Reginald Horace Blyth
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Reginald Horace Blyth (3 December 1898 – 28 October 1964) was an English author and devotee of Japanese culture.
Blyth was born in Essex, England, the son of a railway clerk. He attended Cleveland Road Primary School, in Ilford, then the County High School (later Ilford County High School). In 1916, at the height of World War I, he was imprisoned at Wormwood Scrubs, as a conscientious objector, before working on the Home Office Scheme at Princetown Work Centre in the former and future Dartmoor Prison. After the war he attended the University of London, where he read English and from which he graduated in 1923, with honours. He adopted a vegetarian lifestyle which he maintained throughout his life.
Blyth played the flute, made musical instruments, and taught himself several European languages. He was particularly fond of the music of J.S. Bach. In 1924, he received a teaching certificate from London Day Training College. The same year, he married Annie Bercovitch, a university friend. Some accounts say they moved to India, where he taught for a while until he became unhappy with British colonial rule. Other scholars dismiss this episode, claiming it to have been invented by Blyth's mentor Daisetz T. Suzuki (Pinnington, 1997).
In 1925, the Blyths moved to Korea (then under Japanese rule), where Blyth became Assistant Professor of English at Keijo University in Seoul. While in Korea, Blyth began to learn Japanese and Chinese, and studied Zen under the master Hanayama Taigi of Myōshin-ji Keijo Betsuin (Seoul). In 1933, he informally adopted a Korean student, paying for his studies in Korea and London. (Pinnington, 1997). His wife returned to England alone in 1934. He later followed her and they were divorced shortly thereafter, in 1935.
Having returned to Seoul in 1936, Blyth remarried in 1937, to a Japanese woman named Kishima Tomiko (Pinnington, 1997), with whom he later had two daughters, Nana Blyth and Harumi Blyth. He moved to Kanazawa in Japan, and took a job as English teacher at the Fourth Higher School (later Kanazawa University).
When Britain declared war on Japan in December 1941, following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, bringing Japan into World War II, Blyth was interned as a British enemy alien. Although he expressed his sympathy for Japan and sought Japanese citizenship, this was denied. During his internment his extensive library was destroyed in an air raid.
After the war, Blyth worked diligently with the authorities, both Japanese and American, to ease the transition to peace. Blyth functioned as liaison to the Japanese Imperial Household, and his close friend, Harold Gould Henderson, was on General Douglas MacArthur's staff. Together, they helped draft the declaration Ningen Sengen, by which Emperor Hirohito declared himself to be a human being, and not divine.
By 1946, Blyth had become Professor of English at Gakushuin University, and tutored Crown Prince (later emperor) Akihito in English. He did much to popularise Zen philosophy and Japanese poetry (particularly haiku) in the West. In 1954, he was awarded a doctorate in literature from Tokyo University, and, in 1959, he received the Zuihōshō (Order of Merit) Fourth Grade.
Blyth died in 1964, of a brain tumour and complications from pneumonia, in the Seiroka Hospital in Tokyo. He was buried in the cemetery of the Shokozan Tokei Soji Zenji Temple in Kamakura, next to his old friend, D. T. Suzuki.
He left the following death poem:
- Sazanka ni kokoro nokoshite tabidachinu
- I leave my heart
- to the sasanqua flower
- on the day of this journey
Blyth and haiku
After early imagist interest in haiku the genre drew less attention in English, until after World War II, with the appearance of a number of influential volumes about Japanese haiku.
In 1949, with the publication in Japan of the first volume of Haiku, Blyth's four-volume work, haiku was introduced to the post-war Western world. Blyth produced a series of works on Zen, haiku, senryū, and on other forms of Japanese and Asian literature, the most significant being his Zen in English Literature and Oriental Classics (1942); his four-volume Haiku series (1949–52), dealing mostly with pre-modern haiku, though including Shiki; and his two-volume History of Haiku (1964). Today he is best known as a major interpreter of haiku to English speakers.
Present-day attitudes to Blyth's work vary: On the one hand, he is appreciated as a populariser of Japanese culture; on the other, his portrayals of haiku and Zen have sometimes been criticised as one-dimensional. Many contemporary Western writers of haiku were introduced to the genre through his works. These include the San Francisco and Beat Generation writers, such as Jack Kerouac, Gary Snyder, and Allen Ginsberg, as well as J.D. Salinger ("...Japanese poems...can be read with special satisfaction when R. H. Blyth has been at them. Blyth is sometimes perilous, naturally, since he's a highhanded old poem himself, but he's also sublime..."). Many members of the international "haiku community" also got their first views of haiku from Blyth's books, including American author James W. Hackett (born 1929), Eric Amann, William J. Higginson, Anita Virgil, Jane Reichhold, and Lee Gurga. Some noted Blyth's distaste for haiku on more modern themes and his strong bias regarding a direct connection between haiku and Zen, a connection largely ignored by modern Japanese poets. (Bashō, in fact, felt that his devotion to haiku prevented him from realising enlightenment. In addition, many classic Japanese haiku poets, including Chiyo-ni, Buson, and Issa were Pure Land rather than Zen Buddhists.) Blyth also did not view haiku by Japanese women favourably, downplaying their substantial contributions to the genre, especially during the Bashō era and the twentieth century. In just over 800 pages of text in his two volume History of Haiku, Blyth devotes a total of 16 pages to haiku by women, and even these pages are run through with negative comments about women as writers of haiku. "Women are said to be intuitive, and as they cannot think, we may hope this is so, but intuition, like patriotism, is not enough." With respect to a verse ostensibly by Chi-yo he wrote, "Chiyo's authorship of this verse is doubtful, but so is whether women can write haiku." 
Although Blyth did not foresee the appearance of original haiku in languages other than Japanese when he began writing on the topic, and although he founded no school of verse, his works stimulated the writing of haiku in English. At the end of the second volume of his History of Haiku (1964), he remarked that "The latest development in the history of haiku is one which nobody foresaw...the writing of haiku outside Japan, not in the Japanese language." He followed that comment with a number of original verses in English by Hackett with whom Blyth corresponded.
- Zen in English Literature and Oriental Classics, The Hokuseido Press, 1942; Dutton 1960, ISBN 0525470573; ISBN 0-9647040-1-3 (Online copy(with paid subscription)
- Haiku, in Four Volumes, Volume 1: Eastern Culture. Volume 2: Spring. Volume 3: Summer-Autumn. Volume 4: Autumn-Winter. The Hokuseido Press, 1949-1952; Reprint The Hokuseido Press/Heian International, 1981, ISBN 0-89346-184-9
- Senryu: Japanese Satirical Verses, The Hokuseido Press, 1949; Reprint Greenwood Press, 1971 ISBN 0-8371-2958-3
- A First Book of Korean, by Lee Eun and R. H. Blyth, The Hokuseido Press, c.1950, Second Improved Edition, 1962
- A Shortened Version of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers by Henry David Thoreau with Introduction and Notes by R. H. Blyth, The Hokuseido Press, (1951)
- Buddhist Sermons on Christian Texts, Kokudosha 1952; Heian International, 1976, ISBN 978-0-89346-000-6
- Ikkyu's Doka; in: The Young East, Vols II.2 - III.9, Tokyo, 1952-1954; Reprint in: Blyth, Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 5, 1966
- Japanese Humour, Japan Travel Bureau, 1957
- A Survey of English Literature, from the Beginnings to Modern Times, The Hokuseido Press, 1957
- Oriental Humour, The Hokuseido Press, 1959.
- Humour in English Literature: A Chronological Anthology, The Hokuseido Press, 1959;Reprint Folcroft Library Editions, 1973, ISBN 0-8414-3278-3
- Japanese Life and Character in Senryu, The Hokuseido Press, 1960.
- Zen and Zen Classics, in Five Volumes (planned set of 8 Volumes), Volume 1: General Introduction,from the Upanishads to Huineng, 1960, ISBN 0-89346-204-7. Volume 2: History of Zen,1964, ISBN 0-89346-205-5. Volume 3: History of Zen, 1970 (posthumous). Volume 4: Mumonkan, 1966 (posthumous). Volume 5: Twenty-Five Zen Essays (wrong subtitle on Dust Jacket 'Twenty-Four Essays'), (first published as Volume 7, 1962), reprinted 1966, ISBN 0-89346-052-4. The Hokuseido Press
- Edo Satirical Verse Anthologies, The Hokuseido Press, 1961; Heian International 1977, ISBN 9780893460150
- A History of Haiku in Two Volumes. Volume 1: From the Beginnings up to Issa, ISBN 0-9647040-2-1. Volume 2: From Issa up to the Present, The Hokuseido Press, 1963, ISBN 0-9647040-3-X
- Translation: Japanese Cookbook (100 Favorite Japanese Recipes for Western Cooks) by Aya Kagawa, D.M., Japan Travel Bureau, 1949, 14. print Rev.&Enlarged 1962, 18. print Enlarged 1969
- Translation: (with N. A. Waddell), Ikkyu's Skeletons; in: The Eastern Buddhist, N.S. Vol. VI No. 1, May 1973
- Writings/Textbooks for Students (most of them at the University of Maryland, Hornbake Library, Gordon W. Prange Collection) include: R.L. Stevenson: Will O' the Mill, 1948; Selections from Thoreau's Journals, 1949; William Hazlitt: An Anthology, 1949; The Poems of Emerson: a Selection), 1949; A Chronological Anthology of Nature in English Literature, 1949; An Anthology of English Poetry, 1952; Dorothy Wordsworth's Journals (with Introduction and Footnotes), Hokuseido, 1952, ISBN 4590000385; How to Read English Poetry, (c.1957) 1958, 1971
- Writings/Textbooks for Students (Publishing Unclear) include: An Anthology of Ninetenth Century Prose, 1950; Thoughts on Culture, 1950; A Chronological Anthology of Religion in English Literature, 1951; English Through Questions and Answers, 1951; Easy Poems, Book 1 and 2, 1959; More English through Questions and Answers, 1960;
- Selections from R.H. Blyth, Zen and Zen Classics. Compiled and with Drawings by Frederick Franck, Vintage Books, 1978, ISBN 0-394-72489-5
- Games Zen Masters Play : Writings of R. H. Blyth, Signet, 1976, ISBN 9780451624161
- The Genius of Haiku. Readings from R.H.Blyth on poetry, life, and Zen. With an Introduction by James Kirkup, The British Haiku Society, 1994, ISBN 9780952239703
- Essentially Oriental. R.H. Blyth Selection, Edited by Kuniyoshi Munakata and Michael Guest, Hokuseido Press, 1994, ISBN 4-590-00954-4
- Jerome D. Salinger, Raise High the Roofbeam, Carpenters / Seymour: An Introduction, (c.1955/c.1959, The New Yorker), Little, Brown and Co.,1963, ISBN 9780316769570
- Alan W. Watts, The Way of Zen, Pantheon Books, 1957, ISBN 978-0375705106
- Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums, The Viking Press, 1958, ISBN 0-14-004252-0
- D. T. Suzuki, Zen and Japanese Culture, Princeton University Press (Bollingen Series), 1959, ISBN 9780691098494
- D. T. Suzuki, Reginald Horace Blyth 1898-1964 (Memorial Article); in: The Eastern Buddhist, New Series Vol.1 No.1, Sept. 1965; Reprint as Dust Jacket Text, Blyth, Zen and Zen Classics, Vol.4, Mumonkan, 1966
- Shojun Bando, In Memory of Prof. Blyth; in: The Eastern Buddhist, New Series Vol.1 No.1, Sept. 1965
- Raymond Smullyan, The Tao is Silent, Harper & Row, 1977, ISBN 0-06-067469-5
- Osho, Zen: The Path of Paradox, (1977)
- Osho, Take it Easy, (1978)
- Osho, The Sun Rises in the Evening, (1978)
- Yasuyoshi Kawashima (ed), Blyth in Retrospect / Kaiso no Buraisu, 1984; (in Japanese)
- Masanosuke Shinki, About Blyth / Buraisu no koto; in: Y. Kawashima (ed), Blyth in Retrospect, 1984; (in Japanese)
- Motoko Fujii, Mr. Blyth in his Early Days / Wakakihino Buraisu-san; in: Y. Kawashima (ed), Blyth in Retrospect, 1984; (in Japanese)
- Pinnington, Adrian, R.H. Blyth, 1898-1964; in: Ian Nish (Ed.), Britain & Japan. Biographical Portraits, Chap. 19, Japan Library, 1994; Reprint RoutledgeCurzon 1994, ISBN 1-873410-27-1
- Ikuyo Yoshimura, Zen to Haiku: The Life of R. H. Blyth / R. H. Buraisu no Shogai, Zen to Haiku o Aishite, 1996; ISBN 978-4810422900; (in Japanese)
- Robert Aitken, Remembering Blyth Sensai; in: Robert Aitken, Original Dwelling Place. Zen Buddhist Essays, Counterprint Press, 1997, ISBN 9781887178419
- Janwillem van de Wetering, Afterzen - Experiences of a Zen Student Out on his Ear, St. Martin's Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0312204938
- Dower, John W. (1999). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1; OCLC 39143090
- Ikuyo Yoshimura, R. H. Blyth and World Haiku; in: World Haiku Review, Vol.2 Issue 3, Nov. 2002
- James W.Hackett, R. H. Blyth and J. W. Hackett; in: World Haiku Review, Vol.2 Issue 3, Nov. 2002
- Yoshio Arai, Zen in English Culture - Understanding Blyth Zen, The Hokuseido Press, 2005; ISBN 4-590-01190-5
- Kaorú Hoshino, Why an American Quaker Tutor for the Crown Prince? An Imperial Household's Strategy to Save Emperor Hirohito in MacArthur's Japan, University of Pittsburgh, 2010;
- Kuniyoshi Munakata, Thank you, Professor Blyth / Buraizu Sensei, Arigato, Sangokan, 2010, ISBN 978-4-88320-497-7; (in Japanese)
- Kuniyoshi Munakata, The Most Remarkable American: R. H. Blyth on Henry David Thoreau, Nov. 2011;
- Kuniyoshi Munakata, A Short Introduction to R. H. Blyth, Feb. 2014;
- Further Hearing: Alan W. Watts, Zen and Senryu, Translations by R. H. Blyth, CD locust music 49, 2004 (Vinyl 1959)
- Further Hearing: Alan W. Watts, Haiku, Translations by R. H. Blyth, CD locust music 50, 2004 (first broadcast on KPFA Radio 1958; Vinyl 1959)
- The Genius of Haiku - Readings from R H Blyth, The British Haiku Society, 1994, p3 ISBN 0 9522397 0 1
- Dower, John (1999). Embracing Defeat. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-393-32027-5.
- Kerouac, Jack (1958). The Dharma Bums. ISBN 0-14-004252-0.
- Suiter 2002, pg. 47
- Salinger, Jerome D. (1991). Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters / Seymour: An Introduction. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. p. 118. ISBN 978-0316769518.
- As documented in Makoto Ueda's Literary and Art Theories in Japan (Press of Western Reserve U., 1967).
- RH Blyth, A History of Haiku, (Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1963) paper, 1984, v. 1, p.207.
- Blyth, History, v. 1, p.223.