Regional power

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Leaders of most regional powers during the 2015 G-20 summit

In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power within a geographic region.[1][2] States which wield unrivaled power and influence within a region of the world possess regional hegemony.

Characteristics[edit]

Regional powers shape the polarity of a regional area. Typically, regional powers have capabilities which are important in the region but do not have capabilities at a global scale. Slightly contrasting definitions differ as to what makes a regional power. The European Consortium for Political Research defines a regional power as:

A state belonging to a geographically defined region, dominating this region in economic and military terms, able to exercise hegemonic influence in the region and considerable influence on the world scale, willing to make use of power resources and recognized or even accepted as the regional leader by its neighbors.[1]

The German Institute of Global and Area Studies states that a regional power must:[2]

  • form part of a definable region with its own identity
  • claim to be a regional power (self-image as a regional power)
  • exert decisive influence on the geographic extension of the region as well as on its ideological construction
  • dispose over comparatively high military, economic, demographic, political and ideological capabilities
  • be well integrated into the region
  • define the regional security agenda to a high degree
  • be appreciated as a regional power by other powers in the region and beyond, especially by other regional powers
  • be well connected with regional and global forums

Regional powers[edit]

Below are states that have been described as regional powers by international relations and political science academics, analysts, or other experts. These states to some extent meet the criteria to have regional power status, as described above. Different experts have differing views on exactly which states are regional powers. States are arranged by their region and in alphabetic order.

Africa[edit]

Even though the economic weight of Africa is relatively low comparing to other continents, and more than two-thirds of African countries are amongst the world's least developed, the rich natural resources and diverse cultures contribute to their full potential of possible development.

Traditionally, North Africa or Maghreb region is often considered to be a part of the Arab world or Greater Middle East due to its close connection to West Asia of both composition of demographic ethnicity and prominent Arab cultural influence, as distinct from the rest of African continent. Egypt, long known for its ancient civilization, is the most populous Arab country and has played a central role in Middle Eastern politics in modern times, which also holds a strategic choke point in Suez Canal and the vicinity of eastern Mediterranean. Algeria, on the other hand, is the largest country in both of African Union and Arab League, and the Algerian military force is the second largest military[3] (next to Egypt) with the largest defence budget in Africa.[4]

The increase in the level of South Africa's diplomatic engagement after the end of apartheid is illustrated by its successful reintegration into international affairs over the last 20 years. The country is recognized[by whom?] as the only newly industrialized country in African economy and takes a crucial role in BRICS and G20. Nigeria is also referred to as the "Giant of Africa" which possesses the largest population and economic size of Africa, along with its significant cultural influence over Sub-Saharan Africa such as movie industry and mass media, Nigeria is also the largest oil producer in Africa. Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa, and Algeria as the four largest African economies, all reach the thresholds of over 150 billions of total GDP by nominal value and 500 billions by PPP measures as of 2020.

North Africa[edit]

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

North America[edit]

The United States is the primary geopolitical force in North America, and is considered a contemporary sole superpower globally. Its formidable projection of power is immense to that Canada and Mexico, both middle powers in the region, are generally not considered regional powers. Canada is not a regional power because it is militarily secured by U.S. hegemony and financially comfortable by its dependence on a robust U.S. economy.[17] Mexico is an emerging power which could probably be viewed as a regional power if grouped with Latin America, or a definite regional power if considered in either Middle America or in Hispanic America due to its economic size and diverse cultural heritages.[18] However, similar to Canada, Mexican economy is highly reliant on the U.S. with about 80% of its exports shipping to the U.S. alone. [19][20]

South America[edit]

Since the Age of Discovery, Spain and Portugal mostly divided the continent to be the foremost colonial powers in South America, but following decolonization in the first half of the 19th century, the European powers withdrawed and new nations were established, whereas their cultural influence and languages still remain predominent in Latin America.

Argentina is the largest Spanish-speaking country and the second largest economic power in South America with vast natural resources in energy and agriculture. It is a global leading food producer with large-scale agricultural and livestock industries as well as a highly diversified industrial base in comparison to many countries in the region.[22] Brazil, on the other hand, is long considered the most compelling geopolitical power in South America, the country is on top of both population and landmass as well as its economic size, which possesses enormous "strategic" natural resources, including valuable minerals, a tenth of the world's fresh water and Earth's largest remaining rainforest. Brazil emerges to gain an important role in international relations, especially in economic and global environmental issues.[23] Argentina and Brazil are both members of G20 major economies.

Asia[edit]

Historically, Imperial China was the dominant power in East Asia. From the late 19th century, the Empire of Japan initiated a far-reaching Westernized reform, and rapidly industrialized itself to become a major power of Asia by the time of World War I as one of the Allied powers. With economic turmoil, Japan's expulsion from the League of Nations, and its interest in expansion on the mainland, Japan became one of the three main Axis powers in World War II.

Since the late 20th century, regional alliances, economic progress, and contrasting military power have changed the strategic and regional power balance in Asia. In recent years, a re-balancing of military and economic power among emerging powers such as China and India has resulted in significant changes in the geopolitics of Asia, Asia is now the fastest growing region in macroeconomics of world economy, benefit from its robust internal market as well as huge and fast growing population. China and Japan, being the second and third largest economic powers of the world respectively, have also gained greater influence over regions beyond Asia, with the former now contending with the United States for geopolitical clout in most major regions. With close economic and military ties to the United States, Japan was the key component for the US military operations of "containment" strategy against communist forces in Asia during the Cold War. In recent decades, South Korea has emerged as a significant economic and cultural force in East Asia, and Indonesia has solidified its place as the economic heavyweight of Southeast Asia[citation needed]. China in particular has grown rapidly in its ability to project its global influence and investment in profound infrastructuring project called "Belt and Road Initiative" throughout Afro-Eurasia, and is widely considered to be a potential superpower.

East Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

West Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Russia – the dominant part of a former superpower, the Soviet Union, is now considered a potential superpower and has historically been the primary geopolitical force in Eastern Europe. France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom are seen as the Big Four of Western Europe, they play pivotal roles as part of the NATO Quint in the security of the Western Bloc. Most of the continent is now integrated as a consequence of the enlargement of the European Union, which is sometimes considered a great power as a whole despite it not being a sovereign state.[64][65] Historically, dominant powers in this region created large global colonial empires (such as the British, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Russian, Belgian, and Dutch empires).

Oceania[edit]

Australia is considered to be a regional power due to its relative wealth within Oceania and Southeast Asia. For instance, despite having less than a tenth of Indonesia's population, Australia has a larger GDP in nominal terms. Despite not possessing a particularly large military in terms of manpower, Australia's military expenditure is the 11th highest in the world and is considerably higher than any other nation in the region.[citation needed] New Zealand is considered the other regional power in Oceania, having significant regional influence, representation of the region on the world stage, and a GDP that belies its mid-size population. Although ranks lower in population, GDP and military expenditure than Australia, New Zealand has always had a far greater influence in the Pacific islands than its larger rival.[73] This is primarily because of New Zealand’s location in, and status as the largest country within, Polynesia. Furthermore, New Zealand has significant population of Pacific Islanders, and deep cultural bonds between indigenous Māori and other Polynesians, such as Samoans, Tongans and Hawaiians.[74] The Hawaiian connection allows New Zealand to have some influence in the United States. Australia has often been less open to forging bonds with the Pacific islands, which also shows why New Zealand has more widespread hegemony there as a regional power.[75]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ Considered a great power
^ Permanent member of UNSC
^ Member of G7
^ One of G4 nations
^ Member of G20
^ Member of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
^ Member of MIKTA
^ Member of OPEC
^ Member of BRICS
^ Member of G-15
^ Member of D-8
^ Member of N-11
^ Member of CIVETS
^ Member of G-14
^ Member of QUAD
^ Member of AUKUS

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Joachim Betz, Ian Taylor, "The Rise of (New) Regional Powers in Asia, Africa, Latin America..."[dead link], German Overseas Institute & University of St. Andrews, May 2007
  2. ^ a b c Martin Beck, The Concept of Regional Power: The Middle East as a Deviant Case?, German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, 11–12 December 2006.
  3. ^ "Military power ranking in Africa 2021, by leading countries". statista.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Algeria buying military equipment". UPI.com. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  5. ^ "Algérie, puissance régionale entre défis et incertitudes". www.iris-france.org (in French). Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  6. ^ Hervé Gardette (9 April 2019). "L'Algérie va-t-elle tenir son rang à l'international ? Réécouter L'Algérie va-t-elle tenir son rang à l'international ?" (in French). Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  7. ^ "L'Algérie, puissance régionale" (in French). 21 September 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e Buzan, Barry (2004). The United States and the Great Powers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7456-3375-6.
  9. ^ "United States Department of Defense". www.defenselink.mil. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  10. ^ Efraim Inbar (5 June 2006). "Mubarak's game". Archived from the original (doc) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  11. ^ "Once snubbed by Biden, Egypt's Sissi uses Gaza cease-fire role to prove his relevance". Washington Post.
  12. ^ Lynch, David A. (16 August 2010). Trade and Globalization: An Introduction to Regional Trade Agreements. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 9780742566903.
  13. ^ Flemes, Daniel (2010). Regional Leadership in the Global System: Ideas, Interests and Strategies of Regional Powers. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754679127.
  14. ^ a b c d "www.aims.ca" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2006.
  15. ^ "www.iss.co.za". Archived from the original on 12 October 2006.
  16. ^ "Southern Africa is home to the other of sub-Saharan Africa's regional powers: South Africa. South Africa is more than just a regional power; it is by far the most developed and economically powerful country in Africa, and now it is able to use that influence in Africa more than during the days of apartheid (white rule), when it was ostracized." See David Lynch, Trade and Globalization (Lanham, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010), p. 51.
  17. ^ Alice Bothwell, "Can Canada Still Be Considered a Middle Power?," Master's Thesis (University of Stellenbosch), p. 34
  18. ^ Maihold, Günther (2017). "Mexico: A leader in search of like-minded peers" (PDF). International Journal. doi:10.1177/0020702016687336. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  19. ^ "US-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. 25 June 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021. line feed character in |title= at position 30 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ "Mexico: Economy Highly Dependent on the United States". Candriam. 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  21. ^ "Chinese Cyber Information Profusion". internationalpolicydigest.org. 17 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Agentina: Business Conditions Snapshot" (PDF). Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. December 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  23. ^ Kwang Ho Chun (2013). The BRICs Superpower Challenge: Foreign and Security Policy Analysis. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4094-6869-1. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  24. ^ "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century." See Michael Morris, "The Srait of Magellan," in International Straits of the World, edited by Gerard Mangone (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes, 1988), p. 63.
  25. ^ a b "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina." See Tom Nierop, "The Clash of Civilisations," in The Territorial Factor, edited by Gertjan Dijkink and Hans Knippenberg (Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA, 2001), p. 61.
  26. ^ "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can developed their own rules for further managing regional relations." See David Lake, "Regional Hierarchies," in Globalising the Regional, edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 55.
  27. ^ "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community." See Emanuel Adler and Patricia Greve, "Overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance," in Globalising the Regional, edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 78.
  28. ^ "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina." See Alejandra Ruiz-Dana, Peter Goldschag, Edmundo Claro and Hernan Blanco, "Regional integration, trade and conflicts in Latin America," in Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution, edited by Shaheen Rafi Khan (New York: Routledge, 2009), p. 18.
  29. ^ a b Samuel P. Huntington, "Culture, Power, and Democracy," in Globalization, Power, and Democracy, edited by Marc Plattner and Aleksander Smolar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), p. 6.
  30. ^ ""The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina." See Anestis Papadopoulos, The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 283.
  31. ^ Arnson, Cynthia; Sotero, Paulo. "Brazil as a Regional Power: Views from the Hemisphere" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  32. ^ De Lima, Maria Regina Soares; Hirst, Monica. "Brazil as an intermediate state and regional power: action, choice and responsibilities" (PDF). Chatham House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  33. ^ Wigell, Mikael (19 May 2011). "Assertive Brazil, an emerging power and its implications" (PDF). Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  34. ^ Flemes, Daniel. "Brazil's strategic options in a multi-regional world order" (PDF). German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Retrieved 16 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ Schenoni, Luis. "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais V. 2 N. 2 Jul-Dez 2015 P. 215-232. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  36. ^ "Living With The Giants - TIME". Time. 18 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  37. ^ "China: Global/Regional Power 2006". au.af.mil. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  38. ^ "CNN In-Depth Specials - Visions of China - Asian Superpower: Regional 'godfather' or local bully?". cnn.com. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  39. ^ "Correspondents Report - China: paramount power in South East Asia". abc.net.au. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  40. ^ He, Baogang (2004). "China's 'Peaceful Rise' Doctrine". Asean Focus Group. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
  41. ^ a b U.S. Policy to Asia for Regional Powers in New Science and Technology: China, Russia, Japan and Korea with Nuclear Potential, allacademic.com
  42. ^ Holliday, IAN (2006). "Japan and the Myanmar Stalemate: Regional Power and Resolution of a Regional Problem| Japanese Journal of Political Science | Cambridge Core". Japanese Journal of Political Science. 6 (3): 393. doi:10.1017/S1468109905001969. S2CID 154946583.
  43. ^ a b c "www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/R.20000200.Transforming_Ameri/R.20000200.Transforming_Ameri.php". csbaonline.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  44. ^ "South Korea: A Major Regional Power" (PDF). Journal of Sociology. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  45. ^ a b c Buzan & Wæver, Regions and Powers (2003, p. 55)
  46. ^ Perkovich, George. "Is India a Major Power?" (PDF). The Washington Quarterly (27.1 Winter 2003–04). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  47. ^ Encarta - Great Powers Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite
  48. ^ Dilip Mohite (Spring 1993). "Swords and Ploughshares- India: The Fourth Great Power?". Vol. 7, No. 3. Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS). Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  49. ^ Emmers, Ralf. "Regional hegemonies and the exercise of power in Southeast Asia: A study of Indonesia and Vietnam" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 17 March 2004. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  50. ^ ""Iran is a strong regional power, in a far better shape than Pakistan because f its economic capabilities, rich mineral and energy resources, and internal stability, added to its far greater geostrategic importance." In Hooman Peimani, Nuclear Proliferation in the Indian Subcontinent (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2000), p. 30.
  51. ^ "The Eight Great Powers of 2017 - The American Interest". The American Interest. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  52. ^ Haaretz (1 March 2016). "Israel May Be Eighth-ranked in Global Power, but It's Really Not Much Fun". Haaretz. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  53. ^ Butenschøn, Nils A. (1992). "Israel as a Regional Great Power: Paradoxes of Regional Alienation". Regional Great Powers in International Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, London. pp. 95–119. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-12661-3_5. ISBN 9781349126637.
  54. ^ "FindArticles.com | CBSi". findarticles.com. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  55. ^ "Saudi Surprise". 26 August 2004. Archived from the original on 26 August 2004. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  56. ^ Ana Belén Soage Antepazo (8 December 2012). "Saudi Arabia. A Regional Power Facing Increasing Challenges". Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  57. ^ Anoushiravan Ehteshami (28 September 2018). "Saudi Arabia as a Resurgent Regional Power" (PDF). The International Spectator. 53 (4): 75–94. doi:10.1080/03932729.2018.1507722. S2CID 158177906.
  58. ^ Buzan, Barry (15 October 2004). The United States and the Great Powers: World Politics in the Twenty-First Century. Wiley. ISBN 9780745633749. Retrieved 4 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  59. ^ "Turkey and Russia on the Rise". Stratfor. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  60. ^ "Can Turkey Be a Source of Stability in the Middle East?". heptagonpost.com. 18 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  61. ^ "The Economist: "Turkish foreign policy: Ottoman dreamer", 5 November 2011". The Economist. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  62. ^ "The Economist: "Turkey in the Balkans: The good old days?", 5 November 2011". The Economist. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  63. ^ "Erdoğan's Moment", cover story in the Time magazine issue of 21–28 November 2011. (Vol. 178 No. 21.) "Erdoğan's Way" was the cover title in the editions of Europe, Asia and South Pacific
  64. ^ Kirchner, E.J.; Sperling, J. (2007). Global Security Governance: Competing Perceptions of Security in the Twenty-First Century. Taylor & Francis. p. 265. ISBN 9781134222223. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  65. ^ Aghion, P.; Durlauf, S.N. (2005). Handbook of Economic Growth. Elsevier. p. 788. ISBN 9780444520418. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  66. ^ "France, Germany, Britain – Responses of Traditional Regional Powers to Rising Regions and Rivals" (PDF). giga-hamburg.de. Retrieved 5 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
  67. ^ ""Regional Powers React to Proposed US Invasion of Iraq"". /www.globalpolicy.org. globalpolicy.org. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  68. ^ "tspace.library.utoronto.ca" (PDF). utoronto.ca. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  69. ^ Gabriele Abbondanza, Italy as a Regional Power: the African Context from National Unification to the Present Day (Rome: Aracne, 2016)
  70. ^ "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, Italy and the European Union (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
  71. ^ "Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power." See Italy: Justice System and National Police Handbook, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2009), p. 9.
  72. ^ "L'Italie : un destin européen". ladocumentationfrancaise.fr. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  73. ^ "NZ 'resets' its Pacific strategy, asks Australia to join the mission". Stuff. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  74. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "New Zealand and the Pacific". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  75. ^ "New Zealand's international influence surges thanks to Jacinda Ardern's leadership". Newshub. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  76. ^ "Australia as an Asia-Pacific Regional Power: Friendships in Flux? (Hardback) - Routledge". routledge.com. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  77. ^ communications@waikato.ac.nz (5 June 2018). "New Zealand's Pacific reset: strategic anxieties about rising China". www.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  78. ^ "The new militarisation of the Pacific". Stuff. 6 August 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  79. ^ Institute, Lowy. "New Zealand - Lowy Institute Asia Power Index". Lowy Institute Asia Power Index 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2021.

Bibliography[edit]