Reichenau Glosses

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The Reichenau Glosses were compiled in the 8th century in Picardy[1][2] to help local monks understand archaic terms in the Vulgate, which had been written over three centuries prior in Late Latin, a language which they could no longer understand without formal training.[3] For each obscure biblical term a more familiar equivalent is supplied, sometimes another Classical Latin one, sometimes a Proto-French or Germanic one with a latinized spelling.[4] Usually it was the latter term that lived on in later French, not the biblical one- although sometimes the latter survived in specialized uses or in other Romance Languages.

Presented below is an alphabetized list of the glosses, along with the pronunciations of any terms that existed in Classical Latin.[5] The pronunciations given for nouns will most often reflect the accusative, as those are the forms through which Romance Languages generally inherited Latin nouns.[6] Verbs are usually given in the same conjugations in Romance as in Latin, but since Latin's synthetic passive, future, etc. have no equivalent in the modern languages,[7] the infinitive will be supplied in those cases. Neologisms such as Spanish óptimo or borrowings such as Italian formaggio (from O.Fr. formage) are not considered in the derivative tables.

Vulgate term Translation Gloss Origin of gloss Classical Pronunciation(s) Descendants of gloss Descendants of Vulgate term
Abio [8] I go Vado Approx. CL synonym. ˈwaːdoː Fr. vais, Occ. vau, Cat. vaig, It. vado, Dlm. vis, Sp. voy, Po. vou
Aes bronze Eramen LL syn. & deriv. ae̯ˈraːmɛn
ae̯ˈraːmɪnɛ [9]
Fr. airain, Occ. & Cat. & Rmsh. aram, It. rame, Srd. ràmene, Sp. alambre, Gal. & Po. arame, Rom aramă, Arom. aramã
Ager field Campus CL for "wild field." ˈagrũː
Fr. champ, Occ. c(h)amp, Cat. camp, Rmsh. champ, It. campo, Srd. campu, Dlm. cuomp, Sp. & Po. campo, Rom. câmp Gal. agra or agrela, Rom. & Arom. agru
Aper wild boar Salvaticus Porcus Porcus is CL for "pig." Salvaticus is VL for CL silvāticus "wild." / ˈaprũː /
/ ˈpɔrkũː
sɪɫˈwaːtɪkũː /
Fr. porc sauvage, Occ. pòrc sauvatge or salvatge, Cat. porc salvatge, Rmsh. portg selvadi, It. porco salvatico, Rom. porc sălbatic Possibly second element of Srd. porcabru
Arena sand Sabulo CL for "gravel." aˈreːnãː
Fr. & O.Occ. sablon, Cat. sauló, Rmsh. sablun, It. sabbione, Sp. sablón, Dlm. sablaun. From variant sablum (pl. sabla): Fr. sable, Occ. sabla, It. sabbia, Po. saibro O.Fr. areine, Occ. & Cat. arena, It. rena, Srd. & Sp. arena, Gal. area, Po. areia, Rom. dial. arină, anină
Atram black Nigram Approx. CL syn. ˈnɪgrãː Fr. noir, Occ. & Cat. negra, Rmsh. naira, It. nera, Dlm. niara, Sp. & Po. negra, Rom. neagră
Axis axle Ascialis Adj. form of axis. ˈaksẽː O.Fr. aissel. From *axilem: Fr. essieu Fr. & Occ. ais "plank", Cat. eix, It. asse, Sp. eje, Po. eixo
Binas in pairs Duas et Duas Romance construction,[10] lit. "two and two." ˈdʊaːs ɛt ˈdʊaːs Fr. deux à deux, Cat. de dues en dues, It. due a due, Sp. de dos en dos, Po. de dois em dois.
Callidior cleverer Vitiosior Comp. form of CL vitiõsus "full of vitia or defects," but in O.Fr. vice (< vitium) came to mean "a ruse" as well, hence this new meaning.[11] wɪtiˈoːsũː From vitiosus: Fr. vicieux, It. vezzoso. From *vitiatus: O.Fr. vezié, Occ. dial. beziat
Calumpniam[12] malicious contention Contentio Calumnia had evolved into an early form of O.Fr. chalonge "challenge," hence the need for a gloss.[13] kaˈlʊmniãː
Occ. contensó O.Fr. chalonge, Occ. calonja
Canere to sing Cantare CL freq. form of canere. kanˈtaːrɛ Fr. chanter, Occ. c(h)antar, Cat. cantar, Rmsh. chantar, It. & Srd. cantare, Sp. & Po. cantar, Rom. cântare
Cartallo basket Panario CL for "breadbasket." paːˈnaːriũː Fr. panier, Occ. panièr, Sp. panero, Po. paneiro, Rom. paner
Caseum cheese Formaticum VL *formaticus caseus, lit. "formed cheese." ˈkaːseũː Fr. fromage, Occ. & Cat. formatge, It. cacio, Srd. casu, Sp. queso, Po. queijo, Rom. caş. Via VL dimin. caseolus: Rmsh. caschiel
Cementarii masons Mationes Gm. loan akin to second element of German Steinmetz. - Fr. maçons, O.Occ. matz -
Cementariis masons Macionibus See above. Note the confusion of palatalized t and c, both of which had become /ʦ/ [14] - - -
Cenacula chambres Mansiunculas LL dimin. of CL mansiōnēs, "lodges." Itself a term used elsewhere in the Vulgate, mansiuncula didn't survive in Fr. but was similar enough to the words that did for it to be a useful gloss.[15] mãːsiˈoːneːs
It. magioncelle. From mansiōnēs: Fr. maisons, O.Occ. maizons.
Clivium hill Montania CL montāna "mountainous." mɔnˈtaːnã: Fr. montagne, Occ. montanha, Cat. muntanya, Rmsh. muntogna, It. montagna, Sp. montaña, Po. montanha. Rom. munte is from L. montem, the stem of montānus.
Coccinus scarlet red Rubeus CL for "red." ˈrʊbeũː
Fr. rouge, Occ. roge, Cat. roig, Po. ruivo, Rom. roib Rmsh. cotschen, Lad. cueciun, Rom. coacin
Commutatione exchange Concambiis Gaulish, with the L. prefix con-. - Fr. échange, Occ. & Cat. escambi, It. scambio, Rom. schimb (all with prefixes from CL ex-), Sp. & Por. cambio
Concidit he cut Taliavit Verb based on CL tālea "cutting from a plant." - Fr. tailla, Occ. talhèt, Cat. tallà, It. tagliò, Sp. tajó, Por. talhou, Rom. tăie
Conquirebant they were debating Causabant CL. deponent causābantur made into a regular verb. kau̯saːˈbant(ʊr) O.Fr. chosoient, Occ. dial. causavan
Contumeliam belittlement Verecundiam CL for "shame." wɛɾeː'kʊndiã Fr. vergogne, Occ. vergonha, Cat. vergonya, It. vergogna, Srd. bergugna, Sp. vergüenza, Po. vergonha
Coturnices quails Quacoles Gm. loan akin to Flemish kwakkel. koːtʊrˈniːkeːs Fr. cailles, Occ. calhas, Cat. guattles (from *quattulas), Rmsh. quacras, It. quaglie Sp. codornices, Po. codornizes, Rom. potârnichi "partridges"
Coturnix quail Quaccola See above. - - -
Crastro [16] army camp Heribergo Gm. loan meaning "army barracks," akin to harry & bury. ˈkastrũ O.Fr. herberge, Fr. héberger "to barrack" Via Arabic al-qaṣr "the castle": Cat. alcàsser, Sp. alcázar, Po. alcácer
Crura legs Tibia CL for "shinbone." ˈtiːbiã: O.Fr. tige "leg, stem" [17] (Mn.Fr. just "stem")
Cuncti all of them Omnes CL syn, did not survive in O.Fr. ˈɔmneːs It. ogni, Srd. onzi
Da give it Dona Approx. CL. syn. daː
Fr. donne, Occ. dòna, Cat. dóna Rmsh. dai, It. , Sp. da, Po. , Rom.
Detegere uncover Discooperire CL cooperīre "cover" with prefix dis- "un-" (dɪs)kɔɔpɛˈriːrɛ Fr. découvrir, Occ. & Ct. descobrir, It. discoprire, Sp. descubrir, Po. descobrir, Rom. descoperire
Detestare to revile Blasphemare CL syn. blaspʰeːˈmaːrɛ Via VL *blastemare: Fr. blâmer, Occ. blaimar, blasmar, Rmsh. blastemmar, It. bestemmiare, Sp. & Po. lastimar, Rom. blestemare
Ducta [she was] directed Menata CL mināta "driven" in reference to animals. ˈdʊktãː
Fr. menée, Occ. & Cat. menada, It. menata, Rom. mânata O.Fr. duite, It. dotta, Rom. dusă
Emit he bought Comparavit CL for "he obtained." kɔmpaˈraːwɪt O.Fr. compara, Occ. crompèt, Cat. comprà, It. comprò, Sp. compró, Po. comprou, Rom. cumpără
Ensis sword Gladius CL syn. ˈɡladiũː Via dimin. gladiolum: O.Fr. glai
Exterminabit he will exterminate Eradicabit CL. syn eːraːdiːˈkaːrɛ Fr. arracher (O.Fr. esrachier), Occ. araigar or esraigar, Sp. arraigar, Po. arreigar, Rom. ridicare
Fatigatus tired Lassus CL syn. ˈlassũː Fr. & O.Occ. las, Occ. alassar "to tire"
Femur thigh Coxa CL for "hip." ˈkɔksãː Fr. cuisse, Occ. cuèissa, Cat. cuixa, Rmsh. cuissa or cossa, It. coscia, Srd. coscia or cossa, Sp. cuja, Po. coxa, Dlm. copsa, Rom. coapsă
- - Cingolo CL cingulum "belt" alt. gloss for prev. entry. ˈkɪŋɡʊlũː
Via variant cingula: O.Fr. cengle, Fr. sangle "strap, thong", Occ. cengla, Cat. cingla, It. cinghia, Sp. cincha, Po. cilha, Rom. chingă
Ferus harsh Durus Approx. CL syn. ˈfɛrũː
Fr. & Occ. & Cat. dur, Rmsh. dür, It. & Sp. & Po. duro, Rom. dur Fr. fier, It. fiero both "proud". Also Cat. fer, Sp. fiero with orig. L. meaning.
Fervet it boils Bullit CL syn. 'bʊllɪt
Fr. bout, Occ. bolís, Cat. bull, It. bolle; Po. bole "he fidgets" It. ferve "he has a fever", Sp. hierve, Po. ferve, Rom. fierbe
Flare to blow Suflare CL sufflāre, prefixed form of flāre. sʊfˈflaːrɛ Fr. souffler, Occ. soflar, Rmsh. suflar, It. soffiare, Sp. sollar[18] (Montaña asuellar), Po. sofrar, Rom. suflare
Forum market Mercatum CL syn. ˈfɔrũː
Fr. marché, Occ. & Cat. mercat, Rmsh. marchà, It. mercato, Sp. & Gal. & Po. mercado, Arom. mercatu Fr. fur "measure", O.Fr. feur, Occ. for, Sp fuero, all with various legal senses
Furvus brown Brunus Gm. loan akin to "brown." - Fr. & Occ. brun, Cat. bru, Rmsh. brün or brin, It. & Sp. & Po. bruno
Fusiles melted Fundutas Romance past participle[19] of CL fundere "to smelt." ˈfuːsɪleːs Fr. fondues, Occ. fondudas. From *funditas: Sp. hundidas "sunken, collapsed", Po. fundidas "smelted" From CL fūsās: It. fuse [20]
Galea helmet Helmus Gm. loan. - Fr. heaume, It. elmo, Sp. yelmo, Po. elmo
Gratia thanks Merces CL for "wages." ˈɡraːtiãː
Fr. merci, Occ. mercé, both "thank you" and "mercy", It. merce "goods", Sp. merced, Po. mercê, both "mercy" Fr. grâce "divine grace", It. grazie, Sp. gracias
Genuit gave birth to Generavit CL syn. (ɪŋ)ɡɛnɛˈraːwɪt Fr. engendra, Sp. engendró, Po. gerou
Hiems winter Ibernus CL hībernus, adj. form of hiems. hiːˈbɛrnũː French hiver, Occ. ivèrn, Cat. hivern, Rmsh. inviern, It. inverno, Sp. invierno, Po. inverno, Rom. iarnă
Horreis granaries Spicariis CL spīca "ear of grain" with locational suffix -ārium. Apparently there was an O.Fr. *espiguier or *espier which is nevertheless unattested.[21] The modern Romance words mostly derive from CL grānārium. ˈhɔrreũː O.Wal. spir "provisions"[22] Gal. hórreo, O.Po. orreo
Ictus a blow Colpus CL colaphus "a punch", from Greek. ˈiːktũː
Fr. coup, Occ. còp, Cat. colp, It. colpo, Sp. & Po. golpe Po. eito "a row"
Indutus dressed up Vestitus CL. syn. wɛs'tiːtũː O.Fr. vesti, Occ. & Ct. vestit, It. vestito, Sp. & Po. vestido. From *vestutu: Fr. vêtu, O.It. vestuto[23]
Isset he would have gone Ambulasset CL for "he'd have walked." ˈɪssɛt
It. ambiasse; Rom. umblase "he'd walked" Lad. jissa. Infinitive īre preserved in O.Occ. & Sp. & Po. ir
Ita yes Sic Approx. CL syn. siːk Fr. si, Cat. , Rmch. schi, It. , Sp. , Po. sim, all "yes", Rom. şi "and, also". The French one is a pos. response to a neg. question.
Jacere to throw Jactare CL freq. of jacere. jakˈtaːrɛ Via VL *jectare: Fr. jeter, Occ. getar, It. gettare, Srd. ghetare, Sp. echar, Po. jeitar
Jecore liver Ficato CL fīcātum "figged liver," from fīcum "fig," probably a calque of Greek sykōtón, from sỹkon "fig."[24] fiːˈkaːtũː Fr. foie, Occ. & Cat. fetge, Rmsh. fio, It. fegato, Dalm. fecuat, Sp. hígado, Port. fígado, Rom. ficat
Jus law Legem Approx. CL syn. Jūs was a homophone for "sauce" or "juice," which may explain why it fell out of favor.[25] ˈleːgẽː Fr. loi, Occ. lei, Cat. llei, It. legge, Sp. & Po. ley Fr. jurer, Occ. & Cat. jurar, It. & Srd. giurare, Sp. & Po. jurar, Rom. jurare, all derived from Latin jūrāre "to swear", from jūs (obl. stem: jūr-)
- - Potestatem CL for "authority", alt. gloss for previous entry. pɔtɛsˈtaːtẽː O.Fr. poesté, Occ. poestat, It. podestà, Po. podestade
Lamento I wail Ploro Approx. CL syn. ˈploːroː Fr. pleure, Occ. plore, Cat. ploro, O.It. pioro, Sp. lloro, Port. choro
Lebes boiler Chaldaria LL caldaria, from CL caldāria "pertaining to hot water," from cald- "hot" with adj. ending -ārius. kaɫ'daːriãː Fr. chaudière, Occ. c(h)audièra, Cat. caldera, It. caldaia, Sp. caldera, Po. caldeira, Rom. căldare
Leva on the left Sinistra CL syn. sɪˈnɪstrãː
Fr. senestre, Rmsh. sanestra, It. sinistra, Sp. siniestro, Po. sestro
Liberos children Infantes CL syn. less easily confused with līberōs "free." ĩːˈfanteːs Fr. & Occ. enfants, Cat. infants, Rmsh. unfants or uffants, It. fanti "soldiers, infantry", O.Sp. & O.Po. ifantes
Ludebant they were playing Jocabant CL syn. jɔˈkaːbant Fr. jouaient, Occ. jogavan, Cat. jugaven, Rmsh. giogavan, It. giocavano, Sp. jugaban, Po. jogavam, Rom. jucau
Mala Punica pomegranates Mala Granata CL for "seeded apples." ˈmaːla ɡraːˈnaːta
ˈpoːma ɡraːˈnaːta
Occ. milgranas, Cat. magranas, It. melagrane, Sp. & Po. granadas (O.Sp. milgranas). With CL syn. poma instead of mala: O.Fr. pommes grenates (Fr. grenades) -
Malus mast Mastus Germanic loan akin to mast. - Fr. mât, Occ. mast
Manipulos bundles Garbas Gm. loan akin to Dutch garf, Germ Garbe. maˈnɪpʊloːs O.Fr. jarbes, Fr. gerbes O.Fr. manoils, Sp. manojos, Po. molhos
Mares males Masculi CL dimin. of mās (singular of marēs.) ˈmareːs
Fr. mâles, Occ. & Cat. mascles, Rmsh. mascels, It. maschi, Sp. & Po. machos, Rom. dial. mascuri "male pigs" Rom. mare "big"
Milites soldiers Servientes CL for "servants." sɛrwi'ɛnteːs Fr. sergents, It. serventi, Sp. sirvientes. Only the Fr. word has the military sense.
Mutuo Acceperam I have borrowed Habeo Impruntatum VL *impromutuatum, from prefixed form of CL promūtuārī "to lend," itself prefixed from mūtuārī, from mūtuō "in exchange." Tense construction with CL habeō "I have" and a perfect participle is characteristic of Romance.[26] - Fr. (J')ai emprunté, It. ho improntato, Rom. am împrumutat
Necetur may he
be killed
Occidetur CL syn., but the form that matches necētur is actually occīdātur. nɛkaːrɛ
O.Fr. occir, Occ. aucir, Cat. occir, It. uccidere, Srd. ochídere, Rom. ucidere Fr. noyer, It. annegare, Sp. anegar, Rom. înecare, all referring to drowning
Nemini to nobody Nulli CL syn. The nom. of nēminī is nēmō. ˈnuːllũː
Fr. & Rmsh. nul, It. nullo, Sp. & Po. nulo It. dial. nimo, Rom. nimeni
Nonnulli several Multi CL syn. ˈmʊɫtũː O.Fr. moult, Cat. molt, It. molto, Sp. mucho, Po. muito, Dlm. muolt, Rom. mult
Novacula razor Rasorium CL rās- "scraped" with agent suffix -or. nɔˈwaːkʊla Fr. rasoir, Occ. rasor, It. rasoio Cat. navalla, Sp. navaja, Po. navalha
Noverca stepmother Matrastra CL mātrem "mother" with suffix -aster "wannabe." nɔˈwɛrkãː Fr. marâtre, Cat. & Sp. madrastra, Gal. & Po. madrasta Arom. nuearcã
Non pepercit he did
not spare
Non Sparniavit Gm. loan akin to "spare." - Fr. (il) n'épargna (pas)
Nosse to know Scire CL syn. that didn't survive in French, nor in most Rom. languages, but its derivatives did, c.f. O.Fr. escient "knowledge". The more usual Romance word would have been written in Latinate form as sapere, but in CL this could also mean "taste," possibly leading to ambiguity.[27] ˈskiːrɛ Srd. ischire, Rom. știre
Ocreas boots Husas Gm. loan akin to "hose." - O.Fr. heuse
Offendas may you
beat off
Abattas CL battuās "may you beat" with prefix ab "away." - Fr. abattes, Occ. abatas, Cat. abatis, Sp. & Po. abatas
Onager wild donkey Asinus Salvaticus Asinus is CL. For salvaticus, see entry for aper. ˈasɪnũː Fr. âne, Occ. asne, Cat. ase, Rmsh. asen, It. asino, Sp. & Po. asno, Rom. asin
Onustus burdened Carcatus LL carricatus "loaded," from carricus "cart," from Gaulish. karrɪˈkaːtũː Fr. chargé, Occ. & Cat. cargat, It. caricato, Sp. cargado, Po. carregado, Rom. încărcat
Oppidis towns Civitatibus LL for "cities", in CL "citizenry." kiːwɪˈtaːteːs Fr. cités, Occ. & Cat. ciutats, Rmsh. citads, It. città, Srd. tzitades, Sp. ciudades, Po. cidades, Rom. cetati "fortresses"
- - Castellis CL for "fortresses", alt. gloss for previous entry. kasˈtɛllũː Fr. château, Occ. c(h)astèl, Cat. castell, Rmsh. chastè, It. castello, Sp. castillo, Po. castelo
Opilio shepherd Berbicarius CL vervēx "a ram" with occupational suffix -ārius. - Fr. berger, Srd. berbecarju
Oportet it is fitting Convenit Had this sense in CL as well. ˈkɔnwɛnɪt Fr. convient, Occ. conven, Cat. convé, It. & Sp. conviene, Po. convém, Rom. cuvine
Optimos the best Meliores CL for "the better." ˈɔptɨmoːs
Fr. meilleurs, Occ. melhors, Cat. millors, Rmsh. megliers, It. migliori, Sp. mejores, Po. melhors
Optimum the best Valde Bonum CL for "very good." Valdē only survives as the first element in M.Fr. vaudoux "dull, insipid" and vaupute "sin against nature." ˈɔptɨmũː
ˈwaɫdeː ˈbɔnũː
Fr. très bon, Occ. fòrça bon, Cat. molt bo, Rmsh. bler bun, It. molto buono, Sp. muy bueno, Po. muito bom, Rom. foarte bun
Ore mouth Bucca CL for "cheek." ˈbʊkkãː Fr. bouche, Occ. & Cat. boca, Rmsh. bucca, It. bocca, Sp. & Po. boca, all "mouth", Rom. bucă has orig. CL meaning
Ostendit he showed Monstravit CL syn. mõːˈstraːwɪt Fr. montra, Occ. mostrèt, Cat. mostrà, It. mostrò, Sp. mostró, Po. mostrou, Rom. mustră
Oves sheep Berbices CL vervēcēs "rams." ˈɔweːs
Fr. brebis, O.Occ. berbitz, Rmsh. barbeischs, O.It. berbici, Srd. barvéghes, Rom. berbeci Via VL dimin. *oviclas: Fr. ouailles, Occ. oelhas or auvelhas, Cat. ovellas, Sp. ovejas, Po. ovelhas. Directly from ovēs: Rom. oi
Papilionis tent Travis CL trabem "roof, beam." ˈtrabẽː
O.Fr. tref "tent, beam", O.Occ. trau, It. & O.Po. trave, all with CL meaning "beam" Fr. pavillon and Sp. pabellón, both "pavilion". Fr. papillon, Occ. parpalhòl, Cat. papallona, all "butterfly"
Pes foot Pedis VL, regularized nom.[28] based on CL obl. stem ped- ˈpɛdẽː Fr. pied, Occ. , Cat. peu, Rmsh. pe, It. piede, Srd. pei, Sp. pie, Po. , Rom. piez
Pingues fat Grassi CL crassī. ˈkrassoːs Adj's: Fr. gras, Cat. grassos, It. grassi, Sp. grasos, Po. graxos, Rom grași. Nouns: Fr. graisse, Occ. grais, Cat. greix, Rmsh. grass, It. grasso, Sp. grasa, Po. graxa
Plaustra carts Carra Approx. CL syn. of Gaulish origin. ˈkarroːs Fr. chars, Occ. c(h)arris, Cat. carros, It. carri, Sp. & Po. carros, Rom. care
Ponatur may it
be put
Mittatur CL for "may it be put forth" or "sent out." The sense of "put" had developed by or during the 4th century AD.[29] ˈmɪttɛrɛ
Fr. mettre, Occ. metre, Rmsh. meter, It. mettere, Sp. & Po. meter "insert" Fr. & Occ. & Cat. pondre "to lay an egg", It. porre, Sp. poner, Po. pôr, Rom. punere
Pallium sheet Drappum Possibly Gaulish. ˈpalliũː Fr. & Occ. & Cat. drap, It. drappo, Sp. trapo It. palio "banner"
Pignus token, pledge Wadius Gm. loan akin to wed. ˈpɪŋnʊs
Fr. gage "will", O.Occ. gadi "will, testament" Occ. penha, Rmsh. pegn, It. pegno, Sp. prenda, Por penhor
Pueros boys Infantes CL. for "babies". See entry for liberos. - - -
Pugione dagger Lancea CL for "spear". The glosser probably had *lanceta in mind (cf. O.Fr. lancete, meaning a small pointed instrument) but suppressed the dimin. suffix to make it a proper Latin word.[30] The word itself is from Gaulish. ˈlankeãː Fr. lance, Occ. lança, Cat. llança, It. lancia, Sp. lanza, Po. lança
Pulempta [31] flour Farina Approx. CL syn. faˈriːnãː
Fr. farine, Occ. & Cat. & Rmsh. & It. farina, Dlm. faraina, Sp. harina, Po. farinha, Rom. făină It. polenta
Pulchra beautiful Bella CL syn. ˈbɛllãː Fr. belle, Occ. bèla, Cat. & Rmsh. & It. & Sp. bella, Po. bela
Res thing Causa CL for "a cause," later in VL "a thing, subject, matter." rẽː
Fr. chose, Occ. c(h)ausa, Cat. cosa, Rmsh. chossa or caussa, It. cosa, Sp. cosa, Po. coisa From the form rem: Fr. rien, O.Po. rem. From the form rēs: Occ. & Cat. res, all "nothing". In O.Fr. rien meant "thing", hence Fr. ne... rien, "nothing".
Respectant they watch Rewardant Gm. loan akin to ward, meaning "observe, watch over." rɛsˈpɛktant Fr. regardent, Occ. regardan, Cat. guarden, Rmsh. guardan or vurdan, It. riguardano, Sp. reguardan, Po. guardam It. rispettano, Sp. respetan, Por respeitam
Reus guilty Culpabilis LL syn. ˈreũː
Fr. coupable It. rio, Dlm. ri, Rom. rău, all meaning "bad"
"Litus" shore Ripa CL syn. ˈliːtʊs
Fr. rive, Occ. & Cat. riba, Rmsh. & It. riva, Dlm. raipa, Sp. & Po. riba, Rom. râpă It. lido
Rostrum beak Beccus Gaulish. ˈroːstrũː
Fr. bec, Occ. bèc, Cat. bec, It. becco, Sp. pico, Po. bico Rom. rost "mouth"
Rufa reddish Sora Germanic borrowing akin to "sear(ed)." - Fr. saure "smoked" or "of a colour resulting from smoking", Occ. saura "yellow"
Ruga crease Fruncetura Gm. loan. ˈruːgãː O.Fr. fronceüre, Fr. fronçure, Cat. frunsidura Fr. rue "street", hence the need for this gloss.[32]
Sarcina package Bisatia CL bisaccia, pl. of bisaccium "a double-sack." ˈsarkɪnãː
Fr. besace, Occ. biassa Rom. sarcină, Arom. sartsinã
Sartago pan Patella CL syn. paˈtɛllãː
Fr. poêle, Occ. padèla, Cat. paella, Rmsh. & It. & Dlm. padella, Sp. padilla, Po. patela Sp. sartén, Po. sertã
Saniore healthier Plus Sano Romance construction,[33] lit. "more healthy." pluːs ˈsaːnũː Fr. plus sain, It. più sano. From magis (syn. of plus): Cat. més sano, Sp. más sano, Po. mais são, Rom. mai sănăt
Scabrones[34] hornets Wapces Gm. loan akin to O.E. wæps, O.S. wepsia "wasp." kraːˈbroːneːs Fr. guêpes is from CL vespās, but its form was influenced by wapces.[35] Via VL *carabriones: It. calabroni
Scinifes gnats Cincellas LL. zinzalas, possibly onomatopoeic. ˈzɪnzalaːs O.Fr. cinceles, It. zanzare, Sp. cénzalos, Rom. țânțari -
Segetes crops Messes CL syn. ˈmɛsseːs
Cat. messes, It. messi, Sp. mieses, Po. messes. Via messiones: Fr. moissons -
Semel once Una Vice Romance construction, lit. "one time",[36] from CL vicem "turn, succession." ˈuːnãː ˈvɪkẽː Fr. une fois, Occ. una vetz, Cat. una vegada (from *vicata), Sp. una vez, Po. uma vez. It. una volta employs a similar noun.
Sepulta [she was] interred Sepelita Rare CL variant.[37] sɛˈpʊɫtãː
sɛpɛˈli:tãː [38]
O.Fr. sevelie, Fr. ensevelie, Occ. sebelida, It. seppellita. It. sepolta (alt. form)
Singulariter solely Solamente Romance adv. ending first attested in CL abl. absolutes such as sollicitā mente "assiduously, with an assiduous mind", later grammaticalized.[39] ˈsoːlaː ˈmɛntɛ Fr. seulement, Occ. & Cat. solament, It. & Sp. solamente, Po. somente
Si vis if you want Si voles VL regularized form of vis, to match other CL conjugations such as volunt.[40] - Fr. si (tu) veux, Occ. se vòles, Cat. si vols, Rmsh. sche vuls, It. se vuoi, Rom. dacă vrei
Sortileus [41] diviner Sorcerus VL *sortiarius "fortune teller," from CL sort- "fortune" with occupational suffix -ārius. - Fr. sorcier
Stercora excrements Femus CL syn. fimus. ˈfɪmũː
O.Fr. fien, Occ. & Cat. fem. Fr. fumier is from *femarium Rom. șterc. From VL *stercorem: Sp. estiércol.[42]
Succendunt they set ablaze Sprendunt CL prendunt "they seize" with the prefix ex. ˈprɛndʊnt Fr. éprennent, Occ. espren
Submersi drowned Necati CL for "murdered." sʊmˈmɛrsoːs See entry for necetur It. sommersi
Subtilissima very slender Perpittita Gaulish, with the Latin intensifier per- sʊpˈtiːlẽː Fr. petite, Occ. pitita, Cat. petita. From *pittina: Rmsh. pitschna. From *peccuina: Sp. pequeña, Po. pequena Cat. sotila, It. sottile
Sus pig Porcus CL syn. ˈsʊẽː See entry for aper Srd. sue
Tedet it annoys Anoget Represents GR *anoyet,[43] from the VL *inodiat,[44] which is akin to CL in odiō est "it is despised." - Fr. ennuie, Occ. enuja, Cat. enutja, It. annoia, Sp. & Po. enoja
Tedio trifle, cliché Tepiditas Approx. CL syn., extinct in O.Fr. - From tepidum: Fr. tiède, Occ. tèbi, Cat. tebi, It. tiepido, Sp. & Po. tibio
Teristrum head-veil Cufia Gm. loan. - Fr. coiffe, O.Occ. cofa -
- - Vitta CL for "headband". ˈwɪttãː O.Fr. vete, Occ. & Cat. veta, It. vetta, Sp. veta, Po. fita, Rom. bată -
Thurmas [45] crowds Fulcos Gm. loan akin to folk. ˈtʊrmaːs O.Fr. fols, fouls, O.Occ. folcs It. & Fri. torme, Srd. trumas, Rom. turme
Torax cuirass Brunia Gm. loan. - O.Fr. broigne, O.Occ. bronha
Transgredere to go beyond Ultra alare Ultrā is proper CL for "beyond". Alare is a latinized spelling of GR aler "to go," [46] of disputed origin. - Fr. aller outre
Transmeare to swim across Transnotare VL *notare, from CL natāre. naˈtaːrɛ O.Fr. noer, Rmsh. nudar, It. nuotare, Rom. înotare. Directly from natare: Occ. nadar, Cat. nedar, Sp. & Po. nadar
Tugurium hut Cavana Unknown. - O.Fr chavane, Occ. cabana, It. cappana, Sp. cabaña, Po. cabana
Umo ground Terra CL for "land." ˈtɛrrãː Fr. terre, Occ. & Cat. & Rmsh. & It. & Srd. terra, Sp. tierra, Po. terra, Rom. ţară
Ungues fingernails Ungulas CL for "claws", dimin. of unguēs. ˈʊngʊlaːs Fr. ongles, Occ. onglas or unglas, Cat. ungles, Rmsh. ùnglas, It. unghie, Srd. ungas, Sp. uñas, Po. unhas, Rom. unghii
Usuris interest
on a loan
Lucris CL for "profits." ˈlʊːkrũː O.Fr. & Occ. logre, Sp. & Po. logro
Utere use it Usitare CL freq. of ūtere (p.p. ūsus sum.) - Via VL *usa: Fr. use, Occ. & Cat. & It. & Sp. & Po. usa
Uvas grapes Racemos CL for "clusters, bunches" often in reference to grapes. ˈuːwaːs
Fr. raisins, Occ. rasims, Cat. raïms, all "grapes", Sp. & Po. racimos with orig. L. meaning Rmsh. ivas, It. uve, Sp. & Po. uvas, Dlm. joive, Rom. dial. aue "bunches"
Veru spit for roasting Spidus Gm. loan akin to spit. - Fr. époi, Sp. & Por. espeto
Vespertiliones bats Calves Sorices CL calvās soricēs "bald mice." / wɛspɛrtiːliˈoːneːs /
/ ˈkaɫwaːs ˈsɔrɪkeːs /
Fr. chauves-souris O.It. vipistrello (mod. pipistrello), Asturian esperteyo
Vestis garment Rauba Gm. loan meaning "spoils, clothing" akin to Eng. rob. - Fr. robe, Occ. rauba, Cat. & It. roba From CL vestīmentum: Fr. vêtement, Rmsh. büschmaint, Dlm. vestemiant, Rom. veșmânt, Arom. vishtimintu
Vim force Fortiam VL noun from CL fortia neuter pl. of fortis "strong." ˈfɔrtia Fr. force, Occ fòrça, Cat. força, Rmsh. & It. forza, Sp. fuerza, Po. força
Viscera guts Intralia CL interānea "guts, intestines." ɪntɛraːnea From VL *intralia: Fr. entrailles. From *intrania: O.Fr. entraigne, Cat. entranyes, Sp. entrañas, Po. entranhas
Vorax devouring Manducans CL for "chewing." manduːˈkantẽː It. mangiante. Via gerund mandūcandum: Fr. mangeant, Occ. manjant, Cat. menjant, Rmsh. mangiond, It. mangiando, Po. manjando, Rom. mâncând


  1. ^ Quirós, Manuel (1986). "Las Glosas De Reichenau". Filología y Lingüística. 12: 43. Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  2. ^ Diament, H. (1968). A New Hypothesis of the origin of French Aller. WORD. 24. Routledge. p. 73. doi:10.1080/00437956.1968.11435516. 
  3. ^ Herman, József (2000). Vulgar Latin. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-271-02001-6. 
  4. ^ Alkire, Ti; Rosen, Rosen (July 2010). Romance Languages: A Historical Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 319–320. ISBN 9780521717847. 
  5. ^ Allen, William Sidney (1978) [1965]. Vox Latina—a Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 21, 30–34, 47–50, 51–52. ISBN 0-521-37936-9. 
  6. ^ Herman, p. 3
  7. ^ Akire & Rosen, p. 131 and 174-175
  8. ^ read: abeo
  9. ^ The proper Latin accusative was aeramen, identical to the nominative, but the productive form in Romance languages (other than Italian) was the original ablative aeramine. See Pei, Mario (1941). The Italian Language. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 78. 
  10. ^ Daiches, David; Thorlby, Anthony (December 1972). Literature and Western Civilization: The Modern World Volume II Realities. Aldus Books. p. 41. ISBN 0490002447. 
  11. ^ Diez, p. 16
  12. ^ read: calumniam
  13. ^ Diez, p. 49
  14. ^ Alkire & Rosen, p. 62-63
  15. ^ Diez, p.16
  16. ^ read: castro
  17. ^ Diez, p.51
  18. ^ Real Academia Española, Diccionario de la lengua española, 23rd edn., s.v. "sollar", 2014, accessed 14 March 2016.
  19. ^ Akire & Rosen, p.176-177
  20. ^ For evolution of -ās into -e, see Akire & Rosen p. 189
  21. ^ Diez, p. 17
  22. ^ Adams, J.N. (7 January 2008). The Regional Diversification of Latin 200 BC - AD 600. Cambridge University Press. p. 315. ISBN 9781107684584. 
  23. ^ Akire & Rosen, p.177
  24. ^ Reinhard Kiesler, Einführung in die Problematik des Vulgärlateins (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2006), 91.
  25. ^ Diez, Friedrick (1870). Anciens glossaires romans. Paris: A. Franck. p. 49. 
  26. ^ Diez, p. 32
  27. ^ Diez, p. 53
  28. ^ Akire & Rosen, p.196
  29. ^ Herman, p.23
  30. ^ Diez, p.52
  31. ^ read: polenta
  32. ^ Brunot, Ferdinand; Bruneau, Charles (1905). Histoire de la langue française des origines à 1900. Paris: Armand Colin. p. 140. ISBN 9781172727995. 
  33. ^ Diez, p. 45
  34. ^ read: crabrones
  35. ^ Diez, p. 19
  36. ^ Diez, p. 48
  37. ^ Diez, p.17
  38. ^ For the long i, see Freund, Wilhelm (1862). Grand dictionnaire de la langue latine. Firmin-Didot. p. 223. 
  39. ^ Müller, Peter; Ohnheiser, Ingeborg; Olsen, Susan; Rainer, Franz (March 2015). Word-Formation An International Handbook of the Languages of Europe. De Gruyter. p. 1831. ISBN 9783110427516. 
  40. ^ Anderson, James; Rochet, Bernard (1979). Historical romance morphology. University Microfilms International. p. 267. ISBN 9780835704625. 
  41. ^ read: sortilegus
  42. ^ Roberts, Edward (April 2014). A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Spanish Language with Families of Words Based on Indo-European Roots: Volume II (H - Z and Appendix). Xlibris. p. 672. ISBN 9781493191130. 
  43. ^ Diez, p.46
  44. ^ Alkire & Rosen, p.320.
  45. ^ read: turmas
  46. ^ Alkire & Rosen, p.320.