The spines on the back of the Stonefish are venomous and can penetrate a rubber-soled shoe. The fish is extremely well camouflaged and care should be taken to avoid stepping on it. The venom can be fatal.
Lionfish such as Pterois miles have stinging spines which rarely inflict a fatal wound but which may be extremely painful.
Scorpionfish have venomous spines similar to those of the stonefish, and although the venom is less deadly it may still prove fatal.
The dorsal, pelvic and anal fins of the Rabbitfishes have venomous spines, capable of inflicting painful wounds.
Cone shells house molluscs which use a venomous harpoon to kill their prey. The venom causes paralysis which may lead to death. These shells should not be picked up if there is any chance the organism is still alive.