Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region

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The Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region, officially the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, is the ruling organ of the Ba'ath Party organization in Syria. The term Regional Command (Arabic: Al-Qiyada Al-Qutriyya‎) stems from Ba'athist ideology, where region literally means an Arab state.[1] According to the Syrian Constitution, the Regional Command has the power to nominate a candidate for president.[2] While the constitution does not state that the Regional Secretary of the Regional Command is the President of Syria, the charter of the National Progressive Front (NPF), of which the Ba'ath Party is a member, states that the President and the Regional Secretary is the NPF President, but this is not stated in any legal document.[3] The 1st Extraordinary Regional Congress held in 1964 decided that the Regional Secretary of the Regional Command would also be head of state.[4] Amin al-Hafiz, the sitting Regional Secretary, became head of state and retained his post as Prime Minister.[4]

At the 2nd Regional Congress in 1965, the Military Committee weakened the powers of the National Command by passing a resolution that the Regional Secretary of the Regional Command was ex officio head of state.[5] The Regional Secretary was given the powers to appoint the Prime Minister, the cabinet, the commander-in-chief and the leading military commanders.(Arabic: lajna quamiyya‎).[5] Before the 1970 Corrective Revolution that brought Hafez al-Assad to power, the local party leadership was elected by fellow Ba'ath Party members; when al-Assad came to power the Regional Command began to appoint all party officials.[6] Under Bashar al-Assad this policy was reversed, and party members were again able to elect the local party leadership, but candidates had to be approved by the party leadership.[7]

The Regional Command is officially responsible to the Regional Congress.[8] The Regional Command is supposed to be subordinate to the National Command, and official media portray it as such to stress the government's commitment to Ba'athist ideology.[8] Since Hafez al-Assad's rise to power, the National Command has been subordinate to the Regional Command.[8] Before the schism between the Military Committee led by Salah Jadid and the Aflaqites, and the ensuing 1966 Syrian coup d'état, the National Command was the leading party organ.[9] The Regional Command is today the post powerful institution in Syria.[10]

The Regional Secretary chairs all the meetings of the Regional Command.[11] If the Regional Secretary is absent, the Assistant Regional Secretary substitutes him.[11] The Assistant Regional Secretary sets the agenda for the meeting with consultation with the Regional Secretary.[11] Under Bashar al-Assad a degree of openness is permitted in Regional Command meetings.[11] Members are allowed to discuss each sides of complex issues, and members can criticize certain policies and how they are implemented.[11] However, if Bashar al-Assad supports a side, that side will prevail in the argument.[11] In contrast to his father, Hafez, who consulted with the Regional Command and took their views into account before he made a decision, the Regional Command under Bashar al-Assad is increasingly becoming a rubber stamp body.[11]

Heads and bureaus[edit]

Members[edit]

Only members who were elected to the Regional Command at the 1st Regional Congress (held in September 1963) and after are included in this list. The Syrian Regional Branch was dissolved in 1958 (and is therefore considered as a distinct entity by the Syrian Regional Branch itself) so that Syria, with Egypt, could establish the United Arab Republic.[13] The Syrian Regional Branch was officially reestablished in September 1963.[13]

Members of the 1st–10th Regional Commands
Name Took office Left office Term(s) Duration
Hammud al-Shufi 5 September 1963 1 February 1964 1 149 days
Khalid al-Hakim 5 September 1963 1 February 1964 1 149 days
Nureddin al-Atassi 5 September 1963 19 December 1965 4 2 years, 105 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Mahmüd Nawfal 5 September 1963 1 February 1964 1 149 days
Ahmad Abü Sälih 5 September 1963 1 February 1964 1 149 days
Hamad Ubayd 5 September 1963 19 December 1965 4 167 days
Hafez al-Assad 5 September 1963 4 April 1965 4 1 year, 211 days
27 March 1966 10 June 2000 8 34 years, 75 days
Muhammad Rabbäh al-Tawil 5 September 1963 19 December 1965 4 2 years, 105 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Amin al-Hafiz 1 February 1964 19 December 1965 3 2 years, 321 days
Salah Jadid 1 February 1964 19 December 1965 4 1 year, 321 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Shibli Aysami 1 February 1964 17 March 1965 1 1 year, 44 days
Muhammad Umran 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
Abd al-Karim al-Jundi 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
27 March 1966 31 March 1969 3 3 years, 4 days
Fahmi al-Ashuri 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
Sulaymän al-Ali 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
Muhammad az-Zubi 1 February 1964 19 December 1965 3 1 year, 321 days
27 March 1966 September 1966 1 158 days
Sami al-Jundi 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
Jamil Shiyya 1 February 1964 19 December 1965 3 1 year, 321 days
27 March 1966 September 1966 1 158 days
Yusuf Zuaiyin 1 February 1964 19 December 1965 3 1 year, 312 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Mahmud aj-Jayyush 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
al-Walid Taleb 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 62 days
Habïb Hadäd 4 April 1965 1 August 1965 1 119 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Mustafa Rustum 1 February 1964 4 April 1965 1 1 year, 303 days
27 March 1966 28 September 1968 3 2 years, 185 days
31 March 1969 13 November 1970 1 1 year, 227 days
Adesän Shümän 4 April 1965 1 August 1965 1 119 days
Mustafa Tlass 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
28 September 1968 9 June 2005 9 36 years, 251 days
Salim Hatum 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
Muhammad Id Ashawi 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
27 March 1966 31 March 1969 4 3 years, 4 days
Marwan Habash 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Fayiz al-Jüsem 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
27 March 1966 28 September 1968 3 2 years, 185 days
Hisäm Hayzah 1 August 1965 19 December 1965 1 140 days
Ahmad Suwaydini 27 March 1966 February 1968 2 2 years, 185 days
Kämel Husayn 27 March 1966 September 1966 1 158 days
Brahim Makhous 27 March 1966 13 November 1970 4 4 years, 231 days
Abdul Hamid al-Miqdad September 1966 13 November 1970 3 4 years, 73 days
Hadithad Muräd September 1966 13 November 1970 3 4 years, 46 days
Muhammad Said Taleb September 1966 13 November 1970 3 4 years, 73 days
Adel Naysah 28 September 1968 31 March 1969 1 184 days
Hamüd al-Qabbani 28 September 1968 13 November 1970 2 2 years, 46 days
Ahmad Shaykh Qasim 31 March 1969 13 November 1970 1 1 year, 227 days
Anis Kanju 31 March 1969 13 November 1970 1 1 year, 227 days
Abdel Ghanf Ibrahim 13 November 1970 7 January 1980 3 9 years, 18 days
Naji Jamil 13 November 1970 March 1978 2 7 years, 108 days
Abdul Rahman Khleifawi 13 November 1970 7 January 1980 3 9 years, 18 days
Abdul Halim Khaddam 13 November 1970 9 June 2005 6 34 years, 208 days
Abdullah al-Ahmar 13 November 1970 9 June 2005 6 34 years, 208 days
Muhammad Ali al-Halabi 13 November 1970 7 January 1980 3 9 years, 18 days
Mahmoud al-Ayyubi 13 November 1970 15 April 1975 2 4 years, 153 days
7 January 1980 20 January 1985 1 5 years, 50 days
Muhammad Haydar 13 November 1970 August 1975 2 4 years, 261 days
Ahmad al-Khatib 13 November 1970 15 April 1975 2 4 years, 153 days
Muhammad Täleb Hilal 13 November 1970 14 May 1971 1 182 days
Daud ar-Raddäwi 13 November 1970 14 May 1971 1 182 days
Fahmi al-Yuxufi 13 November 1970 7 January 1980 3 9 years, 18 days
Abdul Karim Adl 13 November 1970 15 April 1975 2 4 years, 153 days
Mohamad Jaber Bajbouj 14 May 1971 7 January 1980 2 8 years, 201 days
Jabe al-Kafri 14 May 1971 15 April 1975 1 3 years, 336 days
Abdallah al-Ahmad 14 May 1971 7 January 1980 2 8 years, 201 days
Muib Shnän 14 May 1971 7 January 1980 2 8 years, 201 days
George Sanddiqni 14 May 1971 7 January 1980 2 8 years, 201 days
Adib Milhim 14 May 1971 15 April 1975 1 3 years, 336 days
Isam an-Naib 14 May 1971 15 April 1975 1 3 years, 336 days
Taha al-Khayrat 14 May 1971 7 January 1980 2 8 years, 201 days
Zuhair Mushariqa 15 April 1975 9 June 2005 3 30 years, 55 days
Rifaat al-Assad 15 April 1975 8 February 1998 3 22 years, 299 days
Ahmad Diyab 15 April 1975 20 January 1985 2 9 years, 280 days
Mahmüd Hadid 15 April 1975 7 January 1980 1 4 years, 230 days
Yüsuf al-Assad 15 April 1975 7 January 1980 1 4 years, 230 days
Ahmad al-Hasan 15 April 1975 7 January 1980 1 4 years, 230 days
Nahïb Hassün 15 April 1975 7 January 1980 1 4 years, 230 days
Ahmad Iskandar Ahmad 7 January 1980 29 December 1983 1 4 years, 28 days
Hikmat al-Shihabi 7 January 1980 July 1998 2 18 years, 212 days
Nasruddin Nasir 7 January 1980 20 January 1985 1 5 years, 50 days
Abd al-Qadir Qaddura 7 January 1980 9 June 2005 3 25 years, 190 days
Walid Hamdun 7 January 1980 9 June 2005 3 25 years, 190 days
Tawfiq Salah 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Izzuddin Nasir 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Mahmoud Zuabi 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Said Hamadi 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Wahib Tannus 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Abdul Rauf al-Kasm 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 2 20 years, 203 days
Ilyas al-Lati 7 January 1980 20 January 1985 1 5 years, 50 days
Sulayman Qaddah 7 January 1980 9 June 2005 2 25 years, 190 days
Ahmad Qabalan 7 January 1980 21 June 2000 1 20 years, 203 days
Abd al-Razzaq Ayyoub 20 January 1985 21 June 2000 1 15 years, 153 days
Ahmad Dargham 20 January 1985 9 June 2005 2 20 years, 140 days
Fayez Nasir 20 January 1985 9 June 2005 2 20 years, 140 days
Rashid Akhtarini 20 January 1985 21 June 2000 1 15 years, 153 days
Bashar al-Assad 21 June 2000 Incumbent 2 18 years, 332 days
Muhammad Mustafa Mero 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Muhammad Naji al-Otari 21 June 2000 8 July 2013 2 13 years, 17 days
Farouk al-Sharaa 21 June 2000 8 July 2013 2 13 years, 17 days
Salim Said Yasin 21 June 2000 8 December 2001 1 1 year, 170 days
Ibrahim Hneidi 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Faruq Abu Shamat 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Ghiyab Barakat 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Walid al-Bouz 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Mohammad al-Hussein 21 June 2000 8 July 2013 2 13 years, 17 days
Majed Shaddoud 21 June 2000 9 June 2005 1 5 years, 0 days
Mohammed Saeed Bekheitan 21 June 2000 8 July 2013 2 13 years, 17 days
Hassan Turkmani 9 June 2005 18 July 2012 1 8 years, 29 days
Hisham Ikhtiyar 9 June 2005 20 July 2012 1 8 years, 29 days
Osama bin Hamed Adi 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Yasser Tawfiq Hourieh 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Bassam Janbieh 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Said Daoud Eliya 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Haitham Satayhi 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Shahinaz Fakoush 9 June 2005 8 July 2013 1 8 years, 29 days
Wael Nader al-Halqi 8 July 2013 3 July 2016 1 2 years, 361 days
Mohammad Jihad al-Laham 8 July 2013 6 June 2016 1 2 years, 334 days
Mohamad Ammar Sa'ati 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Imad Khamis 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Mohammad Shaaban Azzouz 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Hilal Hilal 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Abdul-Nasser Shafi 8 July 2013 2016? 1 2 years, 177 days
Abdul-Mo'ti al-Mashlab 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Fairouz Moussa 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Rakan al-Shoufi 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Youssef al-Ahmad 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Najm al-Ahmad 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Khalaf al-Miftah 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Hussein Arnous 8 July 2013 Incumbent 1 5 years, 315 days
Malek Ali 8 July 2013 22 April 2017 1 3 years, 288 days
Hadia Abbas 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Fahd Jassem al-Freij 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Muhsen Bilal 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Mahdi Dakhlallah 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Huda al-Homsi 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Yasser al-Shoufi 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Ammar Sibali 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days
Hammouda Sabbagh 22 April 2017 Incumbent 1 2 years, 27 days

References[edit]

  1. ^ FRD 2004, p. 215.
  2. ^ Perthes 1997, p. 140].
  3. ^ Perthes 1997, p. 140.
  4. ^ a b Rabinovich 1972, p. 148.
  5. ^ a b Seale 1990, p. 99.
  6. ^ George 2003, p. 73.
  7. ^ George 2003, p. 77.
  8. ^ a b c George 2003, p. 73.
  9. ^ George 2003, p. 69.
  10. ^ Zîser 2007, p. 70.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Jouejati 2006, p. 16.
  12. ^ Bar 2006, p. 434.
  13. ^ a b FRD 2004, pp. 211–212.

Bibliography[edit]

Journals and papers
  • Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF). 48 (4). The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy Institute for Policy and Strategy: 353–445.
  • Jouejati, Murhaf (2006). "The Strategic Culture of Irredentist Small Powers: The Case of Syria" (PDF). Defense Threat Reduction Agency Advanced Systems and Concepts Office.
Books