From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Reference mark)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
reference mark
apostrophe  '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash ‒  –  —  ―
ellipsis  ...      
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
guillemets ‹ ›  « »
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /    
Word dividers
interpunct ·
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
basis point
caret ^
dagger † ‡ ⹋
degree °
ditto mark
equals sign =
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
komejirushi, kome, reference mark
multiplication sign ×
number sign, pound, hash #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
plus, minus + −
plus-minus, minus-plus ± ∓
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
copyleft 🄯
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
currency sign ¤

؋฿¢$֏ƒ£元 圆 圓 ¥ 円

Uncommon typography
fleuron, hedera
index, fist
irony punctuation
In other scripts
Handwritten notice in Japanese. Note the komejirushi at the bottom of each page, preceding the footnotes.

The reference mark or reference symbol (; Japanese: こめじるし or 米印, transliterated komejirushi [komedʑiꜜɾɯɕi], literally 'rice symbol';[1] Korean: 참고표, translit. chamgopyo, lit. 'reference mark' or, informally, 당구장표 danggujang-pyo 'billiard-table mark') is a punctuation mark used in Japanese and Korean writing.

It is used to call attention to an important sentence or thought, like a prologue or footnote.[2] In contrast to the European asterisk, it is not used for connecting a specific place in the text directly to the footnote, but rather for notes directly before or after the passage.

In Unicode, the symbol is available at code point U+203B "REFERENCE MARK". Its Japanese name refers to the similarity of the character to the kanji for 'rice': .


  1. ^ Japanese in a Flash. 2. 
  2. ^ Jan M. Ziolkowski (2018). The Juggler of Notre Dame and the Medievalizing of Modernity. p. 47. ISBN 1783744367. […] The Japanese komejirushi (“rice symbol”), so called for its similarity to the kanji for kome (“rice”) and used in Japanese writing to denote an important sentence or thought.