|Birth name||William McKinley Garland, Jr.|
May 13, 1923|
Dallas, Texas, United States
|Died||April 23, 1984
|Genres||Jazz, straight-ahead jazz, bebop, hard bop|
|Associated acts||Miles Davis|
William "Red" Garland (May 13, 1923 – April 23, 1984) was an American modern jazz pianist. Known for his work as a bandleader and during the 1950s with Miles Davis, Garland helped popularize the block chord style of piano playing.
William "Red" Garland was born in Dallas, Texas, in 1923. His mother played several instruments. He began his musical studies on the clarinet and alto saxophone but, in 1940, switched to the piano. Garland spent copious amounts of time practicing and rapidly developed into a proficient player. A short early career as a welterweight boxer did not seem to hurt his playing hands. He fought a young Sugar Ray Robinson before becoming a full-time musician.
Later life and career
After the Second World War, Garland performed with Billy Eckstine, Roy Eldridge, Coleman Hawkins, Charlie Parker, and Lester Young. He found steady work in the cities of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. In the late 1940s, he toured with Eddie Vinson at the same time that John Coltrane was in Vinson's band. His creativity and playing ability continued to improve, though he was still somewhat obscure. By the time he became a pianist for Miles Davis, he was influenced by Ahmad Jamal and Charlie Parker's pianist Walter Bishop.
1955–58 – Miles Davis Quintet
Garland became famous in 1954 when he joined the Miles Davis Quintet, featuring John Coltrane, Philly Joe Jones, and Paul Chambers. Davis was a fan of boxing and was impressed that Garland had boxed earlier in his life. Together, the group recorded their famous Prestige albums, Miles: The New Miles Davis Quintet (1954), Workin, Steamin', Cookin', and Relaxin'. Garland's style is prominent in these seminal recordings—evident in his distinctive chord voicings, his sophisticated accompaniment, and his musical references to Ahmad Jamal's style. Some observers dismissed Garland as a "cocktail" pianist, but Miles was pleased with his style, having urged Garland to absorb some of Jamal's lightness of touch and harmonics within his own approach.
Garland played on the first of Davis's many Columbia recordings, 'Round About Midnight (1957). Though he would continue playing with Miles, their relationship was beginning to deteriorate. By 1958, Garland and Jones had started to become more erratic in turning up for recordings and shows. He was eventually fired by Miles, but later returned to play on another jazz classic, Milestones. Davis was displeased when Garland quoted Davis's much earlier, and by then famous, solo from "Now's The Time" in block chords during the slower take of "Straight, No Chaser". Garland walked out of one of the sessions for Milestones, so that on the track "Sid's Ahead", Davis comped behind the saxophone solos.
1958–84 – After the Miles Davis Quintet
In 1958, Garland formed his own trio. Among the musicians the trio recorded with are Pepper Adams, Nat Adderley (Cannonball Adderley's brother), Ray Barretto, Kenny Burrell, Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, Jimmy Heath, Harold Land, Philly Joe Jones, Blue Mitchell, Ira Sullivan, and Leroy Vinnegar. The trio also recorded as a quintet with John Coltrane and Donald Byrd.
Altogether, Garland led 19 recording sessions while at Prestige Records and 25 sessions for Fantasy Records. He stopped playing professionally for a number of years in the 1960s when the popularity of rock music coincided with a substantial drop in the popularity of jazz.
Garland eventually returned to his native Texas in the 1970s to care for his aged mother. He led a recording in 1977, named Crossings, which reunited him with Philly Joe Jones, and he teamed up with world-class bassist Ron Carter. His later work tended to sound more modern and less polished than his better known recordings. He continued recording until his death from a heart attack in April 1984 at the age of 60.
Garland's trademark block chord technique, a commonly borrowed maneuver in jazz piano today, was unique and differed from the methods of earlier block chord pioneers such as George Shearing and Milt Buckner. Garland's block chords were constructed of three notes in the right hand and four in the left hand, with the right hand one octave above the left. Garland's left hand played four-note chords that simultaneously beat out the same exact rhythm as the right-hand melody played. But unlike George Shearing's block chord method, Garland's left-hand chords did not change positions or inversions until the next chord change occurred. It is also worth noting that Garland's four-note left-hand chord voicings frequently left out the roots of the chords, a chord style later associated with pianist Bill Evans. Garland's chord method had a brighter quality, slightly more dissonance, and a fullness in the upper register compared to the mellower Shearing chord sound. Garland's solo lines also had a glassy, shimmering tone that matched the quality of his chords.
- A Garland of Red (Prestige, 1956)
- Red Garland's Piano (Prestige, 1957)
- Curtis Fuller with Red Garland (New Jazz, 1957) - with Curtis Fuller
- Red Garland Revisited! (Prestige, 1957 )
- The P.C. Blues (Prestige, 1956-57 )
- Groovy (Prestige, 1956–57)
- John Coltrane with the Red Garland Trio (Prestige, 1957) - with John Coltrane
- All Mornin' Long (Prestige, 1957)
- High Pressure (1957)
- Dig It! (Prestige, 1957–58)
- It's a Blue World (Prestige, 1958)
- Manteca (Prestige, 1958)
- Can't See for Lookin' (Prestige, 1958)
- Rojo (Prestige, 1958)
- The Red Garland Trio (Moodsville, 1958)
- All Kinds of Weather (Prestige, 1958)
- Red in Bluesville (Prestige, 1959)
- Coleman Hawkins with the Red Garland Trio (Moodsville, 1959) - with Coleman Hawkins
- Satin Doll (Prestige, 1959 )
- Red Garland Live! (Prestige, 1959)
- The Red Garland Trio + Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis (Moodsville, 1959)
- Soul Junction (Prestige, 1960)
- Red Garland at the Prelude (Prestige, 1960)
- Red Alone (Moodsville, 1960)
- Alone with the Blues (Moodsville, 1960)
- Halleloo-Y'-All (Prestige, 1960)
- Soul Burnin' (Prestige, 1960)
- Bright and Breezy (Jazzland, 1961)
- The Nearness of You (Jazzland, 1961)
- Solar (Jazzland, 1962)
- Red's Good Groove (Jazzland, 1962)
- When There Are Grey Skies (Prestige, 1962)
- Lil' Darlin' (Status, 1963)
- The Quota (MPS, 1971)
- Auf Wiedersehen (MPS, 1971)
- Groovin' Live (Alfa Jazz, 1974)
- Groovin' Live II (Alfa Jazz, 1974)
- Keystones! (Xanadu, 1977)
- Groovin' Red (Keystone, 1977)
- Red Alert (Galaxy, 1977)
- Crossings (Galaxy, 1977)
- Feelin' Red (Muse, 1978)
- Equinox (Galaxy, 1978)
- Stepping Out (Galaxy, 1979)
- So Long Blues (Galaxy, 1979)
- Strike Up the Band (Galaxy, 1979)
- Rediscovered Masters (1958-1961; released 1977)
With Arnett Cobb
With John Coltrane
- Traneing In (1958)
- Soultrane (1958)
- Lush Life (1961)
- Settin' The Pace (1961)
- The Believer (1964)
- The Last Trane (1965)
With Miles Davis
- The Musings of Miles (1955)
- Miles: The New Miles Davis Quintet (1955)
- Cookin' with The Miles Davis Quintet (1956)
- Relaxin' with The Miles Davis Quintet (1956)
- Workin' with The Miles Davis Quintet (1956)
- Steamin' with The Miles Davis Quintet (1956)
- 'Round About Midnight (1957)
- Milestones (1958)
With Art Pepper
With Phil Woods
- Sugan (Status, 1957)
- Dobbins, Bill; Kernfeld, Barry (2002). "Garland, Red". In Barry Kernfeld. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, vol. 2 (2nd ed.). New York: Grove's Dictionaries Inc. p. 14. ISBN 1561592846.
- Garry Giddins, "Red Garland's Texas Cocktail", The Village Voice, April 3, 1978.
- Mathieson, Kenny (2012). Giant Steps: Bebop And The Creators Of Modern Jazz, 1945-65. Canongate Books. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-85786-617-2.