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The RegularChains package in the computer algebra software package Maple is a collection of commands for solving systems of polynomial equations, inequations and inequalities symbolically. This package also allows the user to manipulate and study the solutions of such systems.

Main Features[edit]

The main two commands are 'Triangularize' and 'RealTriangularize'. Each of them computes from a system of polynomials a set of simpler systems such that a point is a solution of if and only if it is a solution of one of the systems . Each of these simpler systems is called a regular chain in the case of Triangularize and a regular semi-algebraic system in the case of RealTriangularize. In both cases, each of these simpler systems has a triangular shape and remarkable properties. For this reason, the set is called a triangular decomposition of the system .

In addition to its main functions 'Triangularize' and 'RealTriangularize', the package has six subpackages and other commands.

The 'MatrixTools' subpackage provides commands for solving linear systems of equations modulo the saturated ideal of a regular chain. Among other operations are computations of matrix inverses and lower echelon forms. These commands are considered here in a non-standard context. Indeed, the coefficients of these matrices are polynomials and the computations are performed modulo (the saturated ideal of) a regular chain. Since this latter is not required to be a prime ideal, the commands of this subpackage allows you to do linear algebra computations over non-integral domains.

The 'ConstructibleSetTools' subpackage provides a large set of commands for manipulating constructible sets. Constructible sets are the fundamental objects of Algebraic Geometry, and they play there the role that ideals play in Polynomial Algebra. In broad terms, a constructible set is the solution set of a system of polynomial equations and inequations. Constructible sets appear naturally in many questions, from high-school problems to advanced research topics.

The 'SemiAlgebraicSetTools' subpackage contains a collection of commands for isolating and counting real roots of zero-dimensional semi-algebraic systems or regular chains (that is regular chains with a finite number of complex solutions). It also offers various commands for studying the real solutions of polynomial systems of positive dimension or with parameters. In particular, commands for real root classification, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and partial cylindrical algebraic decomposition sampling are available. Several inspection functions on semi-algebraic systems and their solution sets (namely, semi-algebraic sets) are also provided. They are intended to support the command 'RealRootClassification', 'RealTriangularize', 'LazyRealTriangularize' and 'SamplePoints'.

The 'ParametricSystemTools' subpackage provides commands for solving systems of equations that depend on parameters. Given a parametric polynomial system , this subpackage can be used to answer questions such as: for which values of the parameters does have solutions? finitely many solutions? real solutions, for a given ?

The 'ChainTools' subpackage provides advanced operations on regular chains. Most of these commands allow you to inspect, construct and transform regular chains, or to check the properties of a polynomial with respect to a regular chain. Some commands operate transformations on a set of regular chains. They can be used to analyze the results computed by the command 'Triangularize'.

The 'FastArithmeticTools' subpackage contains a collection of commands for computing with regular chains in prime characteristic using asymptotically fast algorithms. Most of the underlying polynomial arithmetic is performed at C level and relies on (multi-dimensional) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). This imposes some constraints on the characteristic. One of the main purposes of this subpackage is to offer efficient basic routines in order to suppor the implementation of modular algorithms for computing with regular chains and algebraic numbers.

See also[edit]


  • Francois Lemaire and Marc Moreno-Maza and Yuzhen Xie. The RegularChains library. Maple Conference 2005.