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13 October 1874|
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
|Died||6 March 1938
|Resting place||Ashes scattered|
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh
Magdalen College, Oxford
|Known for||Tutor to Puyi, the last emperor of China|
Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston, KCMG, CBE (13 October 1874–6 March 1938) was a Scottish academic and diplomat who served as the tutor and advisor to Puyi, the last Emperor of China and as the last colonial governor of Weihaiwei.
In 1898, he entered into colonial service and worked in Hong Kong. After initial service in Hong Kong, Johnston was transferred to the British leased territory at Weihaiwei in 1906 on the coast of the Shandong Peninsula as a District Officer, working with Sir James Haldane Stewart Lockhart.
Tutor to Puyi, in the Forbidden City
As the Scottish-born tutor to the Dragon Emperor, Johnston and Isabel Ingram, daughter of an American missionary and the empress's tutor, were the only foreigners in history to be allowed inside the inner court of the Qing Dynasty. Johnston carried high imperial titles and lived in both the Forbidden City and the New Summer Palace.
After Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in 1924, Johnston served as Secretary to the British China Indemnity Commission (1926). In 1927, he was appointed the second civilian Commissioner at Weihaiwei. He ran the territory until it was returned to the Republic of China on 1 October 1930.
Johnston was appointed Professor of Chinese in the University of London in 1931, a post based at the School of Oriental and African Studies, to which he bequeathed his library in 1935. This library, one of the finest collections of Chinese and East Asian books in the country, consists of over 16,000 volumes. He was not a natural teacher, and hated university administration.
He retained his ties with Puyi, which proved an embarrassment after the former emperor assumed the throne of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Johnston retired in 1937, having acquired the small island of Eilean Righ in Loch Craignish, Scotland, on which he created for himself a Chinese Garden and flew the flag of Manchukuo. After a short illness, he died in Edinburgh. In his will, he requested that no religious ceremony be conducted. In accordance with his wishes, he was cremated. His ashes were scattered on the island of Eilean Righ and surrounding Loch.
Johnston's book Twilight in the Forbidden City (1934) describes his experiences in Beijing and was used as a source for Bernardo Bertolucci's film dramatization of Puyi's life The Last Emperor. He was portrayed by Peter O'Toole in the film.
- Shiona Airlie, Reginald Johnston, 2001. ISBN 1-901663-49-3
- Robert Bickers, Coolie work: Sir Reginald Johnston at the School of Oriental Studies, 1931-1937, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series III, 5, 3 (November, 1995).
- Raymond Lamont-Brown, Tutor to the Dragon Emperor: The Life of Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston, 1999. ISBN 0-7509-2106-4
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1905). Remarks on the Province of Shantung. Cornell University Library. ISBN 978-1-112-55778-1.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1908). From Peking to Mandalay: A Journey from North China to Burma Through Tibetan Ssuch'uan and Yunnan. Soul Care Publishing. ISBN 0-9680459-7-9.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1910). Lion and Dragon in Northern China. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-148-73250-3.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1911). A Chinese Appeal to Christendom Concerning Christian Missions. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-149-01612-1.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1913). Buddhist China. Soul Care Publishing. ISBN 0-9680459-3-6.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1918). Letters to a Missionary. Cornell University Library. ISBN 978-1-112-04861-6.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1921). The Chinese Drama. Kelly and Walsh. ISBN 978-1481220675.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1934). Twilight in The Forbidden City. Soul Care Publishing. ISBN 0-9680459-5-2.
- Johnston, Reginald Fleming (1935). Confucianism and Modern China. Soul Care Publishing. ISBN 0-9680459-4-4.
Walter Russell Brown
|British Commissioner of Weihaiwei
|Weihaiwei returned to China|