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Reinhold Messner

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Reinhold Messner
Messner in 2024
Personal information
Born (1944-09-17) 17 September 1944 (age 79)
Brixen (Bressanone), South Tyrol, Italy
WebsiteOfficial website
Climbing career
Known forFirst to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplemental oxygen, and first to climb Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen
First ascents
Major ascentsFirst solo ascent of Mount Everest and first ascent without supplemental oxygen

Reinhold Andreas Messner (German: [ˈʁaɪnhɔlt ˈmɛsnɐ]; born 17 September 1944) is an Italian climber, explorer, and author from South Tyrol. He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest and, along with Peter Habeler, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen. He was the first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, doing so without supplementary oxygen. Messner was the first to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds[1] and also crossed the Gobi Desert alone.[2] He is widely considered to be the greatest mountaineer of all time.[3][4][5]

From 1999 to 2004, Messner served as a member of the European Parliament for north-east Italy, as a member of the Federation of the Greens.

Messner has published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. In 2010, he received the 2nd Piolet d'Or Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2018, he received jointly with Krzysztof Wielicki the Princess of Asturias Award in the category of Sports.

Early life and education

Reinhold Messner in June 2002

Messner was born to a German-speaking family in St. Peter, Villnöß, near Brixen in South Tyrol, which is part of Italy. According to his sister, his delivery was difficult as he was a large baby and the birth took place during an air raid. His mother Maria (1913–1995) was the daughter of a shop owner and 4 years older than her husband. His father Josef (1917–1985) was drafted to serve the German army and participated in World War II on the Russian front. After the war, he was an auxiliary teacher until 1957, when he became the director of the local school. Messner was the second of nine children – Helmut (born 1943), Günther (1946–1970), Erich (born 1948), Waltraud (born 1949), Siegfried (1950–1985), Hubert (born 1953), Hansjörg (born 1955) and Werner (born 1957), and grew up in modest means.[6][7]

Messner spent his early years climbing in the Alps and falling in love with the Dolomites. His father was strict and sometimes severe with him.[citation needed] He led Reinhold to his first summit at the age of five.[citation needed]

When Messner was 13, he began climbing with his brother Günther, age 11. By the time Reinhold and Günther were in their early twenties, they were among Europe's best climbers.[8]

Since the 1960s, Messner, inspired by Hermann Buhl, was one of the first and most enthusiastic supporters of alpine style mountaineering in the Himalayas, which consisted of climbing with very light equipment and a minimum of external help. Messner considered the usual expedition style (which he dubbed "siege tactics") disrespectful toward nature and mountains.[citation needed]



Before his first major Himalayan climb in 1970, Messner had made a name for himself mainly through his achievements in the Alps. Between 1960 and 1964, he led over 500 ascents, most of them in the Dolomites.[citation needed] In 1965, he climbed a new direttissima route on the north face of the Ortler.[citation needed] A year later, he climbed the Walker Spur on the Grandes Jorasses and ascended the Rocchetta Alta di Bosconero. In 1967, he made the first ascent of the northeast face of the Agnér and the first winter ascents of the Agnér north face and Furchetta north face.[citation needed]

In 1968, he achieved further firsts: the Heiligkreuzkofel middle pillar and the direct south face of the Marmolada. In 1969, Messner joined an Andes expedition, during which he succeeded, together with Peter Habeler, in making the first ascent of the Yerupaja east face up to the summit ridge and, a few days later, the first ascent of the 6,121-metre-high (20,082 ft) Yerupaja Chico.[9] He also made the first solo ascent of the Droites north face, the Philipp-Flamm intersection on the Civetta and the south face of Marmolada di Rocca. As a result, Messner won the reputation of being one of the best climbers in Europe.

In 1970, Messner was invited to join a major Himalayan expedition that was going to attempt the unclimbed Rupal face of Nanga Parbat. The expedition, which was the major turning point in his life, turned out to be a tragic success. Both he and his brother Günther reached the summit but Günther died two days later on the descent of the Diamir face. Reinhold lost seven toes, which had become badly frostbitten during the climb and required amputation.[8][10] Reinhold was severely criticized for persisting on this climb with the less experienced Günther.[11] The 2010 movie Nanga Parbat by Joseph Vilsmaier is based on his account of the events.[12]

While Messner and Peter Habeler were noted for fast ascents in the Alps of the Eiger North Wall, standard route (10 hours) and Les Droites (8 hours), his 1975 Gasherbrum I first ascent of a new route took three days. This was unheard of at the time.[citation needed]

In the 1970s, Messner championed the cause for ascending Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, saying that he would do it "by fair means" or not at all.[13] In 1978, he reached the summit of Everest with Habeler.[14] This was the first time anyone had been that high without supplemental oxygen and Messner and Habeler achieved what certain doctors, specialists, and mountaineers thought impossible. He repeated the feat, without Habeler, from the Tibetan side in 1980, during the monsoon season. This was Everest's first solo summit.

Location of the eight-thousanders

In 1978, he made a solo ascent of the Diamir face of Nanga Parbat. In 1986, Messner became the first to complete all fourteen eight-thousanders (peaks over 8,000 metres above sea level).[15]

Messner has crossed Antarctica on skis, together with fellow explorer Arved Fuchs.[citation needed] He has written over 80 books[16] about his experiences, a quarter of which have been translated. He was featured in the 1984 film The Dark Glow of the Mountains by Werner Herzog. From 1999 to 2004, he held political office as a Member of the European Parliament for the Italian Green Party (Federazione dei Verdi). He was also among the founders of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the protection of mountains worldwide.[citation needed]

In 2004 he completed a 2,000-kilometre (1,200 mi) expedition through the Gobi desert.[citation needed] In 2006, he founded the Messner Mountain Museum.



Ascents above 8,000m


Messner was the first person to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world and without supplemental oxygen. His climbs were also all amongst the first 20 ascents for each mountain individually. Specifically, these are:

Year Peak Remarks
1970 Nanga Parbat (8,125 m or 26,657 feet) First ascent of the unclimbed Rupal Face and first traverse of the mountain by descending along the unexplored Diamir Face with his brother Günther. Prior to this ascent, Messner had not previously visited the Greater Ranges and the greatest altitude he had been to was on the expedition to the Andes in 1969. [17]
1972 Manaslu (8,163 m or 26,781 feet) First ascent of the unclimbed South-West Face[18] and first ascent of Manaslu without supplemental oxygen.[19]
1975 Gasherbrum I (8,080 m or 26,510 feet) First ascent without supplemental oxygen with Peter Habeler.[19]
1978 Mount Everest (8,848 m or 29,029 feet), Nanga Parbat (8,125 m or 26,657 feet) First ascent of Everest without supplementary oxygen (with Peter Habeler).[19][page needed]
Nanga Parbat: first solo ascent of an eight-thousander from base camp. He established a new route on the Diamir Face, which has since then never been repeated.[20][page needed]
1979 K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 feet) Ascent partially in alpine style with Michael Dacher on the Abruzzi Spur.
1980 Mount Everest (8,848 m or 29,029 feet) First to ascend alone and without supplementary oxygen – from base camp to summit – during the monsoon. He established a new route on the North Face.
1981 Shishapangma (8,027 m or 26,335 feet) Ascent with Friedl Mutschlechner.
1982 Kangchenjunga (8,586 m or 28,169 feet), Gasherbrum II (8,034 m or 26,358 feet), Broad Peak (8,051 m or 26,414 feet) New route on Kangchenjunga's North Face, partially in alpine style with Friedl Mutschlechner.
Gasherbrum II and Broad Peak: Both ascents with Sher Khan and Nazir Sabir.
Messner becomes the first person to climb three 8000er in one season.
Also a failed summit attempt on Cho Oyu during winter.
1983 Cho Oyu (8,188 m or 26,864 feet) Ascent with Hans Kammerlander and Michael Dacher on a partially new route.
1984 Gasherbrum I (8,080 m or 26,510 feet), Gasherbrum II (8,034 m or 26,358 feet) First traverse of two eight-thousanders without returning to base camp (with Hans Kammerlander).
1985 Annapurna (8,091 m or 26,545 feet), Dhaulagiri (8,167 m or 26,795 feet) First ascent of Annapurna's unclimbed North-West Face.
Both ascents with Hans Kammerlander.
1986 Makalu (8,485 m or 27,838 feet), Lhotse (8,516 m or 27,940 feet) Makalu: Ascent with Hans Kammerlander and Friedl Mutschlechner, Lhotse: Ascent with Hans Kammerlander.
Messner becomes the first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.

Other expeditions since 1970

Reinhold Messner in 1985 in Pamir Mountains.



Nanga Parbat


Reinhold Messner took a total of five expeditions to Nanga Parbat. In 1970 and 1978 he reached the summit (in 1978 solo); in 1971, 1973 and 1977, he did not. In 1971 he was primarily looking for his brother's remains.

Rupal Face 1970

Rupal face of Nanga Parbat.

In May and June 1970, Messner took part in the Nanga Parbat South Face expedition led by Karl Herrligkoffer [de], the objective of which was to climb the as yet unclimbed Rupal Face, the highest rock and ice face in the world. Messner's brother, Günther, was also a member of the team. On the morning of 27 June, Messner was of the view that the weather would deteriorate rapidly, and set off alone from the last high-altitude camp. Surprisingly his brother climbed after him and caught up to him before the summit. By late afternoon, both had reached the summit of the mountain and had to pitch an emergency bivouac shelter without tent, sleeping bags and stoves because darkness was closing in.

The events that followed have been the subject of years of legal actions and disputes between former expedition members, and have still not been finally resolved. What is known now is that Reinhold and Günther Messner descended the Diamir Face, thereby achieving the first traverse of Nanga Parbat and second traverse of an eight-thousander after Mount Everest in 1963. Reinhold arrived in the valley six days later with severe frostbite, but survived. His brother, Günther, however died on the Diamir Face—according to Reinhold Messner on the same descent, during which they became further and further separated from each other. As a result, the time, place and exact cause of death is unknown. Messner said his brother had been swept away by an avalanche.

In June 2005, after an unusual heat wave on the mountain, the body of his brother was recovered on the Diamir Face, which seems to support Messner's account of how Günther died.[22][23]

The drama was turned into a film Nanga Parbat (2010) by Joseph Vilsmaier, based on the memories of Reinhold Messner and without participation from the other former members of the expedition. Released in January 2010 in cinemas, the film was criticised by the other members of the team for telling only one side of the story.[23]

Because of severe frostbite, especially on his feet—seven toes were amputated—Messner was not able to climb quite as well on rock after the 1970 expedition. He therefore turned his attention to higher mountains, where there was much more ice.[24]

Solo climb in 1978


On 9 August 1978, after three unsuccessful expeditions, Messner reached the summit of Nanga Parbat again via the Diamir Face.



In 1972, Messner succeeded in climbing Manaslu on what was then the unknown south face of the mountain, of which there were not even any pictures. From the last high-altitude camp he climbed with Frank Jäger, who turned back before reaching the summit. Shortly after Messner reached the summit, the weather changed and heavy fog and snow descended. Initially Messner became lost on the way down, but later, heading into the storm, found his way back to the camp, where Horst Fankhauser and Andi Schlick were waiting for him and Jäger. Jäger did not return, although his cries were heard from the camp. Orientation had become too difficult. Fankhauser and Schlick began to search for him that evening, but lost their way and sought shelter at first in a snow cave. Messner himself was no longer in a position to help the search. The following day, only Horst Fankhauser returned. Andi Schlick had left the snow cave during the night and disappeared. Thus, the expedition had to mourn the loss of two climbers. Messner was later criticised for having allowed Jäger go back down the mountain alone.[24]

Gasherbrum I


Together with Peter Habeler, Messner made a second ascent of Gasherbrum I on 10 August 1975, becoming the first man ever to climb more than two eight-thousanders. It was the first time a mountaineering expedition succeeded in scaling an eight-thousander using alpine style climbing. Until that point, all fourteen 8000-meter peaks had been summitted using the expedition style, though Hermann Buhl had earlier advocated "West Alpine Style" (similar to "capsule" style, with a smaller group relying on minimal fixed ropes).

Messner reached the summit again in 1984, this time together with Hans Kammerlander. This was achieved as part of a double ascent where, for the first time, two eight-thousander peaks (Gasherbrum I and II) were climbed without returning to base camp. Again, this was done in alpine style, i.e. without the pre-location of stores.[24] Filmmaker Werner Herzog accompanied the climbers along the 150-kilometre (93 mi) approach to base camp, interviewing them extensively about why they were making the climb, if they could say; they could not. Messner became emotional on camera when he recalled having to tell his mother about his brother's death.

It took a week for the two climbers to summit both peaks and return to camp, after which Herzog interviewed them again. His documentary, The Dark Glow of the Mountains, with some footage the two climbers shot during the expedition on portable cameras, was released the following year.

Mount Everest

Mount Everest north face.

On 8 May 1978, Messner and Habeler reached the summit of Mount Everest, becoming the first men to climb it without using supplemental oxygen. Before this ascent, it was disputed whether this was possible at all. Messner and Habeler were members of an expedition led by Wolfgang Nairz along the southeast ridge to the summit. Also on this expedition was Reinhard Karl, the first German to reach the summit, albeit with the aid of supplemental oxygen.

Two years later, on 20 August 1980, Messner again stood atop the highest mountain in the world, without supplementary oxygen. For this solo climb, he chose the northeast ridge to the summit, where he crossed above the North Col in the North Face to the Norton Couloir and became the first man to climb through this steep gorge to the summit. Messner decided spontaneously during the ascent to use this route to bypass the exposed northeast ridge. Before this solo ascent, he had not set up a camp on the mountain.[24]


K2 seen from Concordia.

For 1979, Messner was planning to climb K2 on a new direct route through the South Face, which he called the "Magic Line". Headed by Messner, the small expedition consisted of six climbers: Italians Alessandro Gogna, Friedl Mutschlechner and Renato Casarotto; the Austrian, Robert Schauer; and Germans Michael Dacher, journalist, Jochen Hölzgen, and doctor Ursula Grether, who was injured during the approach and had to be carried to Askole by Messner and Mutschlechner. Because of avalanche danger on the original route and time lost on the approach, they decided to climb via the Abruzzi Spur. The route was equipped with fixed ropes and high-altitude camps, but no hauling equipment (Hochträger) or bottled oxygen was used. On 12 July, Messner and Dacher reached the summit; then the weather deteriorated and attempts by other members of the party failed.[25][26]



During his stay in Tibet as part of his Everest solo attempt, Messner explored Shishapangma. A year later, Messner, with Friedel Mutschlechner, Oswald Oelz, and Gerd Baur, set up a base camp on the north side. On 28 May, Messner and Mutschlechner reached the summit in very bad weather; part of the climb involving ski mountaineering.[24][26]



In 1982, Messner wanted to become the first climber ever to scale three eight-thousanders in one year. He planned to climb Kangchenjunga, then Gasherbrum II and Broad Peak.[citation needed]

Messner chose a new variation of the route up the north face. Because there was still a lot of snow, Messner and Mutschlechner made very slow progress. In addition, the difficulty of the climb forced the two mountaineers to use fixed ropes. Finally, on 6 May, Messner and Mutschlechner stood on the summit. There, Mutschlechner suffered frostbite to his hands, and later to his feet as well. While bivouacking during the descent, the tent tore away from Mutschlechner and Messner, and Messner also fell ill. He was suffering from amoebic liver abscess, making him very weak. He made it back to base camp only with Mutschlechner's help.[24]

Gasherbrum II


After his ascent of Kangchenjunga, Mutschlechner flew back to Europe because his frostbite had to be treated and Messner needed rest. Thus the three mountains could not be climbed as planned. Messner was cured of his amoebic liver abscess and then travelled to Gasherbrum II, but could not use the new routes as planned. In any case, his climbing partners, Sher Khan and Nazir Sabir, would not have been strong enough. Nevertheless, all three reached the summit on 24 July in a storm. During the ascent, Messner discovered the body of a previously missing Austrian mountaineer, whom he buried two years later at the G I – G II traverse.[24]

Broad Peak

Broad Peak.

In 1982, Messner scaled Broad Peak, his third eight-thousander. At the time, he was the only person with a permit to climb this mountain; he came across Jerzy Kukuczka and Wojciech Kurtyka, who had permits to climb K2, but used its geographic proximity to climb Broad Peak illegally. In early descriptions of the ascent, Messner omitted this encounter, but he referred to it several years later. On 2 August, Messner was reunited with Nazir Sabir and Khan again on the summit. The three mountaineers had decamped and made for Broad Peak immediately after their ascent of Gasherbrum II. The climb was carried out with a variation from the normal route at the start.[24]

Cho Oyu


In the winter of 1982–83, Messner attempted the first winter ascent of Cho Oyu. He reached an altitude of about 7,500 m (24,600 feet), when great masses of snow forced him to turn back. This expedition was his first with Hans Kammerlander. A few months later, on 5 May, he reached the summit via a partially new route together with Kammerlander and Michael Dacher.[24]



In 1985, Messner topped out on Annapurna. Using a new route on the northwest face, he reached the summit with Kammerlander on 24 April. Also on the expedition were Reinhard Patscheider, Reinhard Schiestl and Swami Prem Darshano, who did not reach the summit. During Messner and Kammerlander's ascent, the weather was bad and they had to be assisted by the other three expedition members during the descent due to heavy snowfall.[24]


Messner's attempt on the summit in 1977 failed on Dhaulagiri's South Face.

Messner had already attempted Dhaulagiri in 1977 and 1984, unsuccessfully. In 1985 he finally summited. He climbed with Kammerlander up the normal route along the northeast ridge. After only three days of climbing they stood on the summit in a heavy storm on 15 May.[24]



Messner tried climbing Makalu four times. He failed in 1974 and 1981 on the South Face of the south-east ridge. In winter 1985–1986 he attempted the first winter ascent of Makalu via the normal route. Even this venture did not succeed.[24] Not until February 2009 was Makalu successfully climbed in winter by Denis Urubko and Simone Moro.

In 1986, Messner returned and succeeded in reaching the summit using the normal route with Kammerlander and Mutschlechner. Although they had turned back twice during this expedition, they made the summit on the third attempt on 26 September. During this expedition, Messner witnessed the death of Marcel Rüedi, for whom the Makalu was his 9th eight-thousander. Rüedi was on the way back from the summit and was seen by Messner and the other climbers on the descent. Although he was making slow progress, he appeared to be safe. The tea for his reception had already been boiled when Rüedi disappeared behind a snow ridge and did not reappear. He was found dead a short time later.[24]



Messner climbed his last normal route.[when?] Messner and Kammerlander had to contend with a strong wind in the summit area. To reach the summit that year and before winter broke, they took a direct helicopter flight from the Makalu base camp to the Lhotse base camp.[citation needed]

Thus Messner became the first person to climb all eight-thousanders. Since this ascent, Messner has never climbed another eight-thousander.[24] In 1989, Messner led a European expedition to the South Face of the mountain. The aim was to forge a path up the as-yet-unclimbed face. Messner himself did not want to climb any more. The expedition was unsuccessful.[27]

The Seven Summits


In 1985 Richard Bass first postulated and achieved the mountaineering challenge Seven Summits, climbing the highest peaks of each of the seven continents. Messner suggested another list (the Messner or Carstensz list) replacing Mount Kosciuszko with Indonesia's Puncak Jaya, or Carstensz Pyramid (4,884 m or 16,024 feet). From a mountaineering point of view the Messner list is the more challenging one. Climbing Carstensz Pyramid has the character of an expedition, whereas the ascent of Kosciuszko is an easy hike. In May 1986 Pat Morrow became the first person to complete the Messner list, followed by Messner himself when he climbed Mount Vinson in December 1986 to become the second.[21]

World-first records


Messner is listed nine times in the Guinness Book of Records. All of his achievements are classed as "World's Firsts" (or "Historical Firsts"). A "World's First" is the highest category of any Guinness World Record, meaning the ownership of the title never expires.[28] As of 2021, Messner is the second highest record holder of "World's Firsts" (after Icelandic oceanic rower Fiann Paul, who has 13). Messner's world firsts are:

  • First ascent of Manaslu without supplementary oxygen
  • First solo summit of Everest
  • First ascent of Everest and K2 without supplementary oxygen
  • First ascent of the top three highest mountains without supplementary oxygen
  • First 8,000-metre mountain hat-trick
  • First person to climb all 8,000-metre mountains without supplementary oxygen
  • First person to climb all 8,000-metre mountains
  • First ascent of Everest without supplementary oxygen
  • First ascent of Gasherbrum I without supplementary oxygen

Messner Mountain Museum

Messner Mountain Museum in Monte Rite, Dolomites.

In 2003 Messner started work on a project for a mountaineering museum.[29] On 11 June 2006, the Messner Mountain Museum (MMM) opened, a museum that unites within one museum the stories of the growth and decline of mountains, culture in the Himalayan region and the history of South Tyrol.

The MMM consists of five or six locations:

  • MMM Firmian at Sigmundskron Castle near Bozen is the centerpiece of the museum and concentrates on man's relationship with the mountains. Surrounded by peaks from the Schlern and the Texel range, the MMM Firmian provides visitors with a series of pathways, stairways, and towers containing displays that focus on the geology of the mountains, the religious significance of mountains in the lives of people, and the history of mountaineering and alpine tourism. The so-called white tower is dedicated to the history of the village and the struggle for the independence of South Tyrol.[30]
  • MMM Juval at Juval Castle in the Burggrafenamt in Vinschgau is dedicated to the "magic of the mountains", with an emphasis on mystical mountains, such as Mount Kailash or Ayers Rock and their religious significance. MMM Juval houses several art collections.[31]
  • MMM Dolomites, known as the Museum in the Clouds, is located at Monte Rite (2,181 m or 7,156 feet) between Pieve di Cadore and Cortina d'Ampezzo. Housed in an old fort, this museum is dedicated to the subject of rocks, particularly in the Dolomites, with exhibits focusing on the history of the formation of the Dolomites. The summit observation platform offers a 360° panorama of the surrounding Dolomites, with views toward Monte Schiara, Monte Agnèr, Monte Civetta, Marmolada, Monte Pelmo, Tofana di Rozes, Sorapis, Antelao, Marmarole.[32]
  • MMM Ortles at Sulden on the Ortler is dedicated to the theme of ice. This underground structure is situated at 1,900 m (6,200 feet) and focuses on the history of mountaineering on ice and the great glaciers of the world. The museum contains the world's largest collection of paintings of the Ortler, as well as ice-climbing gear from two centuries.[33]
  • MMM Ripa at Brunico Castle in South Tyrol is dedicated to the mountain peoples from Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, with emphasis on their cultures, religions, and tourism activities.[34]
  • MMM Corones, opened in July 2015 on the top of the Kronplatz mountain (Plan de Corones in Italian), is dedicated to traditional climbing.[35]

Political career

Reinhold Messner
Member of the European Parliament
for North-East Italy
In office
20 July 1999 – 19 July 2004
Personal details
Born (1944-09-17) 17 September 1944 (age 79)
Brixen, Italy
Political partyGreens of South Tyrol
Other political
Federation of the Greens

In 1999, Messner was elected Member of the European Parliament for the Federation of the Greens (FdV), the Italian green party, receiving more than 20,000 votes in the European election. He fully served his term until 2004, when he retired from politics.[36]

Messner was officially a member of South Tyrolean Greens, a regionalist and ecologist political party active only in South Tyrol, which de facto acts as a regional branch of the FdV.

Electoral history

Election House Constituency Party Votes Result
1999 European Parliament North-East Italy FdV 20,291 checkY Elected

Personal life


From 1972 until 1977, Messner was married to Uschi Demeter. With his partner, Canadian photographer Nena Holguin, he has a daughter, Làyla Messner, born in 1981.[37] On 31 July 2009, he married his long time girlfriend Sabine Stehle, a textile designer from Vienna, with whom he has three children.[38] They divorced in 2019.[39] In late May 2021, Messner married Diane Schumacher, a 41-year-old Luxembourgish woman living in Munich,[40][41] at the town hall in Kastelbell-Tschars near his home in South Tyrol.[42][43]

In media


See also



  1. ^ Messner, Reinhold (1991). Antarctica: Both Heaven and Hell. ISBN 9780898863055.
  2. ^ Messner, Reinhold (2013). Gobi: Il deserto dentro di me (in Italian). ISBN 9788897173236.
  3. ^ "Reinhold Messner, greatest mountaineer on earth - Academy of achievement". Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  4. ^ "The 9 Best Mountaineers of All Time". Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  5. ^ "Why Reinhold Messner Is The Greatest Living Human". Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  6. ^ Kratzer, Clemens (2012). "Messner – der Film". Alpin – das BergMagazin. 9: 9. ISSN 0177-3542.
  7. ^ Lisa Stocker (9 April 2009). "Waltraud Kastlunger und ihre Brüder". BRIGITTE-woman.de.
  8. ^ a b Alexander, Caroline (November 2006). "Murdering the Impossible". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 November 2006.
  9. ^ Messner, Reinhold (1979). Aufbruch ins Abenteuer. Der berühmteste Alpinist der Welt erzählt (in German). Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei Lübbe. pp. 122–133.
  10. ^ "Die Füße des Extrembergsteigers". Stern (in German). 3 November 2006.
  11. ^ Rhoads, Christopher (11 December 2003). "The controversy surrounding Reinhold Messner". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
  12. ^ Connolly, Kate (19 January 2010). "Nanga Parbat film restarts row over Messner brothers' fatal climb". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  13. ^ Krakauer 1997.
  14. ^ Krakauer 1997, p. 153.
  15. ^ Krakauer 1997, p. 61.
  16. ^ "Reinhold Messner - Bücher". Reinhold-messner.de. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  17. ^ Free Spirit: A Climber's Life. Seattle: Mountaineers Books. 1998. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-89886-573-8.
  18. ^ Nairsz, Wolfgang (1974). "Manaslu 1972" (PDF). alpinejournal.org.uk.
  19. ^ a b c "General Info". 8000ers.com.
  20. ^ Moro, Simone (2016). Nanga: Fra rispetto e pazienza, come ho corteggiato la montagna che chiamavano assassina (in Italian). ISBN 9788817090230.
  21. ^ a b History of 7 Summits project – who was first?
  22. ^ "Nanga Parbat Body Ends Messner Controversy". Outdoors Magic. 19 August 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  23. ^ a b Connolly, Kate (19 January 2010). "Nanga Parbat film restarts row over Messner brothers' fatal climb". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Messner, Reinhold (2002). Überlebt – Alle 14 Achttausender mit Chronik (in German). Munich: BLV.
  25. ^ Messner, Reinhold; Gogna, Alessandro (1980). K2 – Berg der Berge (in German). Munich: BLV.
  26. ^ a b Messner, Reinhold (1983). Alle meine Gipfel (in German). Munich: Herbig.
  27. ^ Kammerlander, Hans (2001). Bergsüchtig (in German) (6 ed.). Munich: Piper. p. 81ff.
  28. ^ "Official Guinness Registry". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  29. ^ Kunze, Thomas (8 July 2006). "Messners 15. Achttausender". Berliner Zeitung. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011.
  30. ^ "MMM Firmian". Messner Mountain Museum. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  31. ^ "MMM Juval". Messner Mountain Museum. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  32. ^ "MMM Dolomites". Messner Mountain Museum. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  33. ^ "MMM Ortles". Messner Mountain Museum. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  34. ^ "MMM Ripa". Messner Mountain Museum. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  35. ^ Federica Lusiardi. "Zaha Hadid's MMM Corones museum gazes at the mountains". Inexhibit. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  36. ^ "Search for a Member; European Parliament". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  37. ^ "Nena Holguin". Wiki Data. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  38. ^ "Reinhold Messner trickste Neugierige aus: Einen Tag früher geheiratet". OÖNachrichten. OÖ. Online GmbH & Co.KG. 1 August 2009.
  39. ^ Messner sagt Ja, tageszeitung.it, 11 May 2021
  40. ^ Who is Diane Schumacher, the future wife of Reinhold Messner, tipsforwomens.org, 12 May 2021
  41. ^ Reden wir über Liebe, tageszeitung.it, 29 May 2021 (in German)
  42. ^ Unter der Haube, tageszeitung.it, 29 May 2021
  43. ^ Reinhold Messner erneut verheiratet, orf.at, 29. Mai 2021 (in German)
  44. ^ "Portrait of a snow lion". MNTNFILM. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  45. ^ "Messner". MNTNFILM. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  46. ^ Kennedy, Lisa (1 December 2021). "'14 Peaks: Nothing Is Impossible' Review: Climbing at a Breakneck Pace". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.

Selected bibliography (English translations)




Further reading



Preceded by Princess of Asturias Award for Sports
(with Krzysztof Wielicki)

Succeeded by
Preceded by
Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement[1]
Succeeded by