Red 2G

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Red 2G
Skeletal formula of Red 2G as a sodium salt
Space-filling model of the Red 2G molecule as a sodium salt
Other names
Acid Red 1
Food Red 10
Amidonaphthol red G
C.I. 18050
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.020.999
E number E128 (colours)
Molar mass 509.43 g/mol
18 g/100 mL (20°C)
Solubility 1 g/ 100 mL glycerol
Negligible in ethanol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
No verify (what is YesYNo ?)
Infobox references

Red 2G is a synthetic red azo dye. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in glycerol. It usually comes as a disodium salt of 8-acetamido-1-hydroxy-2-phenylazonaphthalene-3,6 disulphonate.


Food dye[edit]

In the European Union, Red 2G was used as a food dye (E number E128). However, it was only permitted for use in breakfast sausages with a minimum cereal content of 6% and burger meat with a minimum vegetable and/or cereal content of 4%.[1]

Following safety concerns raised by EFSA in its opinion of 5 July 2007,[2] the European Commission has prepared a draft Regulation to suspend use of E128 as a food colouring. This proposed course of action was unanimously approved by European Union Member States at a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health (Section Toxicological Safety of the Food Chain) on 20 July 2007.[3] and Commission Regulation (EC) No 884/2007 .[4] on emergency measures suspending the use of E 128 Red 2G as food colour was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 27 July 2007.

Red 2G is also banned in Australia, Canada, Japan, Norway,[5] and Malaysia.[6] It was banned in Israel in July 2007[citation needed].

It is relatively insensitive to the bleaching effect of sulfur dioxide (E220) and sodium metabisulfite (E223). In the intestines, Red 2G can be converted to the toxic compound aniline,[7] so there are concerns Red 2G may ultimately interfere with blood haemoglobin, as well as cause cancer.


It is also used as a dye for coatings, inks, paper, crepe paper, and fine tissue.


Red 2G can be also used for staining in histology, though rarely, e.g. as a component of Masson's trichrome.

Health risks[edit]

It is one of the colourants that the Hyperactive Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.

In July 2007 the EFSA established E128 is potentially carcinogenic as it forms aniline in the body when consumed.[8]

The pressure group, The Food Commission, said there had been concerns about Red 2G going back decades and it was suspected of being a carcinogen in the 1980s.[9]