Regiment of Artillery

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Regiment of Artillery
Artillery Insignia.gif
Active1827–present
Country India
AllegianceRep of india
Branch Indian Army
TypeArtillery
Garrison/HQNashik, Maharashtra
Motto(s)Sarvatra Izat-o-Iqbal (Everywhere with Honour and Glory)
ColorsWhile the guns are regarded as the regimental colours and are accorded the same compliments as the Standards, Guidons and Colours of the Cavalry and Infantry and the Banners of the Light Infantry and Services and Corps, the Artillery Regiments carry blue and burgundy red President's Banners.
Anniversaries28 September (Gunners' Day)
DecorationsVictoria Cross 1
Vir Chakra 3
Yudh Seva Medal (YSM)1
Sena Medal 19
Shaurya Chakra 1 [1]
Insignia
Regimental insigniaA gun with Star of India above it

The Regiment of Artillery is an operational arm (a regiment/corps) of the Indian Army. Formerly part of Royal Indian Artillery (RIA) of British Indian Army which itself traces its origins to the formation of Bombay Artillery in 1827. It was later involved in extensive service in the First World War, in East Africa, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia and Palestine .

Today it is the second-largest arm of the Indian Army, and with its guns, mortars, rocket launchers, unmanned aerial vehicles, surveillance systems, missiles and artillery firepower it constitutes almost one-sixth of its total strength.

Its motto is Sarvatra Izzat-o-Iqbal (Everywhere with Honour and Glory), the Hindu-Urdu equivalent of the Royal Artillery motto Ubique Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt (Everywhere That Right And Glory Lead), and it shares the same symbol but with the Star of India in place of the Royal Crown, the Hindu-Urdu motto honors the memory of the Hindu and Muslim gunners who fought during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

History[edit]

Historically Mughal Emperor Babur is popularly credited with introduction of Artillery in India, in the Battle of Panipat in 1526, where he decisively used gunpowder firearms and field artillery and defeated the much larger army of Ibrahim Lodhi, the ruler of the large North Indian Delhi Sultanate, thus not just laying the foundation of the Mughal Empire but also setting a precedent of all future battles in the subcontinent. However, evidence of earlier use of guns by Bahmani Kings in the 'Battle of Adoni' in 1368 and King Mohammed Shah of Gujarat in the fifteenth century have been recorded.

The East India Company raised the first regular company of Artillery in 1748, with a small percentage of Indian Gunners called Gun Lashkars, Tindals and Serangs. A few Indian mountain artillery batteries, officered by the British, were raised in the 19th century and formed part of the Royal Artillery.[2] The Royal Indian Artillery (RIA) of the British India Army, was raised on 28 September 1827, as a part of the Bombay Army, a presidency army of the Bombay Presidency. It was later renamed as 5 Bombay Mountain Battery, and participated in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–1842).

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was sparked off in Meerut on 10 May 1857. Many of the Indian personnel of the Bengal Artillery were involved in the mutiny and the three battalions of foot artillery then in existence were all disbanded in 1862.[3] Subsequently, all Indian artillery units were disbanded except for four mountain artillery batteries of the Bombay Army[4] and four field batteries of the Hyderabad Contingent. Major Richard Keatinge of Bombay Artillery was awarded the Victoria Cross in 1858 for his service during the Indian Rebellion.

A mountain artillery crew from the British Indian Army demonstrating assembly of the RML 2.5 inch Mountain Gun, ca 1895

In the 20th century, the Artillery was later involved in extensive service in the First World War, in East Africa, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Palestine.[2]

The Regiment of Artillery was raised on 15 January 1935, when the first three Indian Field Regiments, originally numbered A, B, and C were authorised.[5] Originally called the 'Indian Regiment of Artillery', which later became 'The Regiment of Indian Artillery' on 1 November 1940 and 'Royal Regiment of Indian Artillery' in October 1945, after its success in World War II.[4]

After the partition of India in 1947 RIA was divided between the newly formed artillery regiments of India and Pakistan.[2] In the coming years, the artillery took part in all the operations fought by the Indian Army, the latest being the Kargil War.

The School of Artillery of the Indian Army is situated at Devlali near Nashik, and the Regiment of Artillery Museum, established in 1970, is also situated in Nashik at Nasik Road Camp.

The Regiment of Artillery was divided in the mid-1990s between the Field Artillery, the Corps of Air Defence Artillery formed in January 1994, and the Army Aviation Corps formed in November 1993.[6] The Field Artillery is the largest successor branch, with 190 regiments, but no longer accounted for a sixth of the army's 1.2 million 1996 strength.

Jane's Defence Weekly said in 1996 that divisional artillery deployed on India's plains is expected to have a mix of 130mm and 155mm guns.[7] This could be a combination of three 130mm regiments and one regiment of 155mm guns, or two regiments of each calibre, depending on the anticipated threat and whether the division is to be employed for offensive or defensive operations.

On 15 January 1985, a commemorative stamp depicting a Gunner and Howitzer from Mountain Battery was released by India Post, on the Golden Jubilee of the Regiment of Artillery[8]

During the Kargil War, it was the Indian Artillery that inflicted the most damage.[9] The role played by the artillery was praised by the top army brass, the divisional commander, a brigade commander and a battalion commander. Two of the officers in that conflict were then General V.P. Malik, then Lieutenant General S. Padmanabhan[10] both of whom went on to serve as Chief of Army Staff.

Composition in the Regiments[edit]

According to army history in artillery, the regiments have been classified in the form of caste and culture. Some of the regiments have been divided into the caste system or some in the traditional culture or historical backgrounds. In regiments of artillery, the units have been allotted in the form of Sikhs, Dogras, Rajputs, Ahirs, Brahmins(Pandits), Jats, Gurkhas, Marathas and SICs(South Indian Classes). The regiments have been the most important part of the Indian Army. Unlike Army Air Defence the units of the regiments are always protecting their guns from the enemies. As Army Air Defence they always protect the sky from enemies as they shoot down the enemy aircraft. In Air Defence and Artillery, the officers are known as Gunnery Officer. Subsequently, in Artillery, there are two Airborne Artillery Units are there 9(Parachute) Field Regiment and 17(Parachute) Field Regiment. Most of the artillery units have been affiliated to Infantry units. During the Raising days, the units call there affiliated units to join the party. A gunner is a man who has the capacity to protect the areas from the enemies during wartime.

Units and their Types of equipment in Artillery[edit]

In the artillery, the regiments have been divided into different units. They have been classified into Medium Regiments, Light Regiments, Missile Regiments, Rocket Regiments, SATA (Surveillance & Target Acquisition) Regiments, SATA (Surveillance & Target Acquisition) Battery and Field Regiments. Every Artillery units have its own equipment during wartime. SATA Battery and SATA Regiments are the most important units in artillery as they are equipped with UAV Drones and ELM MAST Radar System.

In the Indian Army, there are 3 Artillery Divisions. They are

  • 40 Artillery Division (Ambala, Haryana)(under Western Command).
  • 41 Artillery Division (Pune, Maharashtra)(under Southern Command).
  • 42 Artillery Division (Alwar, Rajasthan)(under South Western Command).
BL 10 pounder Mountain Gun crew in action, East Africa, World War I
Light Artillery(Mortars)
  • 120 mm E1 Light Mortar
Field Artillery
Medium Artillery
Self-propelled Artillery
Rocket Artillery

S-400

Missile Artillery
Surveillance & Target Acquisition

Notable personnel[edit]

Flag of Indian Army Regiment of Artillery

Further reading[edit]

  • History of the Regiment of Artillery, Indian Army, by Y. B. Gulati, D. K. Palit. Published by Leo Cooper, 1972. ISBN 0-85052-118-1.
  • Kargil '99: Blood, Guts and Firepower, by Gurmeet Kanwal, India Army. Regiment of Artillery. Published by Regiment of Artillery in association with Lancer Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1-897829-64-7.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Regiment of Artillery - Honours and Awards Indian Army website.
  2. ^ a b c History of Artillery, Indian Army.
  3. ^ W.Y. Carmen, page 12 "Indian Army Uniforms under the British. Artillery, Engineers and Infantry", Morgan-Grampian: London 1969
  4. ^ a b Regiment of Artillery Global Security
  5. ^ Indian Field Artillery in World War II
  6. ^ Sawhney, Jane's Defence Weekly, 9 October 1996, p.35
  7. ^ Pravin Sawhney, 'India's artillery a force in its own right,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 9 October 1996, p.35-37
  8. ^ 15th Jan 1985 StampIndia Post. Archived 17 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Indian artillery inflicted maximum damage to Pak during Kargil". Zee News. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  10. ^ "Battle-Winning Role of the Gunners in Kargil War". Indian Defence Review. Retrieved 4 April 2016.

External links[edit]