Original theatrical poster by John Alvin.
|Directed by||John Milius|
|Produced by||Sidney Beckerman
|Screenplay by||John Milius
|Story by||Kevin Reynolds|
|Music by||Basil Poledouris|
|Edited by||Thom Noble|
|Distributed by||MGM/UA Entertainment Co.|
Red Dawn is a 1984 American war film directed by John Milius and co-written by Milius and Kevin Reynolds. It stars Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Charlie Sheen, and Jennifer Grey. It is notable for being the first film to be released in the US with a Motion Picture Association of America PG-13 rating.
The film is set in an alternate 1980s in which the United States is invaded by the Soviet Union and its Cuban and Nicaraguan allies. However, the onset of World War III is in the background and not fully elaborated. The story follows a group of American high school students who resist the occupation with guerrilla warfare, calling themselves Wolverines, after their high school mascot.
An introductory text explains how the United States has gradually become strategically isolated after several European nations (except the United Kingdom) withdraw from NATO. At the same time, the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact partners aggressively expand their sphere of influence. In addition, the Ukrainian wheat harvest fails while a Communist coup d'etat occurs in Mexico.
On a September morning, in the small town of Calumet, Colorado, a local high school teacher pauses when he sees Russian paratroopers landing in a nearby field. The paratroopers open fire when the teacher confronts them. Pandemonium follows as students flee amid heavy gunfire. In downtown Calumet, Cuban and Soviet troops are trying to impose order after a hasty occupation. Cuban Colonel Bella instructs the KGB to go to a local sporting goods store and obtain the records of the store's gun sales on the ATF's Form 4473, which lists citizens who have purchased firearms.
Brothers Jed and Matt Eckert, along with their friends Robert, Danny, Daryl, and Aardvark, flee into the wilderness after hastily equipping themselves at a sporting goods store owned by Robert's father. While on the way to the mountains, they run into a Russian roadblock, but are saved by an attacking U.S. Army UH-1 helicopter gunship. After several weeks in the forest, they sneak back into town; Jed and Matt learn that their father is being held in a re-education camp. They visit the site and speak to him through the fence; Mr. Eckert orders his sons to avenge his inevitable death.
The kids visit the Masons and learn that they are behind enemy lines in "Occupied America". Robert's father is revealed to have been executed because of the missing inventory from his store. The Masons charge Jed and Matt with taking care of their two granddaughters, Toni and Erica. After killing Soviet soldiers in the woods, the youths begin an armed resistance against the occupation forces, calling themselves "Wolverines," after their high school mascot. The occupation forces initially try reprisal tactics, executing groups of civilians following every Wolverine attack. During one of these mass executions, the fathers of Jed, Matt and Aardvark are killed. Daryl's father, Mayor Bates, is a collaborator and tries to appease the occupation authorities. Despite the reprisal tactics the occupation forces get nowhere.
The Wolverines find a downed pilot, Lt. Col. Andrew Tanner, who informs them of the current state of the war: several American cities, including Washington, D.C., were obliterated by nuclear strikes; the Strategic Air Command was crippled by Cuban saboteurs; and paratroopers were dropped from fake commercial airliners to seize key positions in preparation for subsequent assaults via Mexico and Alaska. The middle third of the US has been taken over, but American counterattacks have halted Soviet advances and the lines have stabilized. The U.S.'s only remaining allies, Britain and China, are militarily crippled. Concerned about nuclear fallout, both sides refrain from the further use of nuclear weapons.
Tanner assists the Wolverines in organizing raids against the Soviets. Soon after, in a visit to the front line, Tanner and Aardvark are killed in the crossfire of a tank battle. Daryl is caught by the Soviets after being turned in by his collaborating father. Using threats of torture, KGB officers force Daryl to swallow a tracking device, then release him to rejoin the guerrillas. Spetsnaz are sent into the mountains carrying portable radio triangulation equipment, but are ambushed by the Wolverines. The group trace the source of the signal to Daryl, who confesses and pleads for mercy, but is executed by Robert after Jed executes a Soviet soldier.
The remaining members are ambushed by Mi-24 helicopter gunships, and Robert and Toni are killed. Jed and Matt attack the Soviet headquarters in Calumet to distract the troops while Danny and Erica escape. The plan works, but Jed and Matt are wounded. Though Colonel Bella comes across the brothers, he is unable to bring himself to kill them and lets them go. Nevertheless, it is implied the brothers die in the park where they spent time as kids.
Erica narrates that the United States repelled the Soviet invasion some time later. A plaque is seen with Partisan Rock in the background, with each dead (presumed) Wolverine's name inscribed upon it. The rock is fenced off and an American flag flies nearby. The plaque reads:
...In the early days of World War III, guerrillas – mostly children – placed the names of their lost upon this rock. They fought here alone and gave up their lives, so "that this nation shall not perish from the earth."
- Patrick Swayze as Jed Eckert
- C. Thomas Howell as Robert Morris
- Lea Thompson as Erica Mason
- Charlie Sheen as Matt Eckert
- Darren Dalton as Daryl Bates
- Jennifer Grey as Toni Mason
- Brad Savage as Danny Bates
- Doug Toby as Arturo "Aardvark" Mondragon
- Powers Boothe as Lt. Col. Andrew "Andy" Tanner, USAF
- Ben Johnson as Mr. Jack Mason
- Harry Dean Stanton as Tom Eckert
- Ron O'Neal as Colonel Ernesto Bella
- William Smith as Colonel Strelnikov
- Vladek Sheybal as General Bratchenko
- Frank McRae as Mr. Teasdale
- Roy Jenson as Mr. Samuel Morris
- Pepe Serna as Mr. Mondragón
- Lane Smith as Mayor Bates
- Judd Omen as Nicaraguan Captain
- Radames Pera as Sgt. Stepan Gorsky
This map is based on the prologue at the beginning of the movie and on comments made by characters during the movie and it shows approximately how far the Soviets and their allies from Central America came during their assault on North America.
As said by Lt.Col. Andrew Tanner; communist troops marched all the way north to Cheyenne and from there to Kansas, but they were stopped by American forces at the Mississippi River in the east and in the Rocky Mountains in the west. Which will mean that states as such Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado and Kansas are occupied territory and it is also likely that Arizona is largely under communist control. Denver was also under siege and it was said that conditions in the city had grown desperate. The Soviet attack on Alaska was also a major setback for the Americans, it is implied by Tanner that Western Canada is also captured by the Soviets. And it is also very likely that Belize and possibly even the Cayman Islands have been occupied by the communist troops because of their close ties with the United Kingdom.
However, the Soviet attack was stalled due to the resistance of American and Canadian soldiers and by guerrillas such as the Wolverines. A Soviet attempt to cut off the West Coast from the rest of the U.S. advancing southbound from Western Canada was decisively stopped at the border. In addition, it is implied several times during the movie that the communist countries can not give their troops sufficient logistical support.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2011)|
The script for Red Dawn was written by John Milius and Kevin Reynolds from a story by Reynolds. The original story, called Ten Soldiers, was more akin to Lord of the Flies, the classic novel about the aggressive nature of man, than to the action film it eventually became. Some of the changes included a shift in focus from conflict within the group to conflict between the teens and their oppressors, and the acceleration of the ages of some of the characters from early teens to high school age and beyond.
The movie was filmed in and around the city of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Many of the buildings and structures which appeared in the film, including a historic Fred Harvey Company hotel adjacent to the train depot, the train yard, and a building near downtown, which was repainted with the name of "Calumet, Colorado", are still there today. An old Safeway grocery store was converted to a sound stage and used for several scenes in the movie.
Before starting work on the movie, the cast underwent a realistic, intensive eight-week military training course. During that time, production crews designed and built special combat vehicles in Newhall, California. Soldier of Fortune reported that the movie's T-72 tank was such a precise replica that "while it was being carted around Los Angeles, two CIA officers followed it to the studio and wanted to know where it had come from".
Red Dawn received mixed reviews, receiving a score of 53% on Rotten Tomatoes. Red Dawn was the 20th highest grossing film of 1984, opening on August 10, 1984 in 1,822 theatres and taking in $8,230,381 on its first weekend. Its box office gross is $38,376,497.
At the time it was released, Red Dawn was considered the most violent film by the Guinness Book of Records and The National Coalition on Television Violence, with a rate of 134 acts of violence per hour, or 2.23 per minute. The DVD Special Edition (2007) includes an on-screen "Carnage Counter" in a nod to this.
National Review Online has named the film #15 in its list of "The Best Conservative Movies." Adam Arseneau at the website DVD Verdict opined that the film "often feels like a Republican wet dream manifested into a surrealistic Orwellian nightmare". According to Jesse Walker of Reason:
The film outraged liberal critics, but further to the left it had some supporters. In a witty and perceptive piece for The Nation, Andrew Kopkind called it "the most convincing story about popular resistance to imperial oppression since the inimitable Battle of Algiers," adding that he'd "take the Wolverines from Colorado over a small circle of friends from Harvard Square in any revolutionary situation I can imagine."
References in the film
- The NRA slogan, "I'll give you my gun when you take it from my cold, dead fingers", is seen on a truck's bumper sticker as the paratroopers take over Calumet before a dead man's M1911 pistol is taken from him.
- The movie being shown to American prisoners at the Soviet camp near Calumet is Alexander Nevsky (1938), Sergei Eisenstein's Soviet anti-Nazi film. It is also playing in the town cinema across from the drugstore.
- One of the radio announcements is "John has a long mustache", which is the same message the French resistance gets before D-Day in The Longest Day (1962).
- Much of the story is set in the Arapaho National Forest, and a group of Soviet soldiers refer specifically to the Colorado War, which was fought there between the Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian insurgencies and the occupying U.S. government.
The film's score was composed and conducted by Basil Poledouris; it was the first soundtrack album to be released (on LP and compact disc) by Intrada Records. The label issued the complete score in 2007.
In popular culture
- Numerous references occur in the movie Hot Tub Time Machine.
- In the television show Scrubs, Elliot and Turk watch and discuss Red Dawn in the episode "My Heavy Meddle".
- "Grey Dawn" is a South Park episode which parodies Red Dawn.
- The plot of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 includes an invasion of the United States by an ultra-nationalist Russia, where members of the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment have to repel the attack. The achievement "Red Dawn" is awarded for completing the American "Wolverines!" and "Exodus" missions in Veteran difficulty. "Wolverines!" itself is a reference to the movie, referencing the battle cry and name of the resistance group featured in the film.
- Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 is a video game released in 2000 which involves a massive Soviet-assault on the USA. While playing for the Soviets, the first mission, which takes place in Washington D.C. is called - Operation: Red Dawn.
- Freedom Fighters is a 2003 video game that takes place during a Soviet invasion of New York. This game is based heavily on Red Dawn in terms of characters, costumes and design, and the last mission closely resembles one of the final scenes when the Wolverines attack the Soviet base.
- Homefront, a video game also written by John Milius, is about a North Korean invasion of America. One notable "easter egg" relating to the film is a large billboard at a school sport stadium which reads "Go Wolverines!!!".
- In GTA Vice City's Vrock radio station, in a commercial from Ammu Nation a film festival weekend is mentioned in which Red Dawn is depicted as a documentary. In the same game, on the VCPR channel, a firebrand pastor asks if, in the event of a Russian invasion, listeners would run into the woods and call themselves the Wolverines.
- Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis is a 2001 tactical shooter that takes place in a fictional conflict between the United States Army and unknown invaders presumed to be Russian Soviets on several fictitious islands. The final, climactic chapter in the game is called "Red Dawn."
- In the animated sitcom American Dad!, the film is the favorite of the title character, Stan Smith, and numerous references are made to it throughout the series.
- In the Family Guy episode; Hell Comes to Quahog, the main character Peter Griffin appeared in a musical version of the film as a cut away gag.
- Members of the US Army Reserve's 310th Military Police Bn (notably the 340th MP Co. "Gotham Knights") called their training convoys and FTXs from New York City to Camp Smith in Cortlandt manor the "RED DAWN SCENARIO"
Operation Red Dawn
The operation to capture former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was named Operation Red Dawn and its targets were dubbed Wolverine 1 and Wolverine 2. Army Captain Geoffrey McMurray, who named the mission, said the naming "was so fitting because it was a patriotic, pro-American movie." Milius approved of the naming: "I was deeply flattered and honored. It's nice to have a lasting legacy."
- "Red Dawn (1984)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Fernandez, Jay A.; Borys Kit (July 9, 2008). "'Red Dawn' redo lands director, scribe; MGM will remake the 1984 action drama". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Richard E. Sincere, Jr. (October 1984). "Schoolkids Battle Red Army in Red Dawn". Journal of Civil Defense (The American Civil Defense Association): 17.
- "Red Dawn Movie Filming Locations". The 80s Movies Rewind. Fast-rewind.com. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Red Dawn". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- "Red Dawn Condemned As Rife With Violence". The New York Times. September 4, 1984.
- Arseneau, Adam (August 6, 2007). "Red Dawn: Collector's Edition". DVD Verdict. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- Miller, John (February 23, 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies". National Review Online. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- Walker, Jesse (January 28, 2008). "The Ghost of Rambo". Reason.
- "Interview with John Milius « The Implied Observer". Impliedobserver.wordpress.com. March 9, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Maslin, Janet (August 10, 1984). "Red Dawn (1984) FILM: 'RED DAWN,' ON WORLD WAR III". nytimes.com. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Stephen Prince (1992). Visions of Empire: Political Imagery in Contemporary American Film. Praeger. p. 57. ISBN 0-275-93662-7.
- Phillips, Michael (March 25, 2010). "'Hot Tub Time Machine': At last, a fun, idiotic movie that lives up to its name". Chicago Tribune.
- "DIALOGUE DRAFT – "My Heavy Meddle"". Scrubs.mopnt.com. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Grey Dawn (Season 7, Episode 10) – Episode Guide". South Park Studios. November 5, 2003. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- Mark Bozon (October 2, 2009). "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 Achievements Unveiled". Xbox360.ign.com. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- Aaron Boulding (September 22, 2003). "Freedom Fighters – PlayStation 2 Review at IGN". Ps2.ign.com. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "News: Video game set to take place in Montrose (Montrose, CO)". Montrosepress.com. January 14, 2010. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- "Walkthrough:Cold War Crisis". Bohemia Interactive. August 3, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- "Red Dawn Imitated Art". USA Today. December 17, 2003.
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