Red–green–brown alliance

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The term red-green-brown alliance, originating in France, refers to the alliance of Leftists (red), ecologically-minded agrarians (green), and Islamists (brown).[1][2][3] The term has also been used to describe alleged alliances of industrial union-focused leftists (red), ecologically-minded agrarians (green), and nationalists (brown).[4][5] It is often used in a broad sense to refer to antisemitic, conservationist, anti-globalization, anti-American, or anti-Western views shared by disparate groups and movements.[4][6]


The earliest attempt for such an alliance was during the Guided Democracy in Indonesia. President Sukarno, to please the three dominant powers of Indonesia at the time: the Army, the religious groups and the PKI, proposes a concept called Nasakom (from nasionalisme, agama, komunisme—Nationalism, Religion, Communism), which was meant to unite the three opposing powers to support the "Indonesian Socialist Revolution". This, however, was condemned by mainstream Islamic groups such as Nahdlatul Ulama in the pretext that "Islam cannot coexist with Communism". The Nasakom concept faded from popularity as the New Order came into power.

French essayist Alexandre del Valle wrote of "une alliance idéologique ... rouge-brun-vert" (a red-green brown ... ideological alliance) in a 22 April 2002 article in the newspaper Le Figaro,[7] and wrote "Rouges-Bruns-Verts, l'étrange alliance", in a January 2004 article in the magazine Politique Internationale.[8]

Del Valle's conceptual rendering of Islamist ideological trends appears to be based, at least partially, on earlier writings in which he had charged the United States and western Europe with favouring the "war machine" of "armed Islamism" via its funding of the Afghani mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War during the presidency of Ronald Reagan,[9] which helped future enemies of the West.[citation needed] In 2010, Del Valle published in Italy an essay entitled "Rossi, Neri, Verdi: a convergenza degli Estremi opposti" (Red, Black, Green: The meeting of extreme opposites.)[10]

The later popularity of the red-green-brown theory (and its various permutations) derives mainly from a speech given by Roger Cukierman, president of the French Jewish organization CRIF, to a CRIF banquet on 25 January 2003, and given wide circulation by a 27/28 January 2003 article in Le Monde. Cukierman used the French term "alliance brun-vert-rouge" to describe the antisemitic alignment supposedly shared by "an extreme right nostalgic for racial hierarchies" (symbolized by the color brown), "an extreme left [which is] anti-globalist, anti-capitalist, anti-American [and] anti-Zionist" (red), and followers of José Bové (green).

In Great Britain in 2003, politician George Galloway announced that he was seeking "to unify the red, green, anti-war, Muslim and other social constituencies radicalised by the war".[11]:407 Shortly thereafter, led by Salma Yaqoob and George Monbiot, the Socialist Workers Party and the Muslim Association of Britain formed an alliance in the Respect Party, under which Galloway ran for office. Respect initially tried to form an electoral pact with the Green Party of England and Wales,[11]:407–408[12] but the Green Party refused to ally with Respect, saying that Respect did not align with their values of openness and democracy[13][14] and had an under-developed political platform among other issues.[14]

In the United States, a similar alliance of disparate groups occurred in opposition to the World Trade Organization in the alter-globalization movement, which joined trade unions, neo-Luddite environmentalists, and paleoconservative nationalists like Pat Buchanan in common cause.[5] Many were surprised by leftist Lenora Fulani's support for Pat Buchanan, which has been viewed as an example of a red–green–brown alliance.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Judaken, J. (2013). Naming Race, Naming Racisms. Taylor & Francis. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-317-99156-4.
  2. ^ Sedgwick, M. (2004). Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 258f. ISBN 978-0-19-974493-0.
  3. ^ Flood, C.; Hutchings, S.; Miazhevich, G.; Nickels, H. (2012). Political and Cultural Representations of Muslims: Islam in the Plural. Muslim Minorities. Brill. p. 137. ISBN 978-90-04-23102-3.
  4. ^ a b Strauss, Mark (November 2003). "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem". Foreign Policy. No. 139. p. 58-67. doi:10.2307/3183738. ISSN 0015-7228.<! -- more content here -->
  5. ^ a b "The Buchanan Troll Project". MetroWest Jewish News. 2 (4). Whippany, NJ, USA. 13 January 2000.
  6. ^ a b Twersky, David (27 January 2000). "Buchanan's voice bodes ill for israel". Jewish Exponent. Vol. 207 no. 4. Philadelphia, USA: Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia. p. 36.
  7. ^ Del Valle, Alexandre; Knobel, Marc (27 April 2002). "Le Péril rouge en France ou la convergence des Totalitarismes" [The Red Peril in France: The convergence of totalitarianisms]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Also available from
  8. ^ A. Del Valle, "Rouges-Bruns-Verts : L'étrange alliance", Politique Internationale, no. 102 (January 2004), official translation. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  9. ^ Murawiec, Laurent (Spring 2000). "The wacky world of French intellectuals". Middle East Quarterly. Vol. 8. Middle East Forum. p. 3-10.
  10. ^ A. Del Valle, "Verdi, rossi e neri: chi sono i nemici dell'Occidente e perché ci odiano così, L'Occidentale (3 December 2009). Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  11. ^ a b Peace, Timothy (2013). "All I'm asking, is for a little respect: Assessing the Performance of Britain's Most Successful Radical Left Party". Parliamentary Affairs. 66. pp. 405–424. doi:10.1093/pa/gsr064.
  12. ^ Matthew Tempest "Monbiot quits Respect over threat to Greens", The Guardian, 17 February 2004
  13. ^ Cohen, Nick (2004). "Saddam's very own party". New Statesman. Vol. 13. p. 326-328.
  14. ^ a b "Greens regret attack by Galloway/SWP "Respect" party". 2004. Archived from the original on 13 April 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.

Further reading[edit]