Red Dawn

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Red Dawn
In a cloudy sky, Soviet paratroopers (seen with parashoots) began their descent into Calumet, Colorado. Text reads "In our time no foreign army has ever occupied American Soil. Until now". The film's title is read in red text in both Russian on top (reading Красная рассвет) and English on bottom, followed by the credits on the bottom.
Original theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed byJohn Milius
Screenplay by
Story byKevin Reynolds
Produced by
CinematographyRic Waite
Edited byThom Noble
Music byBasil Poledouris
Distributed byMGM/UA Entertainment Company
Release date
  • August 10, 1984 (1984-08-10)
Running time
114 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
  • English
  • Spanish
  • Russian
Budget$17 million[2]
Box office$38 million[1]

Red Dawn is a 1984 American action drama film directed by John Milius with a screenplay by Milius and Kevin Reynolds. The film depicts a fictional World War III centering on an invasion of the United States by an alliance of Soviet, Warsaw Pact, and Latin American states. The story follows a group of teenage guerillas, known as the Wolverines, in Soviet-occupied Colorado. The film stars Patrick Swayze, Charlie Sheen, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson and Jennifer Grey, with supporting roles played by Ben Johnson, Darren Dalton, Harry Dean Stanton, Ron O'Neal, William Smith and Powers Boothe.

Despite mixed reviews from critics, the film became a commercial success, grossing $38 million against a budget of $17 million. It was the first film to be released in the U.S. with a PG-13 rating under the modified rating system introduced on July 1, 1984.[3] A remake was released in 2012.


In the 1980s, the United States becomes increasingly isolated after a green political party gains power in West Germany and successfully persuades Western Europe to remove its nuclear weapons. Subsequently, NATO dissolves. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union is devastated by a failed wheat harvest and invades Poland to suppress food and labor riots. Soviet allies Cuba and Nicaragua build up their military strength while El Salvador and Honduras fall under Soviet influence and a communist coup d'état seizes control in Mexico.

In the town of Calumet, Colorado, a high school class is interrupted by a Soviet-led invasion. Some of the students, including brothers Jed and Matt Eckert, escape the chaos as Soviet paratroopers attack. Combined Soviet, Cuban and Nicaraguan soldiers then occupy Calumet. Jed, Matt, and their friends Robert, Danny, Daryl, and Arturo flee into the countryside after procuring supplies and weapons from a store run by Robert's father. When they encounter a Soviet roadblock they are saved by a U.S. helicopter gunship. After several weeks hiding in the forests, the group learns that Mr. Eckert is held at a re-education camp at Calumet's drive-in. Visiting the camp, they speak to him through a fence and learn that Mrs. Eckert is dead; he tells the group to avenge him.

The group visits the Mason family in occupied territory and learns that Robert's father was executed by the occupiers. The Masons ask Jed and Matt to take care of their granddaughters, Toni and Erica. The group begins launching guerilla attacks on the occupational forces, calling themselves the "Wolverines" after their high school mascot. The occupiers respond with brutal crackdowns resulting in the executions of Mr. Eckert and Arturo's father, but the Wolverines are not deterred. They meet crashed USAF pilot Andrew Tanner, who informs them of the current state of the war: Several American cities, including Washington D.C., were destroyed by nuclear strikes, Strategic Air Command was crippled by Cuban saboteurs, and paratroopers were dropped from commercial airliners to seize key positions in preparation for the main assaults via Mexico and Alaska. Most of the southern United States and Northwestern Canada are occupied by the Soviets, but American counterattacks halted their advances between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River. Continental Western Europe has decided to remain neutral. America's only remaining foreign allies—China and the United Kingdom—remain active against the Soviets, but are militarily crippled.

Tanner assists the Wolverines in their guerrilla operations, which leads to increased reprisals by occupational forces against civilians. Visiting the front lines of the war, Tanner and Arturo are killed in the crossfire of a tank battle between Soviet and U.S. forces. Daryl is arrested by the KGB after his father betrays him. They force him to swallow a tracking device and release him to rejoin the Wolverines. Soviet troops track the group to the forests using radio triangulation equipment, but are ambushed by the Wolverines, who trace the source of the signal to Daryl; confessing the truth, he pleads for mercy but is shot dead by Robert.

Shortly thereafter, the remaining Wolverines are ambushed by Soviet helicopter gunships, which kill Toni and Robert. Jed and Matt decide to attack the occupational forces in Calumet to distract them while Danny and Erica escape. The plan works, but Jed and Matt are mortally wounded. They are discovered by Cuban Colonel Ernesto Bella who, disillusioned with both the war and Soviet ideology, lets them go; the brothers sit on a park bench together as they die. Danny and Erica trek through the mountains and reach American-held territory. In the closing scene, a plaque is shown in the mountains. It is fenced off and a U.S. flag flies nearby, implying that the U.S. won the war. The plaque states that:

In the early days of World War III, guerrillas, mostly children, placed the names of their lost upon this rock. They fought here alone and gave up their lives, so "that this nation shall not perish from the earth."



Ten Soldiers[edit]

Originally called Ten Soldiers, it was written by Kevin Reynolds. It was set in the near future as combined Soviet and Cuban forces launched an invasion of the Southwestern U.S.. Ten children take to the hills when their small town is captured, turning into a skilled and lethal guerrilla band.[4]

Producer Barry Beckerman read the script, and, in the words of Peter Bart, "thought it had the potential to become a tough, taut, 'art' picture made on a modest budget that could possibly break out to find a wider audience."[5] His father Sidney Beckerman helped him pay a $5,000 option. Reynolds wanted to direct but the Beckermans wanted someone more established. Walter Hill briefly considered the script before turning it down, as did several other directors.[who?][5]

The Beckermans pitched the project to David Begelman at MGM, but were turned down. They tried again at that studio when it was run by Frank Yablans. Senior vice-president for production Peter Bart, who remembers it as a "sharply written anti-war movie ... a sort of Lord of the Flies",[6] took the project to Yablans.

The script's chances increased when Reynolds became mentored by Steven Spielberg, who helped him make Fandango.[5] MGM bought the script. The film depicts a group of high school students who engage in guerrilla warfare against troops of Cuba, Nicaragua and the Soviet Union who have invaded the United States.[7]

John Milius[edit]

Approximate map of the events described in the movie:
Blue: The United States and its allies Canada, the United Kingdom and China.
Red: The Soviet Union and its allies Cuba and Nicaragua.
Green: The neutral countries of Western Europe.
The arrows show the invasion routes, and the red dots show the cities that were destroyed by nuclear weapons: Washington D.C., Omaha, Nebraska, New York City, Kansas City, Missouri and Beijing.

Bart recalls that things changed when "the chieftains at MGM got a better idea. Instead of making a poignant little antiwar movie, why not make a teen Rambo and turn the project over to John Milius, a genial filmmaker who loved war movies. The idea was especially popular with a member of the MGM board of directors, General Alexander Haig, the former Nixon chief of staff, who yearned to supervise the film personally and develop a movie career."[6]

Bart says most of MGM's executives, except for Yablans, were opposed to Milius directing. Bart claims he made a last minute attempt to get Reynolds to direct the film and went to see Spielberg. However, by this stage Fandango was in rough cut, and Bart sensed that Spielberg was disappointed in the film and would not speak up for Reynolds.[8] Milius was signed to direct at a fee of $1.25 million, plus a gun of his choice.[9]

Milius set about rewriting the script. He and Haig devised a backstory in which the circumstances of the invasion would occur; this was reportedly based on Hitler's proposed plans to invade the U.S. during World War II.[10] Haig took Milius under his wing, bringing him to the Hudson Institute, the conservative think tank founded by Herman Kahn, to develop a plausible scenario. Milius saw the story as a Third World liberation struggle in reverse; Haig introduced Nicaragua and suggested that, with the collapse of NATO, a left-wing Mexican government would participate in the Soviet invasion, effectively splitting the U.S. in half.[11] Bart says, "Even Milius was taken aback by Haig's approach to the project. 'This is going to end up as a jingoistic, flag-waving movie,' Milius fretted. As a result, the budget of this once $6 million movie almost tripled."[6]

Other changes included a shift in focus from conflict within the group to conflict between the teens and their oppressors, and the acceleration of the ages of some of the characters from early teens to high school age and beyond.[12] There was also the addition of a sequence where some children visit a camp to find their parents have been brainwashed.[13]

Milius later said, "I see this as an anti-war movie in the sense that if both sides could see this, maybe it wouldn't have to happen. I think it would be good for Americans to see what a war would be like. The film isn't even that violent – the war shows none of the horrors that could happen in World War III. In fact, everything that happened in the movie happened in World War II."[2]

Bart says Yablans pushed through filming faster than Milius wanted because MGM needed a movie over the summer. Milius wanted more time to plan, including devising futuristic weaponry and to not shoot over winter, but had to accede.[14]


Milius wanted Robert Blake to play the US pilot but Frank Yablans overruled him. Powers Boothe was selected instead.[15]


The movie was filmed in and around the city of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Many of the buildings and structures which appear in the film, including a historic Fred Harvey Company hotel adjacent to the train depot, the train yard, and a building near downtown, which was repainted with the name of "Calumet, Colorado", referencing the town in Michigan, are still there today.[when?] An old Safeway grocery store was converted to a sound stage and used for several scenes in the movie.[16]

Before starting work on the movie, the cast underwent an intensive eight-week military training course. During that time, production crews designed and built special combat vehicles in Newhall, California. Soldier of Fortune reported that the movie's T-72 tank was such a precise replica that "while it was being carted around Los Angeles, two CIA intelligence officers followed it to the studio and wanted to know where it had come from".[citation needed]

Powers Boothe later claimed that "Milius cut out the emotional life of its characters. Originally, my character was anti-war, as well as a rightist. I was supposed to be the voice of reason in that movie. But certain cuts negated my character."[17]

Lea Thompson said the original cut featured a love scene between her and Powers Boothe but it "was cut out after some previews because of the age difference. And that was the main reason I took the movie—it was such a terrific scene."[18]

Some of the weaponry devised for the film did not work. Futuristic helicopters created for the film did not have FAA approval to fly over people.[19]

The budget increased from $11 million to $15 million.[19] It eventually came in at $19 million.[20]


The film's score was composed and conducted by Basil Poledouris; it was the first soundtrack album to be released (on LP and compact disc) by Intrada Records. The label issued the complete score in 2007.[citation needed]


Box office[edit]

Red Dawn was the 20th highest-grossing film of 1984, opening on August 10, 1984, in 1,822 theatres and taking in $8,230,381 on its first weekend. Its box office gross is $38,376,497.[1][20]

Critical reaction[edit]

Red Dawn received mixed reviews, receiving a "Rotten" 50% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 28 reviews, with an average rating of 5.5/10. The website's consensus reads, "An appealing ensemble of young stars will have some audiences rooting for the Wolverines, but Red Dawn's self-seriousness can never conceal the silliness of its alarmist concept."[21]

Colin Greenland reviewed Red Dawn for Imagine magazine, and stated that "Red Dawn [...] is a self-congratulatory little B-picture, the sort America does so well. Set in the early months of World War Three, it's a loving chronicle of juvenile heroism in Russian-occupied Colorado. Schoolkids caught behind enemy lines become crack guerillas overnight. Slaughter nobly, die even more so. Nice scenery, shame about the movie."[22]

The New York Times reviewer Janet Maslin said, "To any sniveling lily-livers who suppose that John Milius ... has already reached the pinnacle of movie-making machismo, a warning: Mr. Milius's Red Dawn is more rip-roaring than anything he has done before. Here is Mr. Milius at his most alarming, delivering a rootin'-tootin' scenario for World War III."[23]

MGM apologized to Alaska war veterans for the film's advertising, which claimed that no foreign troops had ever landed on U.S. soil, overlooking the Aleutian Islands campaign of World War II, where Japanese soldiers occupied the Aleutian Islands, part of Alaska.[24]

At the time it was released, Red Dawn was considered the most violent film by the Guinness Book of Records and the National Coalition on Television Violence, with a rate of 134 acts of violence per hour, or 2.23 per minute.[25] The 2007 DVD Special Edition includes an on-screen "Carnage Counter" in a nod to this.[26]

A few days after the NCTV survey came out, 35 protestors picketed the MGM/UA building in opposition to the film.[27] John Milius said:

What these people really don't like is that the movie shows violence being perpetrated against Russian and Cuban invaders, which is what the demonstration was all about. My question is, where were all these demonstrators when the Russians shot down that airliner? Were they cheering? And what about the people being gassed and yellow-rained in Afghanistan? ... There's really no pleasure in outraging these people. I suppose next some extreme right-wing organization will give me an award, which is equally ridiculous.[24]

Later reputation[edit]

National Review Online has named the film No. 15 in its list of the "Best Conservative Movies."[28] Adam Arseneau at the website DVD Verdict opined that the film "often feels like a Republican wet dream manifested into a surrealistic Orwellian nightmare".[26]

According to Jesse Walker of Reason,

The film outraged liberal critics, but further to the left it had some supporters. In a witty and perceptive piece for The Nation, Andrew Kopkind called it "the most convincing story about popular resistance to imperial oppression since the inimitable Battle of Algiers", adding that he'd "take the Wolverines from Colorado over a small circle of friends from Harvard Square in any revolutionary situation I can imagine."[29]

Libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard argued that the film was "not so much pro-war as it is anti-state." Rothbard gave the film a generally positive review, while expressing some reservations with the story:

One big problem with the picture is that there is no sense that successful guerrilla war feeds on itself; in real life the ranks of the guerrillas would start to swell, and this would defeat the search-and-destroy concept. In Red Dawn, on the other hand, there are only the same half-dozen teenagers, and the inevitable attrition makes the struggle seem hopeless when it need not be. Another problem is that there is no character development through action, so that, except for the leader, all the high school kids seem indistinguishable. As a result, there is no impulse to mourn as each one falls by the wayside.[30]

Ed Power writes for The Independent,

From a political perspective, many will find its simplistic vision problematic. But the visceral punch of Red Dawn is nonetheless undeniable. It puts pedal to the floor early on and keeps it there to the end. It is one of the most relentless films ever made.... As with Conan and Apocalypse Now, the air of unrelenting doom is an acquired taste. Yet this grit has served as a preservative. Red Dawn holds up surprisingly well today. Not simply in terms of its action set pieces but in its portrait of America as a place where the frontier mentality lives on just beneath the surface.[31]

Home media[edit]

Red Dawn has been variously released across a variety of formats.

  • In 1985, Red Dawn released on VHS.[32] It was also released at the same time on PAL and Betamax.
  • Also in 1985, Red Dawn released on LaserDisc.[33] The film was released several times on this format, with the latest in April 1994.[34]
  • In 1998, Red Dawn released on DVD.[35]
  • In 2007, a two-disc DVD Collector's Edition was released. Unusual among the "extras" are interviews of residents recalling the filming of the movie.[36]
  • In 2015, a DVD release featured Red Dawn with the 2012 remake.[37] Another release the same year excluded the remake.[38]
  • In 2017, the Collector's Edition was released on Blu-ray.[39]
  • In 2022, Shout! Factory released Red Dawn on 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray.[40]

References in the film[edit]

The movie being shown to American prisoners at the re-education camp is Sergei Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938).[41]

Much of the story is set in the Arapaho National Forest, and a group of Soviet soldiers refer to the Colorado War, which was fought there between the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes and the U.S. government.[42]

During one scene, the young freedom fighters sit and listen to a radio playing messages meant for guerillas behind the lines. The message played, "John has a long mustache.", is one of the messages that was used before D-Day in Normandy to signal French partisans of the imminent invasion.[43] The broadcast of this message is dramatized in the 1962 film The Longest Day.

Operation Red Dawn[edit]

The operation to capture former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was named Operation Red Dawn and its targets were dubbed "Wolverine 1" and "Wolverine 2". Army Captain Geoffrey McMurray, who named the mission, said the naming "was so fitting because it was a patriotic, pro-American movie." Milius approved of the naming, saying "I was deeply flattered and honored. It's nice to have a lasting legacy."[44]

Cultural influence[edit]

Red Dawn has been reference for and influence on a number of other media, including music, books, film, and video games. Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine 'Wolverines' graffiti was reported on a destroyed Russian APC.[45]

Books, film and television[edit]

  • Numerous references occur in the movie Hot Tub Time Machine,[46][47] including the movie playing in the Ski Patrol station and being watched by Blaine, who considers it one of the best movies of all time.[48]
  • "Grey Dawn" is a South Park episode which parodies Red Dawn where the old people of the town, fed up with how they are treated, take over the quiet Colorado town.[49][50][51]
  • The 2017 American military drama series SEAL Team episode "Rolling Dark" contains numerous references to Red Dawn, such as the one scene where a SEAL operator shouts the Wolverines motto to the Russian pursuers.[52]


Video games[edit]

Red Dawn has influenced a number of video games.

  • Freedom Fighters is a 2003 video game that takes place during a Soviet invasion of New York. This game is heavily influenced by Red Dawn's characters, costumes, and design. The game's last mission closely resembles one of the movie's final scenes, when the Wolverines attack the Soviet base.[54]
  • The plot of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 includes an invasion of the United States by an ultra-nationalist Russia, where members of the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment have to repel the attack. The achievement "Red Dawn" is awarded for completing the American "Wolverines!" and "Exodus" missions in Veteran difficulty. "Wolverines!" itself is a reference to the movie.[55]
  • Homefront, a video game also written by John Milius about a unified Korea invading North America, borrows heavily from the movie.[56][57] One notable Easter egg relating to the film is a large billboard at a school sport stadium which reads "Go Wolverines!!!". In turn, the plot of the 2012 remake of Red Dawn borrows heavily from Homefront, including the use of a united Korean threat, the use of rural and suburban settings for the primary action, and partisan warfare.[58]

Red Dawn emails[edit]

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, a string of emails by Trump administration officials detailing concerns about the government's response to COVID-19 was dubbed the "Red Dawn emails" in reference to the film.[59]

Ukrainian resistance during the Russo-Ukrainian War[edit]

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, several Russian armored vehicles destroyed by the Ukrainians appeared with the word "Wolverines" spray-painted in white,[60] a clear reference to the film. One theory is that numerically the Ukrainian are outnumbered by the Russians, similar to the scenario depicted in the film. It is not known whether "Wolverines" was painted by civilians or soldiers, but it has been spotted in Kyiv.[61]


A remake of Red Dawn directed by Dan Bradley was released in 2012. The film takes place in the 2010s, with North Korea invading the United States. Milius criticized the remake as "terrible" after reading an original script where the villains were Chinese:

"There was a strange feeling to the whole thing. They were fans of the movie so they put in stuff they thought was neat. It's all about neat action scenes, and has nothing to do with story. ... There's only one example in 4,000 years of Chinese territorial adventurism, and that was in 1979, when they invaded Vietnam, and to put it mildly they got their [butts] handed to them ... Why would China want us? They sell us stuff. We're a market. I would have done it about Mexico."[62]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Red Dawn (1984)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 22, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  2. ^ a b Goldstein, Patrick (August 16, 1984). "'RED DAWN' IS MILIUS' KIND OF MOVIE: JOHN MILIUS". Los Angeles Times. p. i1.
  3. ^ Parker, Ryan (May 23, 2017). "How 'The Temple of Doom' Changed the MPAA Ratings System". The Hollywood Reporter.
  4. ^ Bart p 109–110
  5. ^ a b c Bart p 110
  6. ^ a b c Bart, Peter (September 28, 2009). "First Look: Famous Firings a Tough Ax to Follow". Variety. p. 2.
  7. ^ Richard E. Sincere Jr. (October 1984). "Schoolkids Battle Red Army in Red Dawn". Journal of Civil Defense. The American Civil Defense Association: 17.
  8. ^ Bart p. 111
  9. ^ Bart p. 112
  10. ^ Bart pp. 112f
  11. ^ Hoberman, J. (November 2012). "The North Koreans Are Coming!". Film Comment (48.6 ed.). pp. 52–54, 56.
  12. ^ Shaw, Tony (2007). Hollywood's Cold War. Edinburgh University Press. p. 270. ISBN 9780748630738. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  13. ^ Bart p. 113
  14. ^ Bart p. 114
  15. ^ Bart p 135
  16. ^ "Red Dawn Movie Filming Locations". The 80s Movies Rewind. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
  17. ^ Baltake, Joe (July 18, 1985). "ACTOR FINDS SUCCESS IN THE WILDS". Philadelphia Daily News. p. 51.
  18. ^ Mann, Roderick (February 28, 1987). "THOMPSON'S AGE OF DISCONTENT". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
  19. ^ a b Bart p 134
  20. ^ a b Bart p 228
  21. ^ "Red Dawn". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2024.
  22. ^ Greenland, Colin (December 1984). "Fantasy Media". Imagine (review) (21). TSR Hobbies (UK), Ltd.: 55.
  23. ^ Maslin, Janet. "FILM: 'RED DAWN,' ON WORLD WAR III". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  24. ^ a b London, Michael (September 19, 1984). "FILM CLIPS: DeLOREAN REJECTS 1ST BID FOR FILM BIOGRAPHY FILM CLIPS: DeLOREAN". Los Angeles Times. p. i1.
  25. ^ "Red Dawn Condemned As Rife With Violence". The New York Times. September 4, 1984. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  26. ^ a b Arseneau, Adam (August 6, 2007). "Red Dawn: Collector's Edition". DVD Verdict. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
  27. ^ Pond, Steve (September 13, 1984). "'Red Dawn' Under Fire: Dateline Hollywood". The Washington Post. p. E7.
  28. ^ Miller, John (February 23, 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies". National Review. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
  29. ^ Walker, Jesse (January 28, 2008). "The Ghost of Rambo". Reason. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  30. ^ Murray Rothbard (July–August 1984). "Red Dawn". Libertarian Forum. Archived from the original on October 10, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  31. ^ "Was Red Dawn the most right-wing blockbuster ever?". The Independent. August 10, 2019. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  32. ^ Red dawn. March 9, 1985. OCLC 11765327.
  33. ^ "LaserDisc Database – Red Dawn [ML100499]". Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  34. ^ "LaserDisc Database – Red Dawn [ML104578]". Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  35. ^ "Red Dawn DVD". Archived from the original on October 12, 2018.
  36. ^ "Red Dawn: Collector's Edition". Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  37. ^ "Red Dawn Blu-ray". Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019 – via
  38. ^ "Red Dawn Blu-ray". Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019 – via
  39. ^ "Red Dawn Blu-ray". Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019 – via
  40. ^ Red Dawn 4K Blu-ray (Collector's Edition), retrieved August 30, 2022
  41. ^ Maslin, Janet (August 10, 1984). "Red Dawn (1984)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  42. ^ Stephen Prince (1992). Visions of Empire: Political Imagery in Contemporary American Film. Praeger. p. 57. ISBN 0-275-93662-7.
  43. ^ ""Molasses tomorrow will bring forth cognac." the BBC's Fascinating Coded Messages to the French Resistance". January 2019.
  44. ^ "Red Dawn Imitated Art". USA Today. December 17, 2003. Archived from the original on June 27, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  45. ^ "Red Dawn style Graffiti spotted on Destroyed Russian Tank". MSN News. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  46. ^ Phillips, Michael (March 25, 2010). "'Hot Tub Time Machine': At last, a fun, idiotic movie that lives up to its name". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  47. ^ Scott, A. O. (March 25, 2010). "John Cusack Leads a Cast Back to the 1980s". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  48. ^ Soriano, Krista (March 25, 2010). "Sebastian Stan on Hot Tub Time Machine". Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  49. ^ "Grey Dawn (Season 7, Episode 10) – Episode Guide". South Park Studios. November 5, 2003. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  50. ^ "Movie Review – Red Dawn (1984) – A journey into the world of REVIEWS, the PARANORMAL, STUPIDITY, and MORE! – The Rellim Zone". Archived from the original on March 17, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  51. ^ Music in Television: Channels of Listening. Routledge. 2011. p. 162. ISBN 9781136826368.
  52. ^ "Script for SEAL Team Season 1, Episode 9 "Rolling Dark"". Springfield! Springfield!. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Red Dawn (USA) – discography, line-up, biography, interviews, photos". Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  54. ^ Aaron Boulding (September 22, 2003). "Freedom Fighters – PlayStation 2 Review at IGN". Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
  55. ^ "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 Achievement Guide". Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  56. ^ "News: Video game set to take place in Montrose (Montrose, Colorado)". January 14, 2010. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
  57. ^ "Homefront: Red Dawn's ugly baby". March 26, 2011. Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  58. ^ Narcisse, Evan (August 10, 2012). "The New Red Dawn Movie Channels a Little Bit of Homefront". Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  59. ^ Lipton, Eric (April 11, 2020). "The 'Red Dawn' Emails: 8 Key Exchanges on the Faltering Response to the Coronavirus". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  60. ^ Xander Landen, "'Red Dawn'-Style Graffiti Spotted on Destroyed Russian Tank In Ukraine", 'Newsweek', 7 April 2022
  61. ^ "Red Dawn's Wolverines Graffiti Showing Up in Ukraine On Russian Tanks, 'Screenrant', 17 April 2022". Screen Rant. April 17, 2022.
  62. ^ "Original 'Red Dawn' director takes aim at the remake". Los Angeles Times. March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bart, Peter (1990). Fade out: The Calamitous Final Days at MGM. Morrow.

External links[edit]