Religion and LGBT people

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The relationship between religion and LGBT people (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) can vary greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality, bisexuality, and transgender identity.

Some of the authoritative bodies and doctrines of the world's largest religions may view these negatively. This can range from quiet discouragement, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices or sex/gender reassignment among adherents, actively opposing social acceptance of LGBT identities, to execution of people engaging in homosexual acts while tolerating sex/gender reassignment in specific cases.

Liberal and progressive voices within these religions tend to view LGBT people more positively, and some liberal religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages, as well as accepting and marrying people who are transgender. Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered same-sex love and sexuality;[1][2] such mythologies and traditions can be found around the world;[3] elements of religious and cultural incorporation of non-heterosexual practice can still be identified in traditions that have survived into the modern era, such as the Berdache,[4] Hijra,[5] and Xanith.[6]

Religious views of LGBT people[edit]

According to a 2006 Australian survey, LGBT Australians, compared to the general Australian population, were much more likely to have no religious affiliation, much less likely to be affiliated with a Christian denomination, and more likely to be affiliated with a non-Christian religion. The distribution of religions that LGBT Australians were raised in, however, was similar to that of the general population. Men, particularly bisexual men, were more likely to be Christian and more likely to have stayed in the same religion. Lesbians were more likely to have left the religion they were raised in and be currently unaffiliated.[7]

A 2004 survey of LGB New Zealanders found that 73% had no religion, 14.8% were Christian and 2.2% were Buddhist. In contrast, in 2001 census the general New Zealand population reported 59.8% Christian and 29.2% no religion. When looking at change since 1966, LGB people are disaffiliating with Christianity at a rate 2.37 times the rate of the general population in New Zealand. In the survey 59.8% reported a belief in a spiritual force, god or gods; this differed significantly by gender, with 64.9% of women and 55.5% of men reporting such a belief.[8]

The Radical Faeries are a worldwide queer spiritual movement, founded in 1979 in the United States. Radical Faerie communities are generally inspired by aboriginal, native or traditional spiritualities, especially those that incorporate queer sensibilities.

Religious groups and public policy[edit]

Opposition to same-sex marriage and LGBT rights is often associated with conservative religious views. The American Family Association and other religious groups have promoted boycotts of corporations whose policies support the LGBT community.

On the other hand, the Unitarian Universalist Association supports the freedom to marry [9] and compares resistance to it to the resistance to abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and the end of anti-miscegenation laws.[10]

Lesbians and gay men face particular problems in conservative Islamic nations where laws generally prohibit same-sex sexual behavior; where interpretation of Sharia Law on male homosexuality carries the death penalty this is quite a big problem for gay men, and this form of discrimination is seen as a breach of human rights by international human rights experts and human rights organisations such as Amnesty International; with the signature of the USA in 2009, the proposed UN declaration on LGBT rights has now been signed by every European secular state and all western nations, as well as others from South America and other countries around the world; 67 members of the UN have signed to date; there was an opposing statement put forward by Muslim nations, and this has been signed by 57 member states, the majority being in Africa and Asia. 68 out of the total 192 countries have not yet signed either statement.

Homosexuality and religion[edit]

Transgender people and religion[edit]

Views of specific religions[edit]

Abrahamic religions[edit]



Christian denominations have a variety of beliefs about LGBT people, and the moral status of same-sex sexual practices and gender variance. LGBT people may be barred from membership, accepted as laity, or ordained as clergy, depending on the denomination.

The Roman Catholic Church welcomes people attracted to the same sex, while maintaining its teaching that homosexual relationships and acts are sinful.[11] The Roman Curia considers transgender individuals to be their biological sex and admits no distinction between "sex" and "gender".[12] The Orthodox Church holds similar stances on same-sex attraction and conjugal relations.[13] Protestant denominations have a wide range of views. Some denominations espouse similar views to Catholicism and Orthodoxy, and teach that all sexual relations outside of traditional marriage between a man and a woman are sinful, such as the Reformed Church in America,[14] Southern Baptist Convention,[15] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[16] and Jehovah's Witnesses.[17]

Other Christian churches, such as the Church of England,[18] United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America,[19] the Lutheran Church of Sweden, the Lutheran Church of Denmark, the Lutheran Church in Norway, the Lutheran Church of Iceland, the Protestant Church of the Netherlands, the United Protestant Church in Belgium, the United Protestant Church of France, the German Lutheran, Reformed and United Churches in Evangelical Church in Germany, the Old Catholic Church, the Anglican Church in Canada, the Episcopal Church in United States or the Scottish Episcopal Church do not consider same-sex relations immoral, and will ordain LGBT clergy and do blessings of same-sex marriages. Liberal Quakers, those in membership of Britain Yearly Meeting and Friends General Conference in the US approve of same-sex marriage and union and conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies in the United Kingdom.[20][21][22]


Islamic views on homosexuality are influenced by the rulings prescribed by the Qur'an and the teachings of the prophet Muhammed. The mainstream interpretation of Qur'anic verses and hadith condemn sexual acts between members of the same sex (along with most forms of extramarital relations).[23] In contrast, transgender individuals are often more accepted, provided they conform to traditional gender norms post-transition; for example, the Iranian government not only allows and recognises sex reassignment surgery, but also subsidises the procedure for transgender citizens.[24]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

The Baháʼí Faith teaches that the only acceptable form of sexual expression is within marriage, and Baháʼí marriage is defined in the religion's texts as exclusively between one man and one woman.[25][26] Baháʼís stress the importance of absolute chastity for any unmarried person,[27] and focus on personal restraint. The Universal House of Justice, the elected governing body of the Baháʼí Faith, has stated that "the Faith does not recognize homosexuality as a 'natural' or permanent phenomenon."[28] The Universal House of Justice has approved of and encouraged Shoghi Effendi's idea of possible medical treatment.[29] However, membership in the Baháʼí community is open to lesbian and gay adherents,[30] who are to be "advised and sympathized with".[31][32][33]

Vedic religions[edit]

Ardhanarisvara, the hermaphrodite form of Siva. Tiruvenkadu. Chola, 11th century AD.


Hinduism has taken various positions, ranging from positive to neutral or antagonistic. Referring to the nature of Samsara, the Rigveda, one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism says 'Vikruti Evam Prakriti' (perversity/diversity is what nature is all about, or, what seems un-natural is also natural), which some scholars believe recognizes homosexuality as natural, if not an approval of homosexuality.[34] Sexuality is rarely discussed openly in Hindu society, and LGBT issues are largely a taboo subject — especially among the strongly religious. A "third gender" has been acknowledged within Hinduism since Vedic times. Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti[35] and Sushruta Samhita, assert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. They worked as hairdressers, flower-sellers, servants, masseurs and prostitutes. Today, many people of a "third gender" (hijras) live throughout India, mostly on the margins of society, and many still work in prostitution, or make a livelihood as beggars.

Several Hindu religious laws contain injunctions against homosexual activity, while some Hindu mythologies speaks favorably of lesbian relations and some third-gendered individuals were highly regarded by Hindu legends. Hindu groups are historically not unifyed regarding the issue of homosexuality, each one having a distinct doctrinal view.[36][37][38]

The Indian Kama Sutra, written in the 4th century AD, contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men.[39] However, the author was "not a fan of homosexual activities" and treated such individuals with disdain, according to historian Devdutt Pattanaik.[40] Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict both male homosexuality and lesbianism within their carvings, such as the temple walls at Khajuraho. Some infer from these images that Hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present.

Khajoraho scene of three women and one man.

In some Hindu sects(specially among the hijras), many divinities are androgynous. There are Hindu deities who are intersex (both male and female); who manifest in all three genders; who switch from male to female or from female to male; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods; deities born from two males or from two females; deities born from a single male or single female; deities who avoid the opposite sex; deities with principal companions of the same sex, and so on. However, this is not accepted by the majority of Hindus, and is often considered heretical in nature. Those who do accept it justify with the belief that both God and nature are unlimitedly diverse and God is difficult to comprehend.

Several Hindu priests have performed same-sex marriages, arguing that love is the result of attachments from previous births and that marriage, as a union of spirit, is transcendental to gender.

It is often regarded that Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality.


According to the Pāli Canon & Āgama (the Early Buddhist scriptures), there is nothing saying that same or opposite gender relations have anything to do with sexual misconduct,[41][42] and some Theravada monks express that same-gender relations do not violate the rule to avoid sexual misconduct, which means not having sex with someone under age (thus protected by their parents or guardians), someone betrothed or married and who have taken vows of religious celibacy.[43]

In 1997 the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso said, "From a Buddhist point of view, men-to-men and women-to-women is generally considered sexual misconduct."[44] However the view is not based on what Buddha's said, but from some later Abhidharma texts.[45]


The Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, does not explicitly mention homosexuality. The Guru Granth Sahib is seen as the spiritual authority on all Sikh matters.

Some modern Sikh leaders have condemned homosexuality. Giani Joginder Singh Vedanti of the temporal Sikh authority (Akal Takht), has condemned homosexuality while reminding visiting Sikh-Canadian Members of Parliament (MPs) of their religious duty to oppose same-sex marriage.[46] The Sikh religious body, the Akal Takht, has issued an edict condemning gay marriage.[47]

Other Sikhs point out that Sikhism does not condemn homosexuality or gay marriage[48] reminding them that the Guru Granth Sahib leaves this as a matter of personal conscience.[49]

East and Southeast Asian religions[edit]




Tu'er Shen or the Rabbit God is a Chinese deity who manages love and sex between gay people. In 2006, Lu Wei-ming founded a temple for Tu'er Shen in Taiwan,[50] which has been called the world's only religious shrine for gay people.[51] Roughly 9,000 gay pilgrims visit the temple each year praying to find a suitable partner,[52] and the temple performs love ceremonies for gay couples.[53]


Religious Science[edit]

Religious Science is a teaching based on the text book "The Science of Mind" by Dr. Ernest Holmes first published in 1926 and revised in 1938. This 'new thought' tradition is related to the thoughts of Ralph Waldo Emerson and the transcendentalists as well as drawing on the main teachings of all the great world religions at the mystical level. The churches or centers are under an umbrella of "Centers for Sprititual Living". From its beginning Religious Science has advanced the social progressive edge by including all those regardless of sexual orientation fully into ministry, and blessing the marriages of same gender couples.


The Church of Satan has always accepted gays, lesbians and bisexuals since its foundation in 1966.[54] The church supports legalization of same-sex marriages.[54]


Unitarian Universalism[edit]

Unitarian Universalism and the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) have a long-standing tradition of welcoming LGBT people. The first ordained minister of any religion in the US or Canada to come out was the Rev. James Stoll in 1969.[55] There have been UUA resolutions supporting people regardless of sexual orientation since 1970, and a popular program of becoming a "Welcoming Congregation" since 1989. The UUA has officially supported UUA clergy performing Services of Union between same-sex couples since 1984,[56] and has supported same-sex marriage since 1996.[57]

The Canadian Unitarian Council (CUC) similarly operates a Gender and Sexual Diversity Monitoring Group[58] and, like the UUA (of which it became autonomous in 2002), has Welcoming Congregations.[59] The Canadian Unitarian Universalist congregations perform same-sex marriages and the CUC supports this work through its Lay Chaplaincy program.[60]




See also[edit]



  1. ^ Boswell, John (2005). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality. University Of Chicago Press.
  2. ^ Dynes, Wayne; Donaldson, Stephen (1992). Asian homosexuality. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8153-0548-4.
  3. ^ Carpenter, Edward (1914). Intermediate Types among Primitive Types: A Study in Social Evolution. New York: Mitchell Kennerley. ISBN 978-0-405-07352-6.
  4. ^ Williams, Walter (1992). The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. Beacon House. ISBN 978-0-8070-4602-9.
  5. ^ Nanda, Serena (1998). Neither Man Nor Woman. Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 978-0-534-12204-1.
  6. ^ Wikan, Unni (September 1978). "The Omani Xanith: A Third Gender Role?". Man, New Series. 13 (3): 473–475.
  7. ^ Couch, Murray; Hunter Mulcare, Marian Pitts, Anthony Smith and Anne Mitchell (April 2008). "The religious affiliation of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex Australians: a report from the Private Lives survey". People and Place. 16 (1).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Henrickson, Mark (2007). "Lavender Faith: Religion, Spirituality and Identity in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual New Zealanders" (PDF). Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work. 26 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 July 2006. Retrieved 8 March 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ UUSM - Services & Sermons Archived 12 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, § 2357,Criteria for the Discernment of Vocation for Persons with Homosexual Tendencies
  12. ^ Norton, John (14 January 2003). "Vatican says 'sex-change' operation does not change person's gender". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  13. ^ On Marriage, Family, Sexuality, and the Sanctity of Life
  14. ^ "Summaries of General Synod Discussions and Actions on Homosexuality and the Rights of Homosexuals". Reformed Church in America. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  15. ^ Position Statements/Sexuality
  16. ^ Same-Gender Attraction - LDS Newsroom
  17. ^ "Homosexuality—How Can I Avoid It?". Awake!: 28–30. February 2007.
  18. ^ Rudgard, Olivia (26 May 2018). "Transgender people encouraged to become priests in Church of England diversity drive". The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  19. ^ "ELCA Assembly Opens Ministry to Partnered Gay and Lesbian Lutherans". Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  20. ^ "Quakers and same sex marriage". Quakers in Britain. Friends House, London. Retrieved 17 April 2017.>
  21. ^ Butt, Riazat (31 July 2009). "Quakers said same-sex couples 'miss the public recognition of their partnership in a religious ceremony'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  22. ^ "Homosexuality and Quakerism" (PDF). New England Yearly Meeting. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  23. ^ Kilgerman, Nicole. "Homosexuality in Islam: A Difficult Paradox". Macalester Islam Journal. 2 (3): 52–64.
  24. ^ BBC News: Iran's 'diagnosed transsexuals'
  25. ^ Smith, Peter (2002). "Homosexuality". A concise encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6 – via Internet Archive.
  26. ^ "Baháʼí law restricts permissible sexual intercourse to that between a man and the woman to whom he is married."
    (Letter from the Universal House of Justice to an individual; Lights of Guidance, pp. 365, #1225) [1]
  27. ^ "...according to the Baháʼí Teachings no sexual act can be considered lawful unless performed between lawfully married persons. Outside of marital life there can be no lawful or healthy use of the sex impulse."
    (On behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual; Lights of Guidance, pp. 364, #1220) [2]
  28. ^ "…the Faith does not recognize homosexuality as a "natural" or permanent phenomenon. Rather, it sees this as an aberration subject to treatment, however intractable exclusive homosexuality may now seem to be. To the question of alteration of homosexual bents, much study must be given, and doubtless in the future clear principles of prevention and treatment will emerge. As for those now afflicted, a homosexual does not decide to be a problem human, but he does, as you rightly state, have decision in choosing his way of life, i.e. abstaining from homosexual acts. "Your plea for understanding and of justice extended to homosexuals is well taken in many respects, and the House of Justice assures you of its concern for the large number of persons so afflicted. Your work with the homosexual community is praiseworthy, and it permits you personally to exercise the support which is necessary for these often harassed persons, support which you call for in your essay. Moreover, your interest cannot but be therapeutic, at least for the more superficial elements of the problem; however, definitive therapy of the underlying predisposition, which you consider to be innate but the Teachings do not, may have to await additional investigations. As for the responsibility of Assemblies and of individual Baháʼís, certainly all are called upon to be understanding, supportive and helpful to any individual who carries the burden of homosexuality."
    (Letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to an individual, 22 March 1987)
  29. ^ (Letter of The Universal House of Justice, 5 June 1993, Homosexuality, p. 7)
  30. ^ "They (homosexuals) should be treated just like any other people seeking admittance to the Faith, and be accepted on the same basis. Our teachings, as outlined in “The Advent of Divine Justice” on the subject of living a chaste life, should be emphasized to them just as to every other applicant, but certainly no ruling whatsoever should be laid down in this matter. The Baháʼís have certainly not yet reached that stage of moral perfection where they are in a position to too harshly scrutinize the private lives of other souls, and each individual should be accepted on the basis of his faith, and sincere willingness to try to live up to the Divine standards"
    (Compiled by the Universal House of Justice Research Department, Homosexuality, p. 3) [3]
  31. ^ "Amongst the many other evils afflicting society in this spiritual low water mark in history is the question of immorality, and over-emphasis of sex. Homosexuality, according to the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, is spiritually condemned. This does not mean that people so afflicted must not be helped and advised and sympathized with."
    (On behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual, 21 May 1954; Lights of Guidance, p. 365, #1221) [4]
  32. ^ "As for the responsibility of Assemblies and of individual Baháʼís, certainly all are called upon to be understanding, supportive and helpful to any individual who carries the burden of homosexuality."
    (Compiled by Universal House of Justice Research Department, Homosexuality, p. 7) [5]
  33. ^ "When an individual becomes a Baháʼí , he or she accepts the claim of Bahá'u'lláh to be the Manifestation of God bringing a divinely-inspired message from God for the benefit of mankind. Implicit in the acceptance of this claim is the commitment of the believer to embark on the lifelong process of endeavouring to implement the teachings on personal conduct. Through sincere and sustained effort, energized by faith in the validity of the Divine Message, and combined with patience with oneself and the loving support of the Baháʼí community, individuals are able to effect a change in their behaviour; as a consequence of this effort they partake of spiritual benefits which liberate them and which bestow a true happiness beyond description. As you know, Bahá'u'lláh has clearly forbidden the expression of sexual love between individuals of the same sex. However, the doors are open for all of humanity to enter the Cause of God, irrespective of their present circumstance; this invitation applies to homosexuals as well as to any others who are engaged in practices contrary to the Baháʼí teachings. Associated with this invitation is the expectation that all believers will make a sincere and persistent effort to eradicate those aspects of their conduct which are not in conformity with Divine Law.
    (Compiled by Universal House of Justice Research Department, Homosexuality, p. 11) [6]
  34. ^ 'Expose the Hindu Taliban!' by Ashok Row Kavi
  35. ^ Manu Smriti, 3.49
  36. ^ Lariviere. Naradasmriti, (Part One). Philadelphia, 1989.
  37. ^ Vanita & Kidwai 2001, p. 25
  38. ^ Mahabharata, book 5, Chapter 191-5.
  39. ^ Kama Sutra, Chapter 9, "Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress". Text online Archived 13 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). Homosexuality in Ancient India, Debonair 2000 or 2001. Essay available online from
  41. ^ "Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta" [To Cunda the Silversmith]. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. 1997. AN 10.176. Retrieved 14 March 2011. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another manCS1 maint: others (link)
  42. ^ 優婆塞經 Archived 18 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine(Upāsaka Sutra from Madhyam āgama):復次,舍梨子!白衣聖弟子離邪婬、斷邪婬,彼或有父所護,或母所護,或父母所護,或兄弟所護,或姉妹所護,或婦父母所護,或親親所護,或同姓所護,或為他婦女,有鞭罰恐怖,及有名雇債至華鬘親,不犯如是女。彼於邪淫淨除其心,白衣聖弟子善護行,此第三法
  43. ^
    • Ajahn Punnadhammo. "Same Sex Marriage". The lay man is told to abstain from sex with "unsuitable partners" defined as girls under age, women betrothed or married and women who have taken vows of religious celibacy. This is clear, sound advice and seems to suggest that sexual misconduct is that which would disrupt existing family or love relationships. This is consonant with the general Buddhist principle that that which causes suffering for oneself or others is unethical behaviour. ("Unskillful behaviour" would be closer to the original.) There is no good reason to assume that homosexual relations which do not violate this principle should be treated differently.
    • Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya (1993). Uposatha Sila The Eight-Precept Observance.There are four factors of the third precept (kamesu micchacara)
    1. agamaniya vatthu — that which should not be visited (the 20 groups of women).
    2. asmim sevana-cittam — the intention to have intercourse with anyone included in the above-mentioned groups.
    3. sevanap-payogo — the effort at sexual intercourse.
    4. maggena maggappatipatti — sexual contact through that adhivasanam effort.
  44. ^ "Dalai Lama Speaks on Gay Sex / He says it's wrong for Buddhists but not for society". San Francisco Chronicle. 11 June 1997.
  45. ^ Thubten Chodron. Dealing With Life's Issues (PDF). The Pali scriptures make no mention of homosexuality being unwise sexual conduct. For monastics, all sexual intercourse is a root downfall. It doesn't specify the gender of one's partner. Vasubandhu, a teacher who came several centuries after the Buddha, discouraged homosexuality. Personally speaking, I think what's most important is the motivation behind how we use our sexuality. In other words, if people use their sexuality unkindly or unwisely, it doesn't matter if it is directed to someone of their own sex or the opposite sex.
  46. ^ World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March 2005.
  47. ^ Martin Regg Cohn, Reject gay bill, Sikh MPs told; Warning from top religious authority says marriage backers will be shunned, Toronto Star, Toronto, March 28, 2005, p. A.1.
  48. ^ Naad, Project (2 September 2010). "Sikhism, Yoga and Sexuality" (PDF). Project Naad. p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  49. ^ "Sikhism and same Sex Marriages". p. 1. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  50. ^ Gold, Michael (25 January 2015). "Praying for a soul mate at Rabbit Temple". The Star Online. Retrieved 6 February 2019.. See: "威明堂兔兒神殿".
  51. ^ Gold, Michael (19 January 2015). "Taiwan's gays pray for soul mates at 'Rabbit' temple". Reuters. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  52. ^ Gold, Michael (2 February 2016). "Taiwan's Wei-Ming 'Rabbit' Temple Draws Gay Community". HuffPost. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  53. ^ Stevenson, Alexander (22 January 2015). "Thousands Of Gay Pilgrims Trek To Taiwan To Pray For Love At "Rabbit" Temple". LOGO News. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  54. ^ a b Church of Satan FAQ 10. SEXUALITY. Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine Church of Satan Official Website. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  55. ^ "My Greatly Human Hometown Minister--James Lewis Stoll, 1936-1994" Archived 17 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine, sermon by Leland Bond-Upson, delivered January 9, 2005
  56. ^ "Unitarians Endorse Homosexual Marriages", UPI, New York Times, 29 June 1984, retrieved on 21 June 2007.
  57. ^ UUA: Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Community
  58. ^ Gender and Sexual Diversity
  59. ^ CUC pamphlet on their Welcoming Congregation program
  60. ^ CUC pamphlet on their Lay Chaplaincy program


  • John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century, University Of Chicago Press, 1st ed. 1980 ISBN 0-226-06710-6, paperback Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-06711-4
  • Dane S. Claussen, ed. Sex, Religion, Media, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. ISBN 0-7425-1558-3
  • Mathew Kuefler (editor), The Boswell Thesis : Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, University Of Chicago Press, Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-45741-9
  • Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment, New World Library, 1st ed. 1999, paperback 2004 ISBN 1-57731-480-8
  • Chana Etengoff. Petitioning for Change: Letters to Religious Leaders from Gay Men and their Religious Family Allies, Journal of Homosexuality. doi:10.1080/00918369.2016.1174022
  • Chana Etengoff & Colette Daiute. (2014). Family Members’ Uses of Religion in Post–Coming-Out Conflicts with Their Gay Relative. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(1), 33-43. doi: 10.1037/a0035198
  • Arlene Swidler: Homosexuality and World Religions. Valley Forge 1993. ISBN 1-56338-051-X
  • Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" NYU Press New York 1997
  • Wafer, Jim (1991) "The Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomblé" UPP Philadelphia
  • Wafer, Jim (1997) "Muhammad and Male Homosexuality" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York
  • Wafer, Jim (1997) "The Symbolism of Male Love in Islamic Mysthical Literature" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York 1997

External links[edit]