Red complex

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The red complex is a group of bacteria that are categorized together based on their association with severe forms of periodontal disease.[1] The red complex—among a number of other complexes—were classified by Sigmund Socransky in 1998.[2]

The three members of the red complex are:

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis
  2. Tannerella forsythia
  3. Treponema denticola


  1. ^ I.Rocas, et al., "Red complex" (Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola) in endodontic infections: A molecular approach. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;91:468-71
  2. ^ Wolf, Herbert F.; Rateitschak, Klaus. Color Atlas of Dental Medicine: Periodontology, 3rd Edition, Thieme 2005, ISBN 0-86577-902-3 page 37.