Acid Red 1
Food Red 10
Amidonaphthol red G
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E128 (colours)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||463.44 g·mol−1|
|18 g/100 mL (20 °C)|
|Solubility||1 g/ 100 mL glycerol|
Negligible in ethanol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
In the European Union, Red 2G was used as a food dye (E number E128). However, it was only permitted for use in breakfast sausages with a minimum cereal content of 6% and burger meat with a minimum vegetable and/or cereal content of 4%.
Following safety concerns raised by EFSA in its opinion of 5 July 2007, the European Commission has prepared a draft Regulation to suspend use of E128 as a food colouring. This proposed course of action was unanimously approved by European Union Member States at a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health (Section Toxicological Safety of the Food Chain) on 20 July 2007. and Commission Regulation (EC) No 884/2007 . on emergency measures suspending the use of E 128 Red 2G as food colour was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 27 July 2007.
It is relatively insensitive to the bleaching effect of sulfur dioxide (E220) and sodium metabisulfite (E223). In the intestines, Red 2G can be converted to the toxic compound aniline, so there are concerns Red 2G may ultimately interfere with blood haemoglobin, as well as cause cancer.
It is also used as a dye for coatings, inks, paper, crepe paper, and fine tissue.
Potential health risks
In July 2007, the EFSA established that E128 is potentially carcinogenic because it forms aniline in the body when consumed. The pressure group, The Food Commission, said there had been concerns about Red 2G going back decades and it was suspected of being a carcinogen in the 1980s.
- "European Parliament and council directive 94/36/EC of june 1994 on colours for use in foodstuffs" (PDF).
- "EFSA re-evaluates safety of food colours and adopts first opinion: Food colour Red 2G raises potential safety concerns". 9 July 2007.
- "Novel Food and Toxicological Safety - Food Safety - European Commission" (PDF). Food Safety.
- "Dye used in burgers and sausages banned".
- Hickman, Martin (10 July 2007). "Additive used in sausages and burgers may cause cancer". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Sausage additive linked to cancer". 10 July 2007 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- Hickman, Martin (10 July 2007). "Additive used in sausages and burgers may cause cancer". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2007-07-10.