Reed McNeil Izatt

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Reed McNeil Izatt

Reed McNeil Izatt (born 10 October 1926, Logan, Utah) is a Charles E. Maw Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. His field of research was macrocyclic chemistry and metal separation technologies.[1][2][3]

Early life and education[edit]

Izatt was born in 1926 in Logan, Utah. His first ten years were spent on a ranch in Sumpter Valley, Oregon where he attended school in a two-room schoolhouse. He developed an interest in geology and astronomy. His family then returned to Logan, Utah and he graduated from Logan High School in 1944. On 6 June 1944, Izatt enrolled at Utah State Agricultural College (now Utah State University).

In 1945 and 1946, Izatt served in the United States Army and from 1947 to 1949, he was a missionary in the United Kingdom for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. While stationed at Fort Douglas, Izatt studied at the University of Utah and in 1951, he received a bachelor of science in chemistry. Izatt took post graduate studies in chemistry at Pennsylvania State University. He was mentored by W. Conard Fernelius and in 1954 received a doctorate degree.

Career[edit]

Izatt worked at the Mellon Institute for Industrial Research (now part of Carnegie Mellon University) for two years before taking a faculty position in the department of chemistry at Brigham Young University (BYU). He retired from BYU in 1993 as the Charles E. Maw Professor of Chemistry. Izatt and James J. Christensen, a chemical engineer, founded a thermochemical institute at BYU to promote and facilitate interdisciplinary research.

Awards[edit]

Izatt is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1982). He was the BYU Annual Faculty Lecture in 1970. Izatt received the Utah Award (1971) (Salt Lake Section, American Chemical Society); the Huffman Award (1983) (Calorimetry Conference); the American Chemical Society Separations Science and Technology Award (1996); the Utah Governor's Medal for Science and Technology (1990); and the First Annual Alumni Achievement Award (2001) (Utah State University Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry).

ISI Ranking[edit]

Reed M. Izatt's number in the ISI rankings is 68.[4]

Scientific work[edit]

Izatt and his colleagues, James J. Christensen and John L. Oscarson constructed and used a variety of novel high precision calorimeters to study a number of host and guest chemical systems of both academic and commercial interest.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Izatts thermodynamic results have been used in the development of macrocyclic and supramolecular chemistry,[12][13] molecular recognition,[14][15] heats of mixing,[16][17] nucleic acid chemistry,[18][19] metal cyanide chemistry,[20][21] chemical separations,[22] amino acid microspecies formation,[23][24] and high- temperature corrosion chemistry,[25][26][27]

Macrocyclic chemistry[edit]

Izatt and Christensen made the first extensive thermodynamic study using titration calorimetry of the highly selective metal complexation properties of metal-cyclic polyether interactions.[28][29] This work was followed by research correlating metal ion selectivity to macrocycle structure in a variety of solvents using a range of metal ions and organic amine cations.

Using chiral macrocycles and chiral alkylammonium salts, Izatt and his colleagues were the first to establish host-guest chiral recognition in a given system by more than one experimental method (temperature-dependent 1HNMR spectroscopy in CD2Cl2, titration calorimetry in methanol, and selective crystallization) and to report K, ΔH, and ΔS values for the interactions, thus quantitating the reactions.[30][31] Subsequent x- ray crystallographic resultsprovided a structural basis for the recognition.[32]

Use of fluorophores appended to macrocycles provides advantages over other techniques for selective and sensitive metal ion detection. Izatt demonstrated that certain 8-¬hydroxyquinoline derivatives attached to diazamacrocycles elicit a strong fluorescent response when complexed to selected closed-shell metal ions.[33] That is, Hg2+, [[Cd2+]], [[Zn2+]] and [[Mg2+]]. The novelty of this work lies in the high-fluorescent selectivity these ligands possess for the indicated metal ions in the presence of competing metal ions. The work presents the possibility of producing novel supported sensor systems capable of metal detection. In principle, detection limits could be well below parts per trillion (ng/mL). This level of detection coupled with the high metal ion selectivity imparted by the macrocyclic ligand could make these systems valuable in detecting target metal ions in environmental chemistry and as a means of continuously monitoring target metal ion concentrations in industrial streams.[citation needed]

Separations chemistry[edit]

Izatt and his colleagues were the first to attach macrocycles to a solid matrix and make highly selective metal separations.[34][35] This achievement resulted in the establishment of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC) which commercialized the discovery.[36]

Legacy[edit]

Commercialization of research results[edit]

In the 1960s, Izatt and Christensen developed high-precision titration calorimeters capable of simultaneously measuring equilibrium constants and heats for chemical reactions rapidly and with precision.[37] These calorimeters were marketed worldwide through TRONAC, a chemical instrumentation company located in Provo, Utah. This calorimeter line was later acquired by TA Instruments.[citation needed]

In 1988, IBC Advanced Technologies, Incorporated (IBC) was founded in Provo, Utah by Izatt, Bradshaw and Christensen. IBC commercialized work in chemical separations using an environmentally safe process based on molecular recognition technology (MRT).[38][39] The MRT process enables the rapid and highly selective separation of metals from solutions even in the presence of complex matrices consisting of high concentrations of competing metals and high concentrations of acids or bases.[40] This technology is important in the purification of precious, rare, and base metals during the refining process as well as in the recovery of these metals from spent products such as catalysts and electronics.[39][41][42][43][44] IBC’s MRT products are effective in the remediation of radioactive waste, selectively separating and concentrating radionuclides such as Cs, Sr, Tc, and Ra.[45][46][47][48] In addition, IBC’s MRT products are used for analytical sample preparation and determination of metals, including toxic metals and radionuclides.[47][48][49][50][51][52]

International macrocyclic chemistry symposia[edit]

In 1977, Izatt and Christensen organized the first Symposium on Macrocylic Compounds in Provo, Utah. In 1985, this and related symposia were incorporated into the International Symposium on Macrocyclic Chemistry (ISMC).[53] In 2006, ISMC was expanded to include supramolecular chemistry and the name was changed to International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry (ISMSC).

International Izatt-Christensen award[edit]

Since 1991, the International Izatt-Christensen award is presented annually at the ISMC and ISMSC meetings. The award recognizes excellence in macrocyclic chemistry. Recipients include:

Endowed Reed M. Izatt and James J. Christensen awards[edit]

In 2007, Izatt created an endowment at Brigham Young University to reward faculty excellence in research in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and in the Department of Chemical Engineering, and to provide funds to invite an eminent scientist or engineer from the worldwide community to present two lectures to the combined Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Chemical Engineering, one more universal in nature for the general public and the second more technical in nature for faculty and students. Recipients of the Reed M. Izatt Faculty Excellence in Research Award in Chemistry include:

The Reed M. Izatt and James J. Christensen lecturers include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Researchers at Utah universities are ranked among most cited. Deseret News. 28 November 2010.
  3. ^ [2] Chemistry World 12 December 2011.
  4. ^ [3] Highlycited.com
  5. ^ Hale, J. et al A Calorimetric study of the heat of ionization of water at 25 degrees Celsius. J. Phys. Chem. 1963. Vol 67 pp2605-2608.
  6. ^ Christensen, J. et al New precision thermometric titration calorimeter. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1976 Vol 47 pp 730-734.
  7. ^ Christensen, J. et al Isotheramal, isobaric high pressure flow calorimeter. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1981 vol 52 pp1226-1231.
  8. ^ Christensen, J. et al Isothermal, isobaric, elevated temperature high- pressure, flow calorimeter. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1981 vol 52 pp1226-1231.
  9. ^ Fuangswasdi, S. et al A new flow calorimeter using a eutectic molten salt as the temperature control medium. Thermochim. Acta 2001 vol 373 pp13-22.
  10. ^ Izatt, R. et al Thermodynamic and kinetic data for cation-macrocycle interaction. Chem. Rev. vol 85 pp271-339.
  11. ^ Sipowska, J. et al Excess enthalpies for butane and methanol at the temperatures (298.15 and 348.15) K and the pressures (5 and 15) MPa. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 1992 vol 24 pp1087-1093.
  12. ^ Izatt, R. et al Thermodynamic and kinetic data for cation-macrocycle interaction. Chem. Rev. 1985 vol 85 pp271-339.
  13. ^ Izatt, R. et al Thermodynamic and kinetic data for macrocycle interaction with cations, anions and neutral molecules. Chem. Rev. 1995 vol 95 pp2529-2586.
  14. ^ Zhang, X. et al Enantiomeric recognition of amine compounds by chiral macrocyclic receptors. Chem. Rev. 1997 vol 97 pp3313-3361.
  15. ^ Izatt, N. et al Contributions of Professor Reed M. Izatt to molecular recognition technology: from laboratory to commercial application. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000 vol 39 pp3405-3411.
  16. ^ Christensen, J. et al Heats of mixing: a compilation. Wiley, New York, 1982 p1616.
  17. ^ Christensen, J. et al. Heats of mixing in the critical region. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1987 vol 38 pp163-193.
  18. ^ Izatt, R. et al Sites and thermodynamic quantities associated with proton and metal ion interaction with ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and their constituent bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides. Chem. Rev. 1971 vol 71 pp439-481.
  19. ^ Oscarson, J. et al Thermodynamics of protonation of AMP, ADP, and ATP from 50 to 125 degrees C. J. Solution Chem. 1995 vol 24 pp171-200.
  20. ^ Izatt, R. et al Thermodynamics of metal cyanide co-ordination. Part VII. Log K, ΔHo, and ΔSo values for the interaction of CN with Pd2+. ΔHo values for the interaction of Cl and Brwith Pd2+. J. Chem Soc. (A) 1967 pp1304-1308.
  21. ^ Izatt, R. et al A Calorimetric study of prussian blue and Turnbull's Blue formation. Inorg. Chem. 1970 vol 9 pp2019-2021.
  22. ^ Izatt, R. M. Review of selective ion separations at BYU using liquid membrane and solid phase extraction procedures. J. Incl. Phenom. Mol. Recognit. Chem. 1997 vol 29 pp197-220.
  23. ^ Christensen, J. et al Thermodynamics of proton dissociation in dilute aqueous solution. IX. pK, ΔHo, and ΔSo values for proton ionization from o-, m-, and p-Aminobenzoic Acids and their methyl esters at 25 oC. J. Phys. Chem. 1967 vol 71 pp3001-3006.
  24. ^ Zhang, X. et al Thermodynamics of macroscopic and microscopic proton ionization from protonated 4-aminobenzoic acid in aqueous solution from 298.15 to 393.15 K. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000 vol 104 pp8598-8605.
  25. ^ Chen, X. et al Thermodynamic data for ligand interaction with protons and metal ions in aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Chem. Rev. 1994 vol 94 pp467-517.
  26. ^ Oscarson, J. et al A model incorporating ion dissociation, solute concentration, and solution density effects to describe the thermodynamics of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in the critical region of water. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2004 vol 43 pp7635-7646.
  27. ^ Liu, B. et al Improved thermodynamic model for aqueous NaCl solutions from 350 to 400 oC. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2006 vol 45 pp2929-2929.
  28. ^ Izatt, R. et al Binding of alkali metal ions by cyclic polyethers: significance in ion transport processes. Science 1969 vol 164 pp443-444.
  29. ^ Izatt, R. et al A calorimetric study of the interaction in aqueous solution of several uni- and bivalent metal ions with the cyclic polyether dicyclohexyl-18-Crown-6 at 10, 25, and 40 oC. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1971 vol 93 pp1619-1623.
  30. ^ Bradshaw, J. et al Chiral recognition by the S,S and R,R enantiomers of dimethyldioxopyridino-18-Crown-6 as measured by temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopy in CD2Cl2, titration calorimetry in CH3OH at 25 oC, and selective crystallization. J. Org. Chem. 1982 vol 47 pp3362-3364.
  31. ^ Davidson, R. et al Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-Crown-6 structure. J. Org. Chem. 1984 vol 49 pp353-357.
  32. ^ Davidson, R. et al Structures of the (4S,14S)-4,14-Dimethyl-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxa-21-azabicyclo[15.3.1]heneicosa-1(21)17,19-triene-2,16-dione Complexes of R- and S-α-(1-Naphthyl)ethylammonium Perchlorate.] Isr. J. Chem. 1985 vol 25 pp33-38.
  33. ^ Prodi, L. et al Characterization of 5-Chloro-8-Methoxyquinoline appended diaza 18-Crown-6 as a chemosensor for cadmium. Tetrahedron Lett. 2001 vol 42 pp2941-2944.
  34. ^ Izatt, R. et al Removal and separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions using a silica gel bonded macrocycle system. Anal. Chem. 1988 vol 60 pp1825-1826.
  35. ^ Bradshaw, J. et al Preparation of silica gel bound macrocycles and their cation binding properties. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988 pp812-814
  36. ^ [4] IBCMRT.com
  37. ^ Christensen, J. et al Entropy titration. A calorimetric method for the determination of ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS from a single thermometric titration. J. Phys. Chem. 1966 Vol 70 pp2003-2010.
  38. ^ IBCMRT IBCMRT.com
  39. ^ a b Izatt, N. et al Contributions of Professor Reed M. Izatt to molecular recognition technology: from laboratory to commercial application. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000 Vol 39 pp3405-3411
  40. ^ Izatt, S. et al Status of metal separation and recovery in the mining industry. JOM 2012 Vol 64 pp1279-1284.
  41. ^ Izatt, S. et al Status of metal separation and recovery in the mining industry. JOM 2012 vol 64 pp1279-1284.
  42. ^ Hasegawa, H. et al Selective recovery of Indium from the etching waste solution of the flat-panel display fabrication process. Microchem. J. 2013 Vol 110 pp133-139.
  43. ^ van Deventer, J., Selected ion exchange applications in the hydrometallurgical industry. Solv. Extrac. Ion Exch. 2011 Vol 29 pp695-718.
  44. ^ Izatt, R. et al Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2014 DOI: 10.1039/C3CS60440C
  45. ^ Fujikawa M. et al Efficient removal system of radioactive cesium in fly ash of MSW incineration. Presented at 29th Japan Society of Energy and Resources, January 29–30, 2013, Tokyo, Japan.
  46. ^ Dulanská, S. Pre-concentration and determination of 90Sr in radioactive wastes using solid phase extraction techniques. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 2011 Vol 288 pp705-708.
  47. ^ a b Goken, G. et al Metal ion separations using superLig or anaLig materials encased in empore cartridges and disks. 1999.
  48. ^ a b Bond A. et al Metal ion separation and preconcentration; progress and opportunities. ACS Symposium Series 716, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Chapter 17, pp251-259.
  49. ^ Izatt, R. et al Solid phase extraction of ions of analytical interest using molecular recognition technology. Am. Lab. 1994 Vol 26(18) pp28c-28m.
  50. ^ Paučová, V. et al A Comparison of extraction chromatography TEVA® Resin and MRT AnaLig® TC-02 Methods for 99Tc Determination. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 2012 Vol 293 pp309-312.
  51. ^ Rahman, I. et al Determination of lead in solution by solid phase extraction, elution, and spectrophotometric detection using 4-(2-Pyridylazo)-resorcinol. Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2013 Vol 11 pp672-678.
  52. ^ Rahman, I. et al Selective separation of tri- and pentavalent arsenic in aqueous matrix with a macrocycle-immobilized solid-phase extraction system. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2013 Vol 224 pp.1–11.
  53. ^ Izatt, R. et al Contributions of the International Symposium on Macrocyclic Chemistry to the development of macrocyclic chemistry. in Macrocyclic Chemistry: Current and Future Perspectives. Gloe, K., (ed.) Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005, Chapter 1, pp. 1-14.

External links[edit]