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The Red Lands roughly correspond with the southern part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette, along the border with France. Geologically, the Red Lands are sedimentary, mostly sandstones and conglomerates, formed in the Middle Jurassic epoch.
As one of the most prodigious iron-producing regions in Western Europe, the Red Lands developed a thriving local steel industry, which has now developed into Arcelor, the world’s second largest producer of steel. Throughout the industrial decline of recent years, the Red Lands have diversified into construction materials, engineering, and chemicals.
The region is the most densely populated part of Luxembourg, with several of Luxembourg's largest towns and cities, including Bettembourg, Differdange, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, and Schifflange, all of which have populations in excess of 7,000 people.
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