Pan-African colours

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The traditional flag of Ethiopia. Despite not being Pan-African in its original conception, it has influenced the flags of many Pan-African organizations and polities.

The term Pan-African colours refers to two different sets of three colours: red, gold (not yellow), and green (inspired by the flag of Ethiopia), and red, black, and green. They are used in flags and other emblems of various countries and territories in Africa and the Americas to represent Pan-Africanist ideology. The Rastafarian movement and many Pan-African organisations also often employ the colours for their activities.

The Ethiopian colours[edit]

Green, gold and red are now found on the national flags of many African nations.

The colour combination was borrowed from the flag of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian flag has influenced the flags of many Pan-African organizations and polities. Except for a brief period of occupation by Italy under the Fascists, Ethiopia remained outside European control during the colonial era. As a result, the country drew the admiration of many newly independent states in Africa. The adoption of the Ethiopian national colours by many Pan-African entities is a consequence of this. The first African state to adopt a red, gold and green flag upon independence was Ghana in 1957.

The UNIA colours[edit]

The UNIA founded by Marcus Garvey has a constitution which defines red, black, and green as the Pan-African colours: "red representing the noble blood that unites all people of African ancestry, the colour black for the people, green for the rich land of Africa."[citation needed] The UNIA flag was designated the official colours of Black Africans by the UNIA at its convention in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920 in New York City, United States.

Current country flags with the Pan-African colors[edit]

The following are countries and territories that use one or both sets of Pan-African colours in their official flags:



Non-national flags[edit]

Former flags with the colours[edit]

See also[edit]


  • Znamierowski, Alfred (2001). The World Encyclopedia of Flags: The Definitive Guide to International Flags, Banners, Standards and Ensigns. London: Anness Publishing.