|Distributor||Red Bull GmbH|
|Country of origin||Austria|
|Introduced||1 April 1987|
|Ingredients||Caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, sucrose and glucose, B-group vitamins, and water|
|Variants||Red Bull Sugarfree|
Red Bull Total Zero
Red Bull Zero
Red Bull Energy Shot
Red Bull Editions
|Related products||Krating Daeng|
Red Bull Simply Cola
Organics by Red Bull
Red Bull is a brand of energy drinks created and owned by the Austrian company Red Bull GmbH. With a market share of 38%, it is the most popular energy drink brand as of 2019, and the third most valuable soft drink brand behind Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Since its launch in 1987, more than 100 billion cans of Red Bull have been sold worldwide, including over 11.5 billion in 2022.
Originally available only in a single nondescript flavor sold in a tall and slim silver-blue can, called Red Bull Energy Drink, numerous variants of the drink were added over the course of time. Its slogan, "Red Bull Gives You Wings", is considered one of the most popular and memorable advertising slogans in the United States, ranking at 16 out of 25 with a 59.3% slogan recognition rate according to a study by advertising and market research firm Survata. Rather than following a traditional marketing approach, Red Bull has generated awareness and created a "brand myth" through proprietary extreme sport event series such as Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice and standout stunts such as the Stratos space diving project. In addition to sport series, its marketing includes multiple sports team ownerships; celebrity endorsements; and music, through its Red Bull Records label.
Red Bull traces its origins to a similar drink called Krating Daeng, which was introduced in 1976 in Thailand by the pharmacist Chaleo Yoovidhya. While doing business in Thailand, Dietrich Mateschitz purchased a can of Krating Daeng and claimed it cured his jet lag. Mateschitz sought to create a partnership with Yoovidhya and formulated a product that would suit the tastes of Westerners, such as by carbonating the drink. In 1984, the two founded Red Bull GmbH in Fuschl am See, Salzburg, Austria. When branding their new product Mateschitz referenced Krating Daeng's name as in Thai, daeng means red, and a krating (known in English as a gaur or Indian bison) is a large species of wild bovine native to the Indian subcontinent. In 1987, the company sold its first can of Red Bull in Austria. In 1996 Red Bull began operation in the United States, and has seen steady growth ever since. Both Red Bull and Kraeting Daeng use the same red bull on yellow sun logo while continuing to market their drinks separately in the Thai and Western markets.
In 1976, Chaleo Yoovidhya introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English. It was popular among Thai truck drivers and labourers. While working for German manufacturer Blendax (later acquired by Procter & Gamble) in 1982, Dietrich Mateschitz travelled to Thailand and met Chaleo, owner of T.C. Pharmaceutical. During his visit, Mateschitz discovered that Krating Daeng helped cure his jet lag. In 1984, Mateschitz co-founded Red Bull GmbH with Yoovidhya and turned it into an international brand. Each partner invested US$500,000 of savings to fund the company. Yoovidhya and Mateschitz each held a 49 percent share of the new company. They gave the remaining two percent to Yoovidhya's son, Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. The product was first launched in Austria on 1 April 1987.
In Thailand, energy drinks are most popular with blue-collar workers. Red Bull re-positioned the drink as a trendy, upscale drink, first introducing it at Austrian ski resorts. Pricing was a key differentiator, with Red Bull positioned as a premium drink and Krating Daeng as a lower cost item. In many countries, both drinks are available, dominating both ends of the price spectrum. The flavouring used for Red Bull is still produced in Bangkok and exported worldwide. Gary Smith is one of the co-CEOs of Red Bull. As a senior board member and corporate secretary between 2000 and 2007, Mr. Smith was also responsible for all day-to-day operations of the company as the COO, including sales, trade marketing, motorsports marketing, finance, information systems, legal, supply chain, operations, and human resources.
During the 1990s, the product expanded into Hungary, Slovenia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It entered Germany and the UK in 1994, the United States (via California) in 1997 and the Middle East in 2000. In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$4 billion.
Mateschitz died on 22 October 2022 aged 78, following a long illness.
Red Bull GmbH is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of about 1,500 inhabitants near Salzburg. The company is 51 percent controlled by the Yoovidhya family who, for technical reasons, own the trademark in Europe and the US.
|Nutritional value per 8.4 fl oz|
|Energy||460 kJ (110 kcal)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Depending on the country, Red Bull contains different amounts of caffeine, taurine, B vitamins (B2, B3, B5, B6, B12) and simple sugars (sucrose and glucose) in a buffer solution of carbonated water, sodium bicarbonate and magnesium carbonate (substituted in some flavours with a trisodium citrate/citric acid buffer, each solution providing electrolytes). To produce Red Bull Sugarfree, sucrose and glucose have been replaced by artificial sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame or sucralose.
Previous formulations of Red Bull contained 0.24% glucuronolactone (600 mg of glucuronolactone in a 250 ml can), but this ingredient was[when?] removed.
Claims about the drink's effects and performance have been challenged on various occasions, with the UK's Advertising Standards Authority imposing advertising restrictions in 2001 in response to complaints recorded as early as 1997.
Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar provide, but experts still argue about the possible effects of the other ingredients. Most of the effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine. There is evidence that energy drinks can increase mental and athletic performance. A study funded by Red Bull GmbH, which did not include a caffeine-only control group, found that performance during prolonged driving is increased after consumption of Red Bull. Other tests for physical performance showed results such as increased endurance and power. Red Bull energy drink increased upper body muscle endurance during repeated Wingate tests in young healthy adults. Excessive or repeated consumption of energy drinks can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that exposure to taurine and glucuronolactone at the levels presently used in energy drinks is not a safety concern. In a separate analysis, they also concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support a number of commercial health claims about taurine. A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative or positive health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, including Red Bull.
The caffeine content of a single 250ml can of Red Bull is approximately 40–80 mg / 250 ml (15–32 mg / 100 ml). The caffeine level in Red Bull varies depending on country, as some countries have legal restrictions on how much caffeine is allowed in drinks. As is the case with other caffeinated beverages, Red Bull drinkers may experience adverse effects as a result of overuse. Excessive consumption may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia.
The general population of healthy adults is not at risk for potential adverse effects from caffeine if they limit their consumption to 400 mg per day, which is provided by 5 standard 250 ml cans. Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change this practice. (Red Bull voluntarily lists the caffeine content in each can along with the ingredient list.)
Over the years, Red Bull has offered many variations of its drink, all based on the same formula but differing in taste and colour.
Red Bull began offering variations on its drinks in 2003 with a sugar-free version of the drink with a different flavor from the original, called Red Bull Sugarfree. In 2012, Red Bull released Red Bull Total Zero, a variant with zero calories. In 2018, the company released Red Bull Zero, a different sugar-free formulation designed to taste more like the original flavor.
In 2009, Red Bull unveiled a highly concentrated variant of its drink called Red Bull Energy Shot, supplied in 2 oz (60 ml) cans.
The company began expanding its flavor offerings in 2013 with the launch of Red Bull Editions. Initially available in cranberry, lime, and blueberry, the Editions line has expanded to include a variety of flavours, including some available only during specific seasons or in certain regions.
Red Bull released a cola drink, called Simply Cola, in 2008. A new version of the cola was released in 2019, as part of Red Bull's Organics line.
In 2018, the company launched Organics by Red Bull, a line of organic sodas with four flavours; bitter lemon, ginger ale, tonic water, and a new version of Red Bull Simply Cola.
Market approval and legal status
Authorities in France, Denmark, and Norway initially did not permit the sale of Red Bull. However, as of 2021[update], it is on sale in all 27 member states of the European Union and in 171 countries around the world.
The French food safety agency was concerned about taurine; a Red Bull drink that did not contain taurine was introduced. The French refusal of market approval was challenged by the European Commission, and partially upheld by the European Court of Justice in 2004. The French food safety agency relented in 2008, because it was unable to prove a definite health risk, taurine-related or not.
In 2013, Red Bull told the Redwell Brewery, a Norfolk micro brewery, to change its name or face legal action, because it sounded too similar to Red Bull. The eight-man brewery in Norwich was told its name could "confuse" customers and "tarnish" its trademark. The two companies reached a settlement permitting Redwell to continue using its name.
In 2014, Red Bull entered into a US$13 million settlement to resolve two consumer class action lawsuits in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Named as plaintiffs were Benjamin Careathers, David Wolf, and Miguel Almarez, who had sued the company claiming breach of express warranty and unjust enrichment, saying that Red Bull falsely asserted performance-enhancing benefits from the drink's ingredients that were unsubstantiated by scientific studies. On 1 May 2015 the Court approved the settlement, giving customers who had submitted claims the opportunity to receive a US$10 cash reimbursement or US$15 in Red Bull products within 150 days of affirmance on any appeal. Contrary to reports from some news outlets, the plaintiffs had not alleged that the drink did not give consumers actual wings.
Advertising, sports team ownership, and sponsorships
Since 1997, Red Bull has been making commercials bearing its slogan "Red Bull gives you wings." Commercials usually were crudely animated and featured characters with constant squints.
Red Bull's international marketing campaign is largely linked to extreme sports. These range from motorcycle racing, such as MotoGP, Dakar Rally, motorcycle speedway, mountain biking, aerobatics, BMX, motocross, windsurfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, kayaking, rowing, wakeboarding, cliff-diving, parkour, surfing, skating, freestyle motocross, rallycross, Formula 1 motor racing, NASCAR racing, to breakdancing. Red Bull uses music and video games, and has enlisted celebrities, such as Eminem (sponsoring the Red Bull "EmSee Battle Rap championships"). It hosts events such as art shows and the "Red Bull Flugtag" (German for "flight day" or "flying day").
Red Bull owns football teams, with clubs in Austria, Germany, the United States, and Brazil featuring the Red Bull trademark in their names. By associating the drink's image with these activities, the company seeks to promote a "cool" public image and raise brand power. The energy drink has created a market for over 150 related types of products.
In the PlayStation 3's social gaming platform, PlayStation Home, Red Bull developed its own in-game island, specifically advertising its energy drink and the Red Bull Air Race event (for which the space is named) released in January 2009. In late November 2009, Red Bull produced two new spaces, the Red Bull Illume space, and the Red Bull Beach space featuring the Red Bull Flugtag, both released on the same day. In January 2012, Red Bull released its first personal space called the "Red Bull House of Skate" featuring an indoor skate park.
In 2010, the company enlisted Adrian Newey to design a prototype racing car, the Red Bull X2010, for the video game Gran Turismo 5.
In 2022, Red Bull announced a full-on production of a hypercar called RB17, also designed by Newey.
Red Bull Arts
Red Bull Arts is an art fellowship program launched by Red Bull in 2013 under the name Red Bull House of Arts. The program has multiple locations, including Detroit, Michigan; São Paulo, Brazil; and formerly New York City. The program typically consists of a three-month period during which six to eight participants create new artwork to be displayed at a final exhibition. During the fellowship, artists receive unlimited access to the galleries and a stipend for art supplies. Some of the artwork has been used in Red Bull advertising campaigns.
Sports and esports sponsorships
Red Bull has used sports sponsorships as an advertising vehicle for most of its existence. The company first started sponsoring athletes in 1989, initially focusing on Formula One racing and extreme sports such as windsurfing and hang gliding, and later growing to include more mainstream sports such as basketball and soccer. As of 2016, the company sponsored more than 750 individual athletes and more than a dozen teams in various disciplines, including motorsports, soccer, and esports.
Austrian Formula One driver Gerhard Berger was the first athlete to be sponsored by Red Bull in 1989. Many of the company's early sponsorships were in lesser-known or extreme sports, including Olympic rower Xeno Müller, who won a gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics in the single scull race and BASE jumpers Frank "Gambler" Gambalie, Miles Dashier, and Shane McConkey. In the 2010s, Red Bull began expanding its athlete base to include athletes from more mainstream sports, including Austrian tennis player Dominic Thiem, Brazilian skateboarder Letícia Bufoni, American skier Lindsey Vonn, and American Major League Baseball player Kris Bryant. The company also started sponsoring video game players and esports athletes, including American Fortnite player Richard "Ninja" Blevins, Spanish League of Legends player Enrique Cedeño "xPeke" Martinez, and Swedish Super Smash Bros. player William "Leffen" Hjelte.
Team ownership and sponsorships
The first team sponsored by Red Bull was ice hockey's EC Salzburg during the 1987–88 season. Red Bull acquired the club outright in 2000. Since 2014, Salzburg has also hosted the company's joint ice hockey and soccer academy. Red Bull became the title sponsor of DEL team EHC München in 2012, and took full ownership the following year. It also financed the team's new arena, SAP Garden.
In 1995, Red Bull sponsored its first motorsports team, the Swiss Formula One team Sauber and in 1999 started sponsoring the Flying Bulls, a Czech aerobatics team.
In the 2000s, the company expanded its sporting team ownership to include several soccer teams, including the Austrian Bundesliga team SV Austria Salzburg (rebranded as Red Bull Salzburg), the Major League Soccer team the New York MetroStars (rebranded as the New York Red Bulls) in 2006, and the fifth-tier German team SSV Markranstadt (rebranded as RasenBallsport Leipzig) in 2009, which the company sought to move to the top of the German Bundesliga. RB Leipzig has been divisive and the subject of protests by some fans but has also experienced rapid success, climbing through the German soccer divisions to get a place in the top-flight German Bundesliga and earning berths in the UEFA Champions League in 2017–2018 and 2019–2020, the latter trip ending with a semi-final loss to Paris St. Germain. The company also sponsors the Los Angeles Clippers NBA team and Red Bull 3X, a series of men's and women's 3x3 basketball tournaments.
In the 2010s, Red Bull began sponsoring gamers and esports organizations, including OG, G2 Esports and Cloud9, and founded the Red Bulls League of Legends team.
In 2021, Red Bull sponsored Hoang Anh Gia Lai from V.League 1.
- Red Bull Salzburg
- FC Liefering
- Red Bull Bragantino
- Red Bull Brasil
- RB Leipzig
- RB Leipzig II
- Red Bull New York
- Red Bull New York II
Current and former Red Bull events include ACF Nationals (2009), Air Race World Championship (2003–2019), Argentine motorcycle Grand Prix, Art of Motion, BC One, Big Wave Africa, Cape Fear, Cliff Diving World Series, Crashed Ice, Dolomitenmann, Drifting World Championship, Flugtag, Frozen Rush, Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix, King of the Air, King of the Rock Tournament, Last Man Standing, MotoGP Rookies Cup, Motorcycle Grand Prix of the Americas, New Year No Limits, Paper Wings, Rampage, Red Bull 400, Red Bull Joyride, Road Rage, Romaniacs Hard Enduro Rallye, Soapbox Race, Spanish motorcycle Grand Prix, Stratos, Street Freestyle World Champions (2019), Trolley Grand Prix, Unleashed (2015), Wings for Life World Run, X-Alps, Xcbusa, and X-Fighters.
- Red Bull Stratos – stratospheric parachute jump 2012
- ^ "Red Bull steht zu Rauch als Hauptabfüllpartner". vorarlberg. 21 November 2010. Archived from the original on 3 January 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- ^ "Who makes Red Bull? Red Bull Company". energydrink-us.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- ^ Kim, Woojae (2003). "Debunking the Effects of Taurine in Red Bull Energy Drink" (PDF). Nutrition Bytes. 9 (1). ISSN 1548-4327. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- ^ Kim, Woojae (18 March 2003). "Debunking the Effects of Taurine in Red Bull Energy Drink". Nutrition Bytes. 9 (1). Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020 – via escholarship.org.
- ^ Seidl, R.; Peyrl, A.; Nicham, R.; Hauser, E. (18 March 2000). "A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being". Amino Acids. 19 (3–4): 635–642. doi:10.1007/s007260070013. PMID 11140366. S2CID 21581385.
- ^ Peacock, Amy; Martin, Frances Heritage; Carr, Andrea (1 May 2013). "Energy drink ingredients. Contribution of caffeine and taurine to performance outcomes" (PDF). Appetite. 64: 1–4. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.12.021. hdl:1959.13/1063281. PMID 23313701. S2CID 17237027. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A. (1 December 2017). "Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain". Birth Defects Research. 109 (20): 1640–1648. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1177. PMC 5737830. PMID 29251842.
- ^ "This century's best-performing US stock sells energy drinks, not iPhones (MNST)". markets.businessinsider.com. 16 April 2019. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
- ^ beveragedaily.com. "Always Coca-Cola: Coca-Cola tops soft drinks brand rankings". beveragedaily.com. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
- ^ "Is Red Bull Energy Drink safe?". www.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
- ^ "Red Bull Energy Drink – Official Website". www.redbull.com. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- ^ "What is the slogan of Red Bull?". www.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- ^ Kinkade, Kris. "Test your knowledge: Can you match these slogans and brands?". USA Today. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- ^ Kuehlwein, JP; Chaefer, Wolf (Spring 2017). "How modern prestige brands create meaning through mission and myth". Journal of Brand Strategy. 5 (4).ISSN 2045-855X
- ^ Kuehlwein, JP. Ueber-Brands and The Art of Myth-Making Archived 2 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. www.ueberbrands.com December 2015
- ^ Schaefer, Wolf and Kuehlwein, JP. 2015. Rethinking Prestige Branding – Secrets of the Ueber-Brands. Kogan Page. pp.77ff. ISBN 9780749470036
- ^ Lauria, Peter (1 April 2008). "Pump the Music: Red Bull Eyes Starting Branded Music Label — NYPost.com". New York Post. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013.101013 NYPost.com
- ^ Roll, Martin (17 October 2005). Asian Brand Strategy: How Asia Builds Strong Brands. Springer. p. 199. ISBN 9780230513068. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- ^ "Red Bull GMBH – Company Profile and News". www.bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- ^ "Red Bull North America". jobs.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- ^ Neate, Rupert (23 November 2020). "Red Bull pays out €550m to founders, including family of drink's inventor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 November 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
- ^ "Face value | Selling energy". Economist.com. 9 May 2002. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- ^ Kerry A. Dolan (28 March 2005). "The Soda With Buzz". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- ^ "Red Bull the company – Who makes Red Bull?". Energydrink.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ a b c d Nivatpumin, Chiratas; Treeraponpichit, Busrin (28 December 2015). "Red Bull still charging ahead". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- ^ "Red Bull's Brand As Powerful As Its Beverage". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
- ^ Bryant, Chris (28 October 2022). "The Red Bull Billionaire's Secret Recipe for Success". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
- ^ "Gary Smith Net Worth (2023) – wallmine.com". wallmine.com. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
- ^ a b "Red Bull GmbH Company History". Funding Universe. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
- ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes.com. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes.com. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- ^ "Red Bull founder Dietrich Mateschitz passes away aged 78". Formula 1. 23 August 2022. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
- ^ a b "Red Bull Nutrition Facts" (Red Bull states values declared on labels may vary slightly depending on production locations.). Red Bull. 27 September 2021. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
- ^ "Red Bull Ingredients". Red Bull. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- ^ "Caffeine in Red Bull". www.caffeineinformer.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- ^ "Sweeteners in Red Bull zero sugar?". Red Bull. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- ^ Alford, C.; Cox, H.; Wescott, R. (2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids. 21 (2): 139–150. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. ISSN 0939-4451. PMID 11665810. S2CID 25358429.
- ^ "HEALTH | Energy drink claims rejected". BBC News. 24 January 2001. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- ^ McLellan TM, Lieberman HR (December 2012). "Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?". Nutrition Reviews. 70 (12): 730–44. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00525.x. PMID 23206286.
- ^ a b van den Eynde F, van Baelen PC, Portzky M, Audenaert K (2008). "[The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance]". Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie. 50 (5): 273–81. PMID 18470842.
- ^ Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R (1 January 2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids. 21 (2): 139–50. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. PMID 11665810. S2CID 25358429. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- ^ "Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie – Author index: Baelen, P.C. van". 21 December 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- ^ a b Mets MA, Ketzer S, Blom C, van Gerven MH, van Willigenburg GM, Olivier B, Verster JC (April 2011). "Positive effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving". Psychopharmacology. 214 (3): 737–45. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-2078-2. PMC 3053448. PMID 21063868.
- ^ Baum M, Weiss M (1 January 2001). "The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography". Amino Acids. 20 (1): 75–82. doi:10.1007/s007260170067. PMID 11310932. S2CID 26927022.
- ^ Geiß KR, Jester I, Falke W, Hamm M, Waag KL (February 1994). "The effect of a taurine-containing drink on performance in 10 endurance-athletes". Amino Acids. 7 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1007/BF00808445. PMID 24185972. S2CID 33259003.
- ^ Forbes SC, Candow DG, Little JP, Magnus C, Chilibeck PD (October 2007). "Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance". International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 17 (5): 433–44. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.17.5.433. PMID 18046053.
- ^ Sanchis-Gomar F, Pareja-Galeano H, Cervellin G, Lippi G, Earnest CP (May 2015). "Energy drink overconsumption in adolescents: implications for arrhythmias and other cardiovascular events". The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 31 (5): 572–5. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.019. hdl:11268/3906. PMID 25818530.
- ^ Petit A, Karila L, Lejoyeux M (March 2015). "[Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?]". Presse Médicale. 44 (3): 261–70. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.07.029. PMID 25622514.
- ^ EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (2009). "The use of taurine and D-glucurono-γ-lactone as constituents of the so-called 'energy' drinks". The EFSA Journal. 935 (2): 1–31. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.935. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- ^ "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to taurine and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 612, 1658, 1959), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 614), and delay in the onset of fatigue and enhancement of P". EFSA Journal. 7 (10): 1260. 2009. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1260.
- ^ Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N (2008). "Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks". Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 48 (3): e55–63, quiz e64–7. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07055. PMID 18595815.
- ^ "Red Bull caffeine beverage review". About.com. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Energy drink, RED BULL, with added caffeine, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamins B6 and B12". Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- ^ Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R (2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids. 21 (2): 139–50. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. PMID 11665810. S2CID 25358429.
- ^ Richards G, Smith AP (June 2016). "A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression". Journal of Caffeine Research. 6 (2): 49–63. doi:10.1089/jcr.2015.0033. PMC 4892220. PMID 27274415.
- ^ "It's Your Health – Caffeine". Health Canada. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- ^ "Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine". www.efsa.europa.eu. 27 May 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- ^ a b Winston AP (2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 11 (6): 432–439. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
- ^ Jin MJ, Yoon CH, Ko HJ, Kim HM, Kim AS, Moon HN, Jung SP (March 2016). "The Relationship of Caffeine Intake with Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Sleep in Korean Adolescents". Korean Journal of Family Medicine. 37 (2): 111–6. doi:10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.2.111. PMC 4826990. PMID 27073610.
- ^ Warning: Energy Drinks Contain Caffeine Archived 7 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine by Allison Aubrey. Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 24 September 2008.
- ^ "What's the difference between the Red Bull Energy Drink and the Red Bull Editions?". www.redbull.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
- ^ "Red Bull targets sugar-conscious consumers". BeverageDaily. 16 January 2003. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
- ^ Bouckley, Ben (8 May 2021). "Red Bull hopes new 'Total Zero' variant will give it wings after analysts warn of limited portfolio". beveragedaily.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
- ^ Woolfson, Daniel (9 April 2020). "Red Bull relaunches Zero with new formulation". The Grocer. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
- ^ Regenold, Stephen (9 December 2009). "Red Bull Energy Shot". GearJunkie. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
- ^ Lee, Elizabeth. "Energy Shots Review: Do They Work? Are They Safe?". WebMD. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
- ^ Lazare, Lewis (28 February 2013). "Red Bull introduces new flavors". American CIty Business Journals. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- ^ Hanson, Angela (28 October 2013). "Innovation Alley". Convenience Store News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
- ^ Gibbons, Brett (19 May 2021). "Grab a taste of exotic cactus with latest Red Bull summer edition drink". Wales Online. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
- ^ Meyer, Zlati (27 March 2018). "Red Bull launches its own line of organic sodas, most of it (gasp!) not caffeinated". USA Today. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
- ^ a b Frith, Maxine (7 February 2004). "European court backs ban on Red Bull over health concerns". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- ^ "What are the animals seen on cans of the Red Bull energy drink?". South China Morning Post. 28 July 2018. Archived from the original on 11 March 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- ^ "Red Bull Company Profile". Fortune. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- ^ "France ends 12-year ban on energy drink Red Bull". Reuters. Paris. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- ^ "Red Bull pursues Redwell brewery in Norwich over name". BBC News. 14 August 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ "Red Bull ends dispute with Redwell brewery in Norwich". BBC News. 14 August 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ "Red Bull Puts Up $13M To Settle False Advertising Suit – Law360". www.law360.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull Agrees to $13M False Advertising Class Action Settlement". Top Class Actions. 4 August 2014. Archived from the original on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull to Pay $13 Million". bevnet.com. Law360. 5 August 2014. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- ^ "Drink Red Bull? You may have $10 coming to you". cbsnews.com. 9 October 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- ^ "So Red Bull doesn't actually 'give you wings'". Bbc.co.uk. 9 October 2014. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- ^ O’Reilly, Laura (8 October 2014). "Fact check: Red Bull does (not) give you wings". Snopes. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- ^ "Energy drink claims rejected". 24 January 2001. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- ^ https://www.redbull.com/int-en/event-series/dakar-rally[bare URL]
- ^ sean (5 February 2017). "Red Bull Rampage Recap". Mountain Bike Action Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Drew Bezanson wins Red Bull Framed Reactions BMX Park comp". XGames. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "2017 Red Bull KTM | Team Intro | Transworld Motocross". Transworld Motocross. 18 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ (PWA), Professional Windsurfing Association. "Red Bull Storm Chase". PWA World Tour. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull Snowboarding | Snowboarder Magazine". Snowboarder Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "red bull skateboarding | TransWorld SKATEboarding". TransWorld SKATEboarding. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Chasing Niagara Falls in a Kayak | VICE Sports". VICE Sports. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull High Stakes – Overview". www.regattacentral.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull Wake of Steel 2016". Wakeboarding Magazine. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series Announces 2017 Schedule". Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ Kolasa-Sikiaridi, Kerry (2 October 2016). "...Wins Parkour Red Bull Art of Motion in Santorini (video) | GreekReporter.com". Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ RED BULL QIANTANG: SURFING SHOOTOUT, archived from the original on 9 March 2017, retrieved 8 March 2017
- ^ "Red Bull Crashed Ice Championship in Saint Paul, MN – Visit Saint Paul". www.visitsaintpaul.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Real-Time Data Tech Dazzles Red Bull X-Fighters Fans". iQ by Intel. 22 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ GRC. "Red Bull Global Rallycross New England set for June". www.racer.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull "positive" RB13 can challenge Mercedes in F1 2017". Motorsport.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Archrival | Red Bull Racing in NASCAR". Archrival. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Redbull Flying Bach tour brings Bach and breakdancing to Dallas in 2017". AXS. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ Pajot, S. (3 November 2011). "Calling Battle Rappers! Enter Red Bull EmSee Miami and Win a Trip to the Finals in Atlanta". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull's high-flying Flugtag competition to return to Nashville". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Austria – FC Salzburg". us.soccerway.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ a b "Analysis | RB Leipzig's Bundesliga debut is like a fairy tale in which the bad guys are winning". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Brazil – Red Bull Brasil". us.soccerway.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "RED BULL HISTORY". speedace.info. Electrick Publications. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- ^ "Red Bull becomes first brand on PlayStation Home". Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ Fahey, Mike. "Red Bull Gives PlayStation Home New Things To Do". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull House of Skate". YourPSHome.net. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "GTVault – Gran Turismo 5Setup for". www.gtvault.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull Advanced Technologies announces the RB17". Red Bull. 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
- ^ a b c DeVito, Lee (7 August 2013). "The house that Red Bull built". Detroit Metro Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- ^ Clifford, Tyler (11 July 2018). "Red Bull restructures, expands Detroit arts initiative". Crain's Detroit Business. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- ^ a b Rigby, Claire. "Red Bull Station opens up downtown". TimeOut São Paulo. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- ^ Greenberger, Alex (4 December 2020). "Red Bull Closes Influential New York Art Space Home to Trendy Exhibitions". ARTnews. Archived from the original on 30 January 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- ^ DeVito, Lee (6 August 2014). "Meet the creative minds behind the Red Bull House of Art's Cycle 8". Detroit Metro Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- ^ Trevino, Jessica J. (6 August 2014). "Meet the 6 local artists featured in the Red Bull House of Art exhibit". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ Lacy, Eric (27 January 2014). "Grammys 2014: Watch Detroit Red Bull House of Art 'City of Soldiers' commercial aired during show". MLive.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ Radcliffe, J.R. (14 April 2021). "Watch: Donte DiVincenzo tries to decipher Milwaukee lingo for 414 Day with mixed results". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
- ^ a b c Bysouth, Alex (13 August 2020). "Leipzig – Germany's most divisive club". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Arlidge, John (5 December 2004). "Focus: How Red Bull woke up the teen market". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Medeiros, João (7 July 2016). "Inside Red Bull's extreme bootcamp where athletes become winners". Wired UK. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Spurgeon, Brad (24 May 2013). "Meet the Red Bull Tribe". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Reichley, Robert A. "Rivals". Brown Alumni Magazine. No. October 1999. Brown University. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Miller, David (24 October 2008). "The Primal Crew: A group of friends who redefined gravity sports". Matador Network. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Knight, Brett (30 August 2021). "Highest-Paid Tennis Players 2021: Federer, Serena And Nadal Win Even When They Can't Take The Court". Forbes. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Reavis, Lily (23 September 2020). "Inside Skateboarder Leticia Bufoni's Olympic Training". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
- ^ Calfas, Jennifer (10 February 2018). "How Olympic gold medalist skier Lindsey Vonn makes and spends her money". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 September 2021.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Ngomsi, Vincina (21 July 2021). "Kris Bryant is teaming up with Red Bull to test a baseball skills challenge". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Muncy, Julie (29 March 2019). "Ninja Is Being Immortalized on a Red Bull Can". Wired. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Cooke, Sam (31 January 2017). "League of Legends pro xPeke becomes Gillette ambassador". Esports Insider. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Davidson, Neil M. (27 July 2017). "Young Swedish gamer Leffen shakes up world of 'Super Smash Bros. Melee'". National Post. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ a b Grill, Philipp (23 October 2022). "Wie Didi Mateschitz sein Sport-Imperium aufbaute". Kronen Zeitung. Mediaprint. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- ^ "Red Bull Academy". redbulleishockeyakademie.com. Red Bull. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- ^ "Red Bull München: Club". www.redbullmuenchen.de. EHC Red Bull München. 16 August 2022. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- ^ Bernhard, Christian (23 August 2022). "München: Der neue SAP Garden – größer, schöner, teurer". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- ^ Constanduros, Bob (1995). "Formula 1 Review: Sauber". Autocourse 1995–96. Hazleton Publishing. pp. 80–81. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.
- ^ Schrader, Markus (13 September 2019). "Here Are All The Highlights Among The +200 Aircraft Attending Zeltweg's AirPower 2019 Airshow". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
- ^ Doyle, Paul (18 August 2020). "RB Leipzig 0–3 PSG: Champions League semi-final – as it happened". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Wallace, Gregory (4 May 2014). "Red Bull picks up deal with Clippers". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
- ^ Phillips, Amy (10 June 2021). "Hall of Fame hosting 2021 Red Bull USA Basketball 3X tournament". WWLP. Nexstar Media Group. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
- ^ Ashton, Graham (28 July 2017). "OG Officially Partner with Red Bull, Unveils New Team Logo – ARCHIVE – The Esports Observer". The Esports Observer. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Newell, Adam (15 June 2018). "Cloud9 announce new partnership with Red Bull". Dot Esports. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ Robichaud, Andrew (19 May 2017). "Red Bull announces League of Legends team – TSN.ca". TSN. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ "Red Bull ký kết hợp tác với CLB bóng đá Hoàng Anh Gia Lai – Khởi động chương trình tuyển chọn tài năng bóng đá trẻ". Red Bull Vietnam (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2022.