 7.8% of the vote and increased its representation from 12 seats to 14 seats.
|Election year||# of
| % of
overall seats won
Danish seats won
0 / 179
0 / 175
6 / 179
6 / 175
5 / 179
5 / 175
|1||providing parliamentary support|
4 / 179
4 / 175
6 / 179
6 / 175
4 / 179
4 / 175
12 / 179
12 / 175
|8||providing parliamentary support|
14 / 179
14 / 175
The distribution of Red–Green Alliance's voters is geographically disparate. While in Nørrebro and Vesterbro districts of Copenhague, it was the strongest party in the 2015 election, scoring 26.5 and 20.8% respectively (in Bispebjerg it received 22%, placing it only slightly behind the Social Democrats), the party is much more weakly positioned in rural parts of Denmark, taking only an average of 4.5% of votes in Western Jutland with as little as 3.1% in the Ringkøbing district.
As of 2016, the Red–Green Alliance has never directly contested elections to the European Parliament, preferring to support the People's Movement against the EU, a Eurosceptic party whose MEP sits in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. Some of the party's MPs were considering running an independent list for the 2014 elections. However, this idea was dismissed by a majority on the party's yearly meeting.
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- "EU-politik". enhedslisten.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 7 March 2015.
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- Edwards, Geoffrey; Georg Wiessala (2000). The European Union: annual review 1998/1999. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-631-21598-1.
- Banks, Arthur S.; Thomas C. Muller (1995). Political Handbook of the World 1994–95. CSA Publications. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-933199-10-1.
- Government and opposition, Volume 34. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1999. p. 73.
- "AKVA3: Valg til regions råd efter område, parti og stemmer/kandidater/køn". Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
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- Gemma Loomes (17 June 2013). Party Strategies in Western Europe: Party Competition and Electoral Outcomes. Routledge. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-1-136-59303-1. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Western Europe 2003. Psychology Press. 30 November 2002. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-85743-152-0. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
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- "Plads til alle". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Flere hænder, mere i løn". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Børn og uddannelse". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Ulighed og fattigdom". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Velfærd til alle
- Enhedslisten på Folketingets hjemmeside
- "Enhedslisten stemmer for humanitær aktion i Libyen". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Oliver Routhe Skov og Turi Kjestine Meyhoff. "Enhedslisten trækker støtten til Libyen-krigen". Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Enhedslistens historie". Enhedslisten. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Feminist, socialist, devout Muslim: woman who has thrown Denmark into turmoil". The Guardian. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Imamer anbefaler Asmaa, Kristeligt Dagblad, 1 May 2007
- Kære Asmaa, Information, 1 September 2007
- Religionskrig hos Enhedslisten, aalborg.dk, 20 September 2007
- Asmaa kan sprænge Enh's partiliste i København, Politiken, 2 November 2007
- Ekspert: Asmaa har skræmt marxisterne, Politiken, 1 November 2007
- "Party profile: Enhedslisten". 9 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Red–Green Alliance puts pressure to People's Movement Against the EU" (in Danish). Ekstra Bladet. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Red–Green Alliance scraps EU election run" (in Danish). Berlingske. 27 April 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Red–Green Alliance will run independently in the next European Parliament election" (in Danish). Danmarks Radio. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.