Relics associated with Jesus

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A number of claimed relics associated with Jesus have been displayed throughout the history of Christianity. While some individuals believe in the authenticity of Jesus relics, others doubt their validity. For instance, the sixteenth-century philosopher Erasmus wrote about the proliferation of relics, and the number of buildings that could be constructed from wooden relics claimed to be from the crucifixion cross of Jesus.[1] Similarly, at least thirty Holy Nails were venerated as relics across Europe in the early 20th century.[2] Part of the relics are included in the so-called Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion.

Some relics, such as remnants of the crown of thorns, receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while others, such as the Shroud of Turin, receive millions of pilgrims, including Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI.[3]

As Christian teaching generally states that Christ was assumed into heaven corporeally, there are few bodily relics. A notable exception is the Holy Foreskin of Jesus.

The True Cross[edit]

Discovery of the True Cross, by Tiepolo, 1745

The "True Cross" refers to the actual cross used in the Crucifixion of Jesus. Today, many fragments of wood are claimed as True Cross relics, but it is hard to establish their authenticity. The story of the fourth-century discovery of the True Cross was reported in Jacopo de Voragine's The Golden Legend published in 1260, that included the lore of saints venerated at the time.[4]

Tradition and legend attribute the discovery of the True Cross to Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great who went to Palestine during the fourth century in search of relics. Eusebius of Caesarea was the only contemporary author to write about Helena's journey in his Life of Constantine. But Eusebius did not mention the True Cross, although he dwelt on the piety of Helena and her reporting the site of the Holy Sepulchre.[5] In the fifth century writings by Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen and Saint Theodoret report on the finding of the True Cross.[citation needed]

Pieces of the purported True Cross, including half of the INRI inscription tablet, are preserved at the basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome. Other small pieces of the True Cross are reportedly preserved in hundreds of other European churches. The authenticity of the relics and the accuracy of reports of finding the True Cross is not accepted by all Christians. The belief in the Early Christian Church tradition regarding the True Cross is generally restricted to the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. The medieval legends of the True Cross provenance differ between Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition. These churches honour Helena as a saint, as does also the Anglican Communion.[6]

Acheiropoieta[edit]

A number of acheiropoieta (i.e. not made by hand) images reported to be of the face or body of Jesus impressed on cloth have been displayed. In most cases these images are subject to intense debate and speculation. Although devotions to the face of Jesus are practiced, the term "Holy Face of Jesus" relates to the specific devotions approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1895 and Pope Pius XII in 1958 for the image from the Shroud of Turin.[7]

Shroud of Turin[edit]

A recent photo of the Shroud of Turin face, positive left, negative on the right having been contrast enhanced

The Shroud of Turin is the best-known and intensively studied relic of Jesus.[8]

The validity of scientific testing for the authenticity of the Shroud is disputed. Radiocarbon dating in 1988 suggests the shroud was made during the Middle Ages.[9] Arguments against the 1988 carbon dating results include conflicts in the interpretation of the evidence, samples being from a non-representative corner, and the presence of additional carbon content because of fire damage.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

Pollen residues on the Shroud provide evidence for an origin in the Jerusalem area before the 8th century.[16]

Both skeptics and proponents have entrenched positions on the Shroud's authenticity, often pitting science against divine formation preventing a dialogue to resolve the issue to the satisfaction of all.[17][18]

Sudarium of Oviedo[edit]

The Sudarium of Oviedo is a bloodstained cloth, measuring c. 84 × 53 cm, curated in the Cámara Santa of the Cathedral of San Salvador, Oviedo, Spain.[19] The Sudarium (Latin for "sweat cloth") is claimed to be the cloth wrapped around the head of Jesus Christ after he died, noted in the Gospel of John (20:6–7).[20]

The Sudarium is soiled and crumpled, with dark flecks that are symmetrically arranged but do not form an image as with the Shroud of Turin. Proponents for the relic's authenticity, such as Vatican archivist Msgr Giulio Ricci,[21] contend that both cloths covered the same man.

Image of Edessa[edit]

The Holy Face of Genoa

The Image of Edessa is also known as the Mandylion. Two images are claimed to be the Mandylion: the Holy Face of Genoa at the Church of St. Bartholomew of The Armenians in Genoa and the Holy Face of San Silvestro, curated in the Church of San Silvestro in Capite in Rome until 1870, and now in the Matilda Chapel of the Vatican Palace.[22] That the Mandylion is in fact the Shroud of Turin is the subject of debate.[23]

Veil of Veronica[edit]

The Veil of Veronica, used to wipe the sweat from Jesus' brow as he carried the cross, is claimed to bear the likeness of the face of Christ. Today, several relics are claimed to be the Veil of Veronica.

An image kept in Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome is purported to be the Veil of Veronica revered in the Middle Ages. The most detailed recorded inspection in the 20th century occurred in 1907 when Jesuit art historian Joseph Wilpert inspected the image.[citation needed]

The Hofburg Palace in Vienna has a copy of the Veil of Veronica, identified by the 1617 AD signature of the secretary of Pope Paul V, during whose reign a series of six copies of the veil were made.[24]

The image at the Monastery of the Holy Face in Alicante, Spain was acquired by Pope Nicholas V from relatives of the Byzantine Emperor in 1453 and placed in Alicante in 1489.[citation needed]

The Jaén Cathedral in Spain has a copy of the Veronica which probably dates from the 14th century Siena, known as the Santo Rostro and acquired by Bishop Nicholas de Biedma.[25]

The Manoppello Image

In 1999, Father Heinnrich Pfeiffer announced at a press conference in Rome that he had found the Veil in the Capuchin monastery in the village of Manoppello, Italy, where it had been since 1660.[26] This Veil is discussed in Paul Badde's 2010 book The Face of God.[27]

Advocates of the Shroud's authenticity claim that the face of the Manoppello Image corresponds to the face presented on the Shroud of Turin and the blood stains on the Sudarium of Oviedo.[28][unreliable source?]

Characteristics evidenced during 3D processing of the Manoppello Image have been reported.[29]

Other relics[edit]

Holy Chalice (Holy Grail)[edit]

The Holy Chalice is the container Jesus used at the Last Supper to serve wine (see Gospel of Matthew (26:27–28)).[30]

Several Holy Chalice relics are reported in the legend of Holy Grail, though not part of Catholic tradition.[31] Of the existing chalices, only the Santo Cáliz de Valencia (English: Holy Chalice of the Cathedral of Valencia) is recognized as a "historical relic" by the Vatican,[32] although not as the actual chalice used at the Last Supper.[33] Though not claiming the relic's authenticity, both Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI have venerated this chalice at the Cathedral of Valencia.[34]

Crucifixion[edit]

Relic with a holy nail at the Bamberg Cathedral

Many relics currently displayed result from the journey of Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, to Syria Palaestina in the fourth century.[citation needed] The authenticity of many of these relics is questioned. For instance, the Holy Nails brought back by Saint Helena, the Catholic Encyclopedia notes are problematic based on the number of claimed relics:[2]

Very little reliance can be placed upon the authenticity of the thirty or more holy nails which are still venerated, or which have been venerated until recent times, in such treasuries as that of Santa Croce in Rome, or those of Venice, Aachen, Escurial, Nuremberg, Prague, etc. Probably the majority began by professing to be facsimiles which had touched or contained filings from some other nail whose claim was more ancient.

Many churches claim to have relics from the Crown of Thorns placed on the head of Jesus by the soldiers prior to his crucifixion.[citation needed]

The Scala Sancta, the stairs from Pontius Pilate's praetorium, ascended by Jesus during his trial were also reportedly brought to Rome by Saint Helena of Constantinople in the 4th century.[citation needed]

The Basilica of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Belgium, claims a specimen of Christ's blood on a cloth in a phial, given by Thierry of Alsace after the 12th century.[citation needed]

Other claimed relics, based on the Crucifixion of Christ include:

Crown of Thorns[edit]

The relics of the Passion presented at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris include a piece of the True Cross from Rome as delivered by Saint Helena, along with a Holy Nail and the Crown of Thorns. Saint John tells that, in the night between Maundy Thursday and Good Friday, Roman soldiers mocked Jesus by placing a thorny crown on his head (John 19:12). The crown is a circle of cane bundled together and held by gold threads. The thorns were attached to this braided circle, which measures 21 centimetres in diameter. The seventy thorns were reportedly divided up between the Byzantine emperors and the Kings of France.

The accounts of pilgrims to Jerusalem report the Crown of Thorns. In 409, Saint Paulinus of Nola states the Crown was kept in the basilica on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. In 570, Anthony the Martyr reports the Crown of Thorns in the Basilica of Zion. Around 575, Cassiodorus wrote, "Jerusalem has the Column, here, there is the Crown of Thorns!" Between the 7th and the 10th centuries, the Crown of Thorns was moved to the Byzantine emperors' chapel in Constantinople for safekeeping. In 1238, the Latin Emperor Baldwin II of Constantinople pawned the relics for credit to a Venetian bank.

Saint Louis, the king of France redeemed the Crown from the Venetian Bank. On 10 August 1239, the king deposited 29 relics in Villeneuve-l'Archevêque. On 19 August 1239, the relics arrived in Paris. Wearing a simple tunic and with bare feet, the King placed the Crown of Thorns and other relics in the palace chapel in a structure he commissioned. During the French revolution, the relics were stored in the National Library. After the Concordat in 1801, the relics were given to the archbishop of Paris who placed them in the Cathedral treasury on 10 August 1806. Since then, these relics have been conserved by the canons of the Metropolitan Basilica Chapter, who are in charge of venerations, and guarded by the Knights of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. Napoleon I and Napoleon III each offered reliquaries for the crown of thorns. They were on display at Notre-Dame Cathedral during scheduled religious ceremonies, until a serious fire struck the cathedral on 15 April 2019.[35][36]

Bodily relics[edit]

Christian teaching states that Christ ascended into heaven corporeally. Therefore, the only parts of his body available for veneration are those obtained prior to the Ascension. At various points in history, a number of churches in Europe have claimed to possess the Holy Prepuce, Jesus' foreskin from his Circumcision.[37][better source needed] A section of the Holy Umbilical Cord believed to remain from the birth of Christ is currently in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.[38][better source needed]

Miscellaneous[edit]

St. Paul's Monastery on Mount Athos claims to have relics of Gifts of the Magi, while Dubrovnik's Cathedral, Croatia, claims to have the swaddling clothes the baby Jesus wore during the presentation at the Temple.[39] The knife used by Jesus during the Last Supper was also a matter of veneration in the Middle Ages, according to the 12th-century Guide for Pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela.[40] According to French traveler Jules-Léonard Belin the knife used by Jesus to slice bread was permanently exhibited in the Logetta of St Mark's Campanile in Venice.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dillenberger 1999, p. 5
  2. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Holy Nails" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ Pope John Paul II (1998-05-24), Pope John Paul II's address in Turin Cathedral, Holy See
  4. ^ Margaret Aston, Faith and Fire Continuum Publishing, 1993 ISBN 1-85285-073-6 p. 272
  5. ^ "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". www.ccel.org.
  6. ^ "Saint Helena Queen and Widow". anglicancatholic.org. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  7. ^ Cruz 2003, p. 200
  8. ^ "The Shroud of Turin is the single, most studied artifact in human history" statement considered as "widely accepted" in Lloyd A Currie, The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II] Archived 2010-12-06 at the Wayback Machine, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 2004, p. 200.
  9. ^ Damon, P. E.; D. J. Donahue; B. H. Gore; A. L. Hatheway; A. J. T. Jull; T. W. Linick; P. J. Sercel; L. J. Toolin; C. R. Bronk; E. T. Hall; R. E. M. Hedges; R. Housley; I. A. Law; C. Perry; G. Bonani; S. Trumbore; W. Woelfli; J. C. Ambers; S. G. E. Bowman; M. N. Leese; M. S. Tite (February 1989), "Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin", Nature, 337 (6208): 611–615, doi:10.1038/337611a0, retrieved 2007-11-18.
  10. ^ Brendan Whiting, 2006, The Shroud Story, Harbour Publishing, ISBN 0-646-45725-X
  11. ^ Gove, H E (1990), "Dating the Turin Shroud-An Assessment" (PDF), Radiocarbon, 32 (32:1, 87–92): 87–92, doi:10.1017/S0033822200039990, retrieved 2009-06-27.
  12. ^ Joe Nickell. "Claims of Invalid "Shroud" Radiocarbon Date Cut from Whole Cloth". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  13. ^ Daily Telegraph article on Carbon dating https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/02/25/nshroud125.xml
  14. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella. "Shroud of Turin's Authenticity Probed Anew". Discovery Channel. Discovery Communications. Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
  15. ^ Shroud mystery refuses to go away: BBC News 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7307646.stm
  16. ^ XVI International Botanical Congress. "Botanical Evidence Indicates 'Shroud Of Turin' Originated In Jerusalem Area Before 8th Century". ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 August 1999. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/08/990803073154.htm>.
  17. ^ Colin Evans, 2002 A question of evidence ISBN 0-471-44014-0 page 10
  18. ^ Paul Vignon, 2002 The Shroud of Christ ISBN 1-885395-96-5 page 3
  19. ^ Michael McDonnell (2007). Lost Treasures of the Bible. ISBN 1-84753-316-7. page 31.
  20. ^ John 20:6
  21. ^ Ruffin 1999, p. 47
  22. ^ Houlden 2003, vol. 2, p. 66
  23. ^ Wilson 1991
  24. ^ Wilson 1991, p. 157
  25. ^ Wilson 1991, p. 94
  26. ^ Ian Wilson, Holy Faces, Secret Places, page 161
  27. ^ The Face of God: The Rediscovery of the True Face of Jesus, Igantius Press, Paul badde, 2010.
  28. ^ http://www.sudariumchristi.com/uk/tomb/compare.htm
  29. ^ [1] J. Jaworski , G. Fanti 3-D PROCESSING TO EVIDENCE CHARACTERISTICS REPRESENTED IN MANOPPELLO VEIL (article)
  30. ^ Matthew 26:27–28
  31. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Chalice" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  32. ^ "The History of the Holy Chalice", Official website of the Valencia cathedral - The Holy Chalice of the Lord Supper
  33. ^ Griffin 2001, p. 103
  34. ^ Pope to Venerate Holy Grail, Zenit News, 2006-07-07, archived from the original on 2010-07-25
  35. ^ Notre Dame de Paris - Veneration of the Crown Archived 2010-10-28 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Notre Dame fire: Paris Fire Brigade chaplain braved the blaze to rescue cathedral treasures". 2019-04-17.
  37. ^ "Who stole Jesus' foreskin?" by David Farley. Slate magazine
  38. ^ "Where to See Religious Relics in Rome, Italy". about.com.
  39. ^ Janekovic-Romer, Zdenka (1996), Javni rituali u politickom diskursu humanistickog Dubrovnika (in Croatian), Zavod za hrvatsku povijest Filozofskog fakulteta Zagreb - Institute of Croatian history, Faculty of Philosophy Zagreb, p. 78
  40. ^ Snoek, Godefridus (1995), Medieval Piety from Relics to the Eucharist, Leiden: E.J. Brill, p. 248, ISBN 978-90-04-10263-7
  41. ^ Belin, Julien-Léonard (1843), Le Simplon et l'Italie septentrionale: promenades et pèlerinages (in French), Belin-Leprieur, p. 218

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