Reggio Emilia approach
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. It was developed after World War II by a teacher, Loris Malaguzzi, and parents in the villages around Reggio Emilia in Italy. Following the war, people believed that children were in need of a new way of learning. The assumption of Malaguzzi and the parents was that people form their own personality during early years of development and that children are endowed with "a hundred languages" through which they can express their ideas. The aim of this approach is teaching how to use these symbolic languages (eg., painting, sculpting, drama) in everyday life. The program is based on the principles of respect, responsibility, and community through exploration and discovery in a supportive and enriching environment based on the interests of the children through a self-guided curriculum.
During the post-World War II era, a “…desire to bring change and create anew, the first municipal preschool was opened, while across Italy there was a great economic and social development: in the late 1960’s the schools were transferred to the city government for operation and financing.
In the 1970s Malaguzzi’s method was known and appreciated by many educators especially thanks to the first exhibit opened in Sweden at the Modern Museet in Stockholm. Meanwhile, in Italy the National Group for Work and Study on Infant Toddler Centers was formed.
On May 24, 1994, the non-profit organization Friends of Reggio Children International Association was founded to promote the work of Loris Malaguzzi and organize professional development and cultural events. In November 2002, during the annual conference of the National Association for the Education of Young Children in Chicago, the North American Reggio Emilia Alliance was formally launched as an organization.
In 2003 the municipality of Reggio Emilia chose to manage the system and the network of school services and toddler centers by forming a sort of association: Istituzione Scuole e Nidi d'Infanzia. In this way, municipal schools and preschools can have their independent programs and activities, but they are supported by the public sector of the government.
In February 2006, the Loris Malaguzzi International Centre opened. It is a dedicated meeting place in Reggio Emilia, Italy, for professional development and research of the philosophy. The non-profit Reggio Children-Loris Malaguzzi Centre Foundation was officially established on September 29, 2011 at the Loris Malaguzzi International Centre of Reggio Emilia with the aim of “Education and research to improve the lives of people and communities, in Reggio Emilia and in the world”.
The city Reggio Emilia in Italy is recognized worldwide for its innovative approach to education: its name comes from the city itself. The keyword of this method is foster education, from the tender age, promoting the best possible integration among children’s languages which, as Loris Malaguzzi said, are a hundred or more. In this approach, there is a belief that children have rights and should be given opportunities to develop their potential. Children are believed “knowledge bearers”, so they are encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas about everything they could meet or do during the day.
The Reggio Emilia philosophy is based upon the following set of principles:
- Children must have some control over the direction of their learning;
- Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, and observing;
- Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore;
- Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.
The Reggio Emilia approach to teaching young children puts the natural development of children as well as the close relationships that they share with their environment at the center of its philosophy. The foundation of the Reggio Emilia approach lies in its unique view of the child. In this approach, there is a belief that children have rights and should be given opportunities to develop their potential. “Influenced by this belief, the child is beheld as beautiful, powerful, competent, creative, curious, and full of potential and ambitious desires." The child is also viewed as being an active constructor of knowledge. Rather than being seen as the target of instruction, children are seen as having the active role of an apprentice. This role also extends to that of a researcher. Much of the instruction at Reggio Emilia schools takes place in the form of projects where they have opportunities to explore, observe, hypothesize, question, and discuss to clarify their understanding. Children are also viewed as social beings and a focus is made on the child in relation to other children, the family, the teachers, and the community rather than on each child in isolation.
Educators have to make children aware that respect for their similar is important because everyone is a “legal subject” and part of a group.
Community support and parental involvement
Reggio Emilia's tradition of community support for families with young children expands on a view, more strongly held in Emilia Romagna and Tuscany, of children as the collective responsibility of the local community. In Reggio Emilia, the infant/toddler and pre-primary program is a vital part of the community, as reflected in the high level of financial support. Community involvement is also apparent in citizen membership in La Consulta, a school committee that exerts significant influence over local government policy.
Parents are a vital component to the Reggio Emilia philosophy. Parents are viewed as partners, collaborators and advocates for their children. Teachers respect parents as each child's first teacher and involve parents in every aspect of the curriculum. It is not uncommon to see parents volunteering within Reggio Emilia classrooms throughout the school. This philosophy does not end when the child leaves the classroom. Some parents who choose to send their children to a Reggio Emilia program incorporate many of the principles within their parenting and home life. Even with this bridge between school and home, many people wonder what happens to Reggio children when they make the transition from this style of education to a non Reggio Emilia school. The answer is that there is some adjustment that must take place or parents should be aware of pros and cons of different approaches. In some school environments, intellectual curiosity is rewarded, so students continue to reap the benefits of Reggio after they've left the program. The parents' role mirrors the community's, at both the school-wide and the classroom level. Parents are expected to take part in discussions about school policy, child development concerns, and curriculum planning and evaluation. Because a majority of parents are employed, meetings are held in the evenings so that all who wish to participate can do so.
The role of teachers
In the Reggio approach, the teacher is considered a co-learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor. Teachers are encouraged to facilitate the child's learning by planning activities and lessons based on the child's interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively engaging in the activities alongside the child, instead of sitting back and observing the child learning. "As partner to the child, the teacher is inside the learning situation" (Hewett, 2001).
Some implementations of the Reggio Emilia approach self-consciously juxtapose their conception of the teacher as autonomous co-learner with other approaches. For example:
- Teachers' long-term commitment to enhancing their understanding of children is at the crux of the Reggio Emilia approach. Their resistance to the American use of the term model to describe their program reflects the continuing evolution of their ideas and practices. They compensate for the meagre pre-service training of Italian early childhood teachers by providing extensive staff development opportunities, with goals determined by the teachers themselves. Teacher autonomy is evident in the absence of teacher manuals, curriculum guides, or achievement tests. The lack of externally imposed mandates is joined by the imperative that teachers become skilled observers of children in order to inform their curriculum planning and implementation.
While working on projects with the child, the teacher can also expand the child's learning by collecting data that can be reviewed at a later time. The teacher needs to maintain an active, mutual participation in the activity to help ensure that the child clearly understands what is being "taught".
Using a variety of media, teachers give careful attention to the documentation and presentation of the thinking of the children. Rather than making judgements about the child, the teacher inquires and listens closely to the children. An example of documentation might be a book or panel with the student’s words, drawings, and photographs. By making learning visible, the teachers accomplish several things. They are able to study the thinking and feeling of the students in order to gain insight into their understanding. Also, the documentation serves to help the teacher and other educators to evaluate their own work and refine the curriculum accordingly. And finally, it gives parents information regarding their child’s learning experience while creating an archive for the class and school.
The role of the environment
The physical environment is of fundamental importance to the early childhood program, and is often referred to as the child's "third teacher". One of the aims in the design of new spaces - and the redesign of existing ones - is integration of the classroom space with the surrounding environment: the rest of the school, and community the school is a part of. The importance of the environment lies in the belief that children can best create meaning and make sense of their world through environments which support "complex, varied, sustained, and changing relationships between people, the world of experience, ideas and the many ways of expressing ideas."
The preschools are generally filled with indoor plants and vines, and awash with natural light. Classrooms open to a center piazza, kitchens are open to view, and access to the surrounding community is assured through wall-size windows, courtyards, and doors to the outside in each classroom. Entries capture the attention of both children and adults through the use of mirrors (on the walls, floors, and ceilings), photographs, and children's work accompanied by transcriptions of their discussions. These same features characterize classroom interiors, where displays of project work are interspersed with arrays of found objects and classroom materials. In each case, the environment informs and engages the viewer.
Other supportive elements of the environment include ample space for supplies, frequently rearranged to draw attention to their aesthetic features. In each classroom there are studio spaces in the form of a large, centrally located atelier and a smaller mini-atelier, and clearly designated spaces for large- and small-group activities. Throughout the school, there is an effort to create opportunities for children to interact. Thus, the single dress-up area is in the center piazza; classrooms are connected with telephones, passageways or windows; and lunchrooms and bathrooms are designed to encourage community.
Groups of children will stay with one particular teacher for a three-year period, creating consistency and an environment where there are no added pressures from having to form new relationships.
Long-term projects as vehicles for learning
The curriculum is characterized by many features advocated by contemporary research on young children. including real-life problem-solving among peers, with numerous opportunities for creative thinking and exploration. Teachers often work on projects with small groups of children, while the rest of the class engages in a wide variety of self-selected activities typical of preschool classrooms.
The projects that teachers and children engage in are different in a number of ways from those that characterize American teachers' conceptions of unit or thematic studies. The topic of investigation may derive directly from teacher observations of children's spontaneous play and exploration. Project topics are also selected on the basis of an academic curiosity or social concern on the part of teachers or parents, or serendipitous events that direct the attention of the children and teachers. Reggio teachers place a high value on their ability to improvise and respond to children's predisposition to enjoy the unexpected. Regardless of their origins, successful projects are those that generate a sufficient amount of interest and uncertainty to provoke children's creative thinking and problem-solving and are open to different avenues of exploration. Because curriculum decisions are based on developmental and sociocultural concerns, small groups of children of varying abilities and interests, including those with special needs, work together on projects.
Projects begin with teachers observing and questioning children about the topic of interest. Based on children's responses, teachers introduce materials, questions, and opportunities that provoke children to further explore the topic. While some of these teacher provocations are anticipated, projects often move in unanticipated directions as a result of problems children identify. Thus, curriculum planning and implementation revolve around open-ended and often long-term projects that are based on the reciprocal nature of teacher-directed and child-initiated activity. All of the topics of interest are given by the children. Within the project approach, children are given opportunities to make connections between prior and new knowledge while engaging in authentic tasks...
The hundred languages of children
The term "hundred languages of children" refers to the many ways that children have of expressing themselves. Reggio teachers provide children different avenues for thinking, revising, constructing, negotiating, developing and symbolically expressing their thoughts and feelings. The goal is for the adults and children to better understand one another.
As children proceed in an investigation, generating and testing their hypotheses, they are encouraged to depict their understanding through one of many symbolic languages, including drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing. They work together toward the resolution of problems that arise. Teachers facilitate and then observe debates regarding the extent to which a child's drawing or other form of representation lives up to the expressed intent. Revision of drawings (and ideas) is encouraged, and teachers allow children to repeat activities and modify each other's work in the collective aim of better understanding the topic. Teachers foster children's involvement in the processes of exploration and evaluation, acknowledging the importance of their evolving products as vehicles for exchange.
Reggio Emilia's approach to early education reflects a theoretical kinship with John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner, among others. Much of what occurs in the class reflects a constructivist approach to early education. Reggio Emilia's approach does challenge some conceptions of teacher competence and developmentally appropriate practice. For example, teachers in Reggio Emilia assert the importance of being confused as a contributor to learning; thus a major teaching strategy is purposely to allow mistakes to happen, or to begin a project with no clear sense of where it might end. Another characteristic that is counter to the beliefs of many Western educators is the importance of the child's ability to negotiate in the peer group.
One of the most challenging aspects of the Reggio Emilia approach is the solicitation of multiple points of view regarding children's needs, interests, and abilities, and the concurrent faith in parents, teachers, and children to contribute in meaningful ways to the determination of school experiences. Teachers trust themselves to respond appropriately to children's ideas and interests, they trust children to be interested in things worth knowing about, and they trust parents to be informed and productive members of a cooperative educational team. The result is an atmosphere of community and collaboration that is developmentally appropriate for adults and children alike.
- Alternative education
- Project-based learning
- Montessori education
- Waldorf education
- Sudbury school
- Summerhill School
- Charlotte Mason
- Friedrich Fröbel
- Reggio Children - Loris Malaguzzi Centre Foundation
- Hewitt, Valarie (2001). "Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education". Early Childhood Education Journal. 29 (2): 95-10.
- "North American Reggio Emilia Alliance". Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Friends of Reggio Children International Association". Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Fondazione Reggio Children Centro Loris Malaguzzi". Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "100 Hundred". Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- Hewitt, Valarie (2001). "Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education". Early Childhood Education Journal. 29 (2): 95-10.
- Katz, Lilian (1993). Edwards, C.; Gandini, L.; Forman, G., eds. The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. pp. 19–37.
- Forman, G. (1996). Fosnot, CT, ed. Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives, and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press. pp. 172–181. ISBN 978-0807734889.
- Gandini, L. (1993). "Fundamentals of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education". Young Children. 49 (1): 4–8.
- , The Regio Emila Approach - The Pre-school Childs (sic) languages of learning
- Wien, C.A.; Guyevskey, V.; Berdoussis, N. (2011). "Learning to Document in Reggio-inspired Education". Early Childhood Research and Practice. 13 (2).
- Cadwell, L. (1997). "Bringing Reggio Emilia home:An innovative approach to early childhood education.". Teachers College Press, New York.
- Tarr, Patricia (2001). "Aesthetic Codes in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia". Art Education, Vol. 54, No. 3.
- Edwards, C.,Gandini L., & Forman, G. (Eds.) (1998). "The Hundred Languages of Children". Reggio Emilia, Italy: Reggio Emilia.
- Baldini, Belpoliti, Bonilauri, Bruner, Cavazzoni, T. Filippini, Rinaldi, Vecchi, Zini, Davoli, Ferri. Reggio Tutta, a guide to the city by the children. Reggio Children 2000
- Branzi, Bruner, Rinaldi, Vecchi, Ceppi, Zini. Children, spaces, relations - Metaproject for an environment for young children. Reggio Children 1998
- Cadwell, Louise B. Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 1997.
- Cadwell, Louise B. Bringing Learning to Life: A Reggio Approach to Early Childhood Education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 2002.
- Cavallini, Tedeschi. The languages of food. 2008
- Cavallini, Filippini, Vecchi, Trancossi. The wonder of Learning. Reggio Children 2011
- De Poi, Ruozzi, Yea. The Times of Time. Reggio Children 2011 (Dvd)
- De Poi, Iotti, Ruozzi, Spaggiari. Everyday Utopias. Reggio Children 2011 (Dvd)
- De Poi, Spaggiari. Shadow Stories. Reggio Children 2012 (Dvd)
- Dolci, Malaguzzi, Spaggiari, Sturloni, Vecchi, Baldini. Everything has a shadow, except ants. Reggio Children 1999
- Edwards, C., Gandini, L., and Forman, G. (Eds.) The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1993.
- Fasano. Not just anyplace. Reggio Children 2002 (documentary)
- Filippini, Vecchi, Bruner, Malaguzzi, Branzi, Argan, Pontecorvo, Cagliari, De Mauro, Ljubimov, Baldini. The hundred languages of children. Reggio Children 2005
- Filippini, Giudici, Vecchi. Dialogues with places. Reggio Children 2008
- Fraser and Gestwicki, "Authentic Childhood: Exploring Reggio Emilia in the Classroom" (2000)
- Forman, G. "Helping Children Ask Good Questions." In B. Neugebauer (Ed.), The Wonder of it: Exploring how the World Works. Redmond, Washington: Exchange Press, 1989.
- Gandini, L. "Not Just Anywhere: Making Child Care Centers into 'Particular' Places." innings (Spring, 1984): 17-20.
- Gandini, L., Etheredge, S., and Hill, L. (Eds.). Insights and Inspirations from Reggio Emilia: Stories of Teachers and Children from North America. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., 2008.
- Gardner, Cagliari, Vecchi, Seidel, Giudici, Krechevsky, Rinaldi, Meninno. Making learning visible. Reggio Children 2011
- Giudici, Vecchi, Baldini. Children, art, artists. Reggio Children 2004
- Hewett, Valarie (2001).Examining the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29, 95-100.
- Katz, L. "Impressions of Reggio Emilia Preschools." Young Children 45, 6 (1990): 11-12. EJ 415 420.
- Lewin-Benham, A. Possible Schools: The Reggio Approach to Urban Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2005.
- Lewin-Benham, A. Powerful Children: Understanding How to Think and Learn Using the Reggio Approach. New York: Teachers College Press, 2008.
- Malaguzzi, Castagnetti, Rubizzi, Vecchi. A journey into the rights of children. Reggio Children 1995
- New, R. "Excellent Early Education: A City in Italy Has It." Young Children 45, 6 (1990): 4-10. EJ 415 419.
- New, R. "Early Childhood Teacher Education in Italy: Reggio Emilia's Master Plan for 'Master' Teachers." The Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education 12 (1991): 3.
- New, R. "Projects and Provocations: Preschool Curriculum Ideas from Reggio Emilia." Montessori Life (Winter, 1991): 26-28.
- New, R. "Italian Child Care and Early Education: Amor Maternus and Other Cultural Contributions." In M. Cochran (Ed.), International Handbook on Child Care Policies and Programs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
- New, R. "The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum: New Perspectives from Research and Practice." In C. Seefeldt (Ed.), The Early Childhood Curriculum: A Review of Current Research. Revised edition. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1992.
- Project Zero.Making Learning Visible. Children as individual and group learners, Reggio Children, 2001.
- Rinaldi. In dialogue with Reggio Emilia - Listening, researching and learning. Routledge 2005
- Topal, C. Weisman. Explorations in Art, Kindergarten Program. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., 2008.
- Topal, C. Weisman. Thinking with a Line. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., 2005.
- Topal, C. Weisman, and Gandini, L. Beautiful Stuff! Learning with Found Materials. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., 1999.
- Vecchi. Art and Creativity in Reggio Emilia. Routledge 2010
- Wurm, J. "Working in the Reggio Way: A Beginner's guide for American Teachers." St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press, 2005.