Redland City

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Redland City
Map of Redland City in South East Queensland
Population 147,010 (2016 census)[1] (46th)
 • Density 273.71/km2 (708.91/sq mi)
Established 1948
Area 537.1 km2 (207.4 sq mi)
Mayor Karen Williams
Council seat Cleveland
Region South East Queensland
State electorate(s)
Federal Division(s) Bowman
Redlands city council.svg
Website Redland City
LGAs around Redland City:
Brisbane Moreton Bay Region Pacific Ocean
Brisbane Redland City Pacific Ocean
Logan Gold Coast Pacific Ocean

Redland City, better known as the Redlands and formerly known as Redland Shire, is a local government area located in the southeast of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. It is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay covering 537.1 square kilometres (207.4 sq mi). Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, and Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast.

Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires.[2] Despite this status, the City consists of largely suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland; there is no clear city centre.

Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Cleveland, Victoria Point, and Redland Bay. The latter is the City's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil.[3] North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands. The City's boundaries correspond to those of the Division of Bowman.


The area now known as the Redlands was initially inhabited by the Jagera, Turrbal, and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island; Matthew Flinders landed on Coochiemudlo Island in 1799; and Robert Dixon later surveyed and named much of the area.

By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was ultimately not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, and an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane. The area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903. The Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.

On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa (suburbs west of Tingalpa Creek, including Upper Mount Gravatt and Rochedale) became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments.[4][5] On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it (the other part of Tingalpa amalgamated to form the Shire of Albert).[6]

The twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, and is also associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status.[7][8]


Satellite view from the southwest of Southern Moreton Bay, Queensland - labelled are the many islands created from the outflow of the Logan River behind the barrier of North and South Stradbroke Islands

Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba, Cleveland and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City. These are North Stradbroke, Coochiemudlo and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb, Russell and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, and marking the majority of the area's western boundary.[9]


Redland City has many immediately recognisable animals and plants such as koalas, migratory shorebirds, flying foxes and scribbly gum forests. It is also home to over 1,700 other recorded native species, many of which are under threat from population growth and its associated effects such as habitat clearing and fragmentation, road construction, pollution and expanding development.[10] The council area is also home to Venman Bushland National Park, and the Eprapah Scout environment training centre.

One of Redland City's koalas

In April 2013, the Redland City Council illegally cleared vegetation from public land on the foreshores of Moreton Bay. The Council has been required by the State Government to restore the cleared vegetation and install signage about the restoration.[11] Trees felled included many sheoaks.[12]

The city's koala population has declined significantly in recent years. In 2010, it was estimated that only 2,000 koalas remained, a 65% decline since 1999. Figures from a count in 2012 have not yet been released by the Queensland Government.[13] The Redland City-based Koala Action Group has warned that: "Rampant expansion of urban areas will lead to the loss of the koala populations that are vital to the long-term survival of the species."[14]

The city boundaries include internationally significant coastal wetlands within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site. Tidal flats, mangroves and seagrass beds provide important habitats for fish, crustaceans, and:

Hilliards Creek, flowing from Moreton Bay, separating the suburbs of Wellington Point (left) and Ormiston (right)

Freshwater systems in the Redlands catchment do not meet set ecosystem health values, according to the Healthy Waterways Report Cards for both 2013 and 2014.[18][19]

Fire ants have been detected in a number of Redland City suburbs, with Sheldon and Mount Cotton being assessed by BioSecurity Queensland as high-risk, and requiring treatment by ground teams.[20]


Wellington Point station, the Redlands' third stop along the Cleveland line

Queensland Rail operates the Cleveland railway line, which connects the Redlands with Brisbane as part of its City network. The line runs parallel with the Brisbane River to its south, passing through Brisbane's Cannon Hill and Wynnum, before crossing Tingalpa Creek to enter Redland City. Northern suburbs of the City are serviced by five stations: Thorneside, Birkdale, Wellington Point, Ormiston, and Cleveland, where the line terminates.

The TransLink (South East Queensland) bus network is prevalent in the Redlands. Bus stations at Capalaba and Victoria Point feature regular city-bound and outbound connections, with direct services to Carindale, Eight Mile Plains, Loganholme, and the Brisbane CBD during peak hour. Upon pending completion, the Eastern Busway is expected to terminate at Capalaba bus station.[21][22]

There are no controlled-access highways in Redland City. The Gateway Motorway and Pacific Motorway are located further west within the City of Brisbane. Major roads are accessible from these highways, such as Old Cleveland Road, Mount Gravatt-Capalaba Road, and Mount Cotton Road, which enter the Redlands from Chandler, Burbank, and Cornubia, respectively.

Culture and heritage[edit]

Redland City has a number of important cultural facilities, including the Redland Art Gallery, Redland Museum, and Redland Performing Arts Centre.

The City also has many heritage-listed sites,[23] including:


Raby Bay Marina, viewed from the centre of Cleveland

For the year ending 30 June 2014, Redland City's Gross Regional Product (GRP) was estimated to be 4.77 billion dollars.[25]

Year (Ending June) Redland City – % Change in GRP Queensland –  % Change in GRP
2014 1.7 1.7
2013 1.7 2.6
2012 5.0 6.2
2011 1.6 0.7
2010 2.0 0.0
2009 1.0 0.6
Eastern curlew visiting the shore of Cleveland

Key industry sectors include health care and social assistance, retail trade, education and training, sand mining, construction and tourism.

During the year ending in June 2014, an estimated 41,506 jobs were located in Redland City,[26] along with an estimated 74,089 employed residents,[27] meaning 32,035 (or 47.1%) of Redland City’s employed residents who work travel outside of the area to do so.[28]

Year (Ending June) Redland City – Employed Residents Redland City – Local Jobs
2014 74,089 41,506
2013 74,141 41,788
2012 74,633 43,138
2011 73,863 43,485
2010 73,033 42,888
2009 73,207 41,829


North Stradbroke Island, one of the world's largest sand islands, has been the subject of sand mining operations since 1949.[29] In 2010, Queensland's Labor Government announced a phase-out of the sand mining industry over a 17-year period, with up to 80% of the island to be covered by national park. In April 2011, the government then extended key expired mining leases to allow mining to continue at the main Enterprise sand mine until the end of 2019, while Sibelco was interested in an extension to 2027.[30] 2013 saw the LNP Government pass legislation allowing sand mining on the island for an extra 16 years: from 2019 to 2035.[31] For mining to continue past 2019 at the Enterprise sand mine, the lease owner (currently Sibelco) would have to apply for an extension in 2019, under legislative amendments passed by the Newman Government in November 2013. However, if the amendments are repealed by a future government before 2019, the mine will close on 31 December 2019, the closure date legislated by the government in April 2011.[32]

The circumstances leading up to this legislative amendment have been referred to Queensland's Crime and Misconduct Commission.[33] On 6 June 2014, North Stradbroke Island's traditional owners, the Quandamooka people, initiated a legal challenge saying, on the grounds that the LNP Government's extension of mining contravened the Federal Native Title Act.[34] In May 2016, legislation passed by the Palaszczuk Ministry did confirm that sand mining on North Stradbroke will end by 2019.[35][36]

Mainland quarries are located in the suburb of Mount Cotton,[37][38] and have drawn their own criticisms concerning allegations of pollution[39] and OHS breaches.[40]


Protest against the planned marina and high-rise buildings in Cleveland

Toondah Harbour in Cleveland is the location of the Stradbroke Island Ferry Terminal, used by water taxis and vehicular ferries to provide access to North Stradbroke Island. Cleveland's Toondah Harbour and Redland Bay's Weinam Creek were declared Priority Development Areas (PDAs) under the Economic Development Act 2012 on 21 June 2013. PDA designation allows development to be fast-tracked, but also means that local communities and interest groups have less opportunity to comment on issues of concern.[41]

The Government and Redland City Council have proposed PDA development schemes which have attracted widespread community opposition. On 23 February, approximately 300 people attended a rally to protest against the Government's plans to "carve up" the G.J. Walter Park as part of its Toondah Harbour redevelopment proposal.[42] On 4 March 2014 a petition with 1,211 signatures calling for the Government's Toondah Harbour PDA plan to be withdrawn was tabled in the Queensland Parliament.[43]

On 31 May 2014, an approved development scheme was released[44] together with a lengthy report on the 583 submissions received during the consultation period.[45]

On 18 September 2014, the Government and Council announced that Walker Corporation had been selected as preferred developer for both the Toondah Harbour and Weinam Creek priority development areas.[46]

Entrance to the Capalaba Library, 2008

Local government[edit]

Redland City Council has a Mayor, and a Councillor for each of its 10 divisions. Elections are held every four years and voting is compulsory.

Karen Williams was elected mayor at the 2012 election. She pledged to cap rate rises to inflation, control debt, abolish fees to dump rubbish at local tips, and make the council more transparent and accountable.[47]

Williams was re-elected at the 2016 local election.[48][49]


Redland City consists of the following suburbs and localities:[50]

View east, towards Redland and Moreton Bay, from Mount Cotton, 2014
Cassim Island, viewed from G.J. Walter Park in Cleveland

Redland City also includes a number of uninhabited or sparsely populated islands in Moreton Bay, including:[51]

  • Peel Island
  • Cassim Island, near Cleveland: a low-lying area of mangroves with seagrass around it which provides a high value habitat for wading birds and other fauna,[52] named after William Cassim, an early Cleveland hotel keeper.[53]


Entrance to Cleveland's historic Grand View Hotel
  • 1961— : Ernest Gaden Western Wood (for seven consecutive terms)[54]

Other notable members of the Redland Council include:


Year Population
1947 5,211
1954 7,365
1961 10000
1966 12,632
1971 16,672
1976 27,539
1981 42,527
1986 58,501
1991 80,690
1996 100,101
2001 117,252
2006 131,210
2012 145,336
2016 147,010


The Redland City Council operate public libraries at Amity Point, Capalaba, Cleveland, Dunwich, Point Lookout, Russell Island and Victoria Point.[56] There is a mobile library serving Alexandra Hills, Mount Cotton Park, Redland Bay, Thorneside, Victoria Point, and Wellington Point.[57]


  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Redland (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 26 November 2017.  Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ Queensland State Archives, Search for Agency Details of Redland City Council:, Retrieved 7 April 2014
  3. ^ David Tuffley, 2007, "Redland Bay, Australia: Introduction", Griffith University:, Retrieved 7 September 2015
  4. ^ Queensland Places, "Tingalpa", Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland:, Retrieved 19 May 2015
  5. ^ City of Brisbane Act 1924 (accessed 19 May 2015)
  6. ^ Queensland Places, "Redland City", Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland:, Retrieved 19 May 2015
  7. ^ Redland City Council, "Redlands City Community Plan Project Proposal", 18 March 2008:, Retrieved 19 May 2015
  8. ^ The Redland Foundation, "About Us":, Retrieved 19 May 2015
  9. ^ Mary Howells, "Living on the Edge: along Tingalpa Creek a history of Upper Tingalpa, Capalaba and Thorneside", University of Queensland, 2001:, Retrieved 19 May 2015
  10. ^ Biodiversity Strategy 2008–2012, Redland City Council, May 2008:, Retrieved on 5 February 2014
  11. ^ Judith Kerr, "Council guilty of illegal tree clearing", Redland City Bulletin, 26 July 2014:, Retrieved 27 July 2014
  12. ^ Wildlife Bayside,"Council cleared protected coastal vegetation for individual ocean views?":, Retrieved 27 July 2014
  13. ^ Tony Moore, "State Government's go-slow on Koala Coast population figures", Brisbane Times, 9 December 2013:, Retrieved on 9 March 2014
  14. ^ KAG comments on Draft EPBC Act Referral Guidelines for the Vulnerable Koala:, Retrieved on 13 March 2014
  15. ^ Moreton Bay (Ramsar Site) Overview, Australian Government, Department of The Environment : , Retrieved on 5 February 2014
  16. ^ Migratory waterbirds, Australian Government, Department of The Environment, Retrieved 13 February 2014
  17. ^ BAAM Ecological Consultants and FRC Environmental, "Expert Advice in Ecology (Marine and Terrestrial)and Coastal Processes for Input to the preparation of a Structure Plan and Development Scheme for Toondah Harbour and Weinam Creek Priority Development Areas":[1], Retrieved 5 May 2014
  18. ^ James Kelly, "Moreton Bay's grade falls in Healthy Waterways report", ABC News, 23 October 2013:, Retrieved on 8 March 2014
  19. ^ Judith Kerr, "Water report gives Redland 'F' for fail", Redland City Bulletin, 22 October 2014:, Retrieved 22 October 2014
  20. ^ Judith Kerr, "Fire ants on the march in Redlands", Bayside Bulletin, 20 June 2013:, Retrieved on 9 March 2014
  21. ^ "Eastern Busway". TransLink. Retrieved 2015-07-17. 
  22. ^ "Revitalisation of the Coorparoo Junction Precinct". Anissa Farrell, Sourceable. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-07-17. 
  23. ^ The External links section of this article includes a link to a search of the Queensland Heritage Register which gives a complete list of all heritage-listed places in Redland City.
  24. ^ "Cleveland Lighthouse (former) (entry 600772)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  25. ^ .Id, Redland City Gross Product:, Retrieved 18 May 2015
  26. ^ Id, Redland City, Local Jobs:, Retrieved 18 May 2015
  27. ^ Id, Redland City, Employed Residents:, Retrieved 18 May 2015
  28. ^ Id, Redland City, Residents place of work by occupation - All occupations:, Retrieved 18 May 2015
  29. ^ Queensland Historical Atlas, Mining: , Retrieved 7 April 2014
  30. ^ Courtney Trenwith, "Green jobs to replace mining work on Stradbroke: Bligh", Brisbane Times, 21 June 2010: , Retrieved 7 April 2014
  31. ^ Judith Kerr, "Straddie Act amended to allow 16 more years of mining", Bayside Bulletin, 21 November 2013: , Retrieved 7 April 2014
  32. ^ Richard Carew, "The government is lying about Stradbroke Island sand mining", Brisbane times, 15 July 2014:, Retrieved 15 July 2014
  33. ^ Tony Moore, "Labor refers Sibelco sand mining company to CMC", Brisbane Times, 24 June 2014:, retrieved 29 June 2014
  34. ^ "Native title dispute goes to court after Queensland mining lease extended", The Guardian, 6 June 2014:, Retrieved 6 June 2014
  35. ^ Gail Burke (2016-05-26). "North Stradbroke Island sand mining to end by 2019". ABC. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  36. ^ Trenton Akers (2016-05-26). "Sand mining on North Stradbroke Island to end in 2019". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  37. ^ "About Us - Mt Cotton Quarries". Mt Cotton Quarries. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  38. ^ "About Us - Karreman Quarries". Karreman Quarries. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  39. ^ Mark Solomons and Mark Willacy (2015-02-25). "Karreman Quarries accused of illegally dumping chemicals and waste oils at Mount Cotton quarry, company denies allegations". ABC News. Retrieved 2015-11-02. 
  40. ^ "Dane Karreman, 9, banned from driving 30-tonne front-end loader". 2009-11-02. Retrieved 2015-09-11. 
  41. ^ Economic Development Act 2014 (Qld): , Retrieved 1 April 2014
  42. ^ "Future of GJ Walter Park defines Toondah debate", Bayside Bulletin, 24 February 2014,, Retrieved on 25 February 2014
  43. ^ Judith Kerr, "Parliament hears petition demanding new Toondah plan", Bayside Bulletin, 6 March 2014:, Retrieved on 8 March 2014
  44. ^ Toondah Harbour Priority Development Area Development Scheme May 2014:, Retrieved 1 June 2014
  45. ^ Toondah Harbour Priority Development Area Development Scheme Submissions Report, May 2014:, Retrieved 1 June 2014
  46. ^ Judith Kerr, "Walker Group to develop Cleveland and Redland bay waterfronts", Redland City Bulletin, 18 September 2014:, Retrieved on 18 May 2015
  47. ^ Daniel Hurst, "Redland voters ponder change at the top", Brisbane Times, 26 April 2012: , Retrieved 21 February 2014
  48. ^ "Council election wash-up". ABC. 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  49. ^ Lucy Mae Beers (2016-03-07). "'Red blooded' councillor defends personal sex tapes and pornographic images found on his work mobile and laptop and says he feels 'sl** shamed'". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  50. ^ "Our Suburbs". Redland City Council. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  51. ^ "Redland (C)" (PDF). Queensland Local Government Areas (LGA), 2011. Queensland Government. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  52. ^ Peter Davie et al, "Wild Guide To Moreton Bay", Queensland Museum, 1998, p 376
  53. ^ Joshua Peter Bell, "Moreton Bay And How To Fathom It", Queensland Newspapers, 1984, p 52
  54. ^ "Wood, Mr Ernest Gaden Western (Dick)". Re-Member Database. Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  55. ^ "Goleby, Mr John Philip". Re-Member Database. Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  56. ^ "Library opening hours and locations". Redland City Council. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018. 
  57. ^ "Mobile Library". Redland City Council. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 27°35′35.86″S 153°15′59.11″E / 27.5932944°S 153.2664194°E / -27.5932944; 153.2664194