Demographics of Djibouti

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Demographics of Djibouti
Population 810,178 (2014)
Growth rate 2.23% (2014)
Birth rate 25.27 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate 8.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Life expectancy 62.4 years (2014)
 • male 59.93 years
 • female 64.94 years
Fertility rate 2.79 children born/woman (2010)
Infant mortality rate 53.31 deaths/1,000 infants (2012 est.)[1]
Age structure
0–14 years 35% (male 132,592/female 132,114)
15–64 years 61.7% (male 206,323/female 260,772)
65 and over 3.3% (male 11,349/female 13,924)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.8 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.81 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Djiboutian
Major ethnic Somali 60%
Afar 35%
Minor ethnic French
Arab
Ethiopian Total 5%
Language
Spoken Arabic (official), French (official), Somali and Afar

This article is about the demographics of Djibouti, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Main article: Djiboutians
Main ethnic groups in Djibouti.

Djibouti is a multiethnic country. As of 2015, it has a population of around 846,687 inhabitants.[2] Djibouti's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 62,000 in 1950 to 889,000 by 2010.[3]

Cushitic speakers[edit]

Somali[edit]

Main article: Somali people

The majority of the Somali inhabit the southern part of Djibouti; however, migration to other parts of the country has occurred. The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, in addition to smaller numbers of Gadabuursi. Both are sub-clans of the larger Dir; the Issas form part of the Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi are part of the Madaluug Dir. [2] Their language is called Somali, and are predominantly Muslim. They are the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting about 60% of the population. The Somali in Djibouti number around 524,000 individuals. In Somalia, there are about 9 million group members, and in Ethiopia, they number approximately 4.6 million.

Afar[edit]

Main article: Afar people

The Afar constitute under 35% of the nation's population. They live in the Tadjourah, Obock and half Dikhil Regions of Djibouti, as well as the Afar Region in Ethiopia, and Eritrea. They speak the Afar language as a mother tongue, and are predominantly Muslim. The Afars in Djibouti number about 306,000 individuals, the biggest population out of the countries they reside in. In Eritrea, there are about 780,000 group members, and in Ethiopia, they number approximately 1,300,000.

Other communities[edit]

Arab[edit]

Main article: Arab people

The Arab represent about 2% of Djibouti's population. The Arab reside in the city of Tadjoura, Obock and Djibouti City. They are predominantly Muslim and are the only ethnic group in Djibouti to have Arabic as their communal language, specifically the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic. The Arab first came to Djibouti in the 18th century from the Arabian Coast.

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Djibouti
A Somali man in a traditional taqiyah.
An Afar man in nomadic attire.

Djibouti is a multilingual nation.[2] The majority of local residents speak Somali (524,000 speakers) and Afar (306,000 speakers) as a first language. These idioms are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger Afroasiatic family. There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic (Afroasiatic) and French (Indo-European).[4]

Arabic is of social, cultural and religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 59,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Djibouti Arabic. French serves as a statutory national language. It was inherited from the colonial period, and is the primary language of instruction. Around 17,000 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic (38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), Greek (1,000 speakers) and Hindi (600 speakers).[4]

Population[edit]

1960–2012
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1960 83,636 —    
1969 149,887 +6.70%
1977 277,750 +8.02%
1980 359,247 +8.95%
1994 652,793 +4.36%
2000 722,887 +1.71%
2012 859,652 +1.45%
Source: World Bank[5]

According to the 2010 revision of the UN's World Population Prospects, the total population was 889,000 in 2010 compared to 62,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 35.8%, 60.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% was 65 years or older.[3]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 62 46.8 51.2 2.0
1955 70 46.0 52.0 2.0
1960 85 45.4 52.5 2.0
1965 117 44.9 53.0 2.0
1970 162 45.8 52.2 2.1
1975 224 45.9 52.0 2.1
1980 340 45.3 52.5 2.2
1985 403 44.6 53.1 2.3
1990 562 44.2 53.4 2.4
1995 627 43.4 54.1 2.5
2000 732 41.3 55.9 2.7
2005 808 38.5 58.5 3.0
2010 889 35.8 60.9 3.3

Projections[edit]

The following are UN medium variant projections; numbers are in thousands:[3]

  • 2015 975
  • 2020 1,065
  • 2025 1,166
  • 2030 1,262
  • 2035 1,356
  • 2040 1,447
  • 2045 1,535
  • 2050 1,619

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Djibouti is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 3 000 2 000 1 000 50.0 28.3 21.7 7.80 222
1955-1960 4 000 2 000 2 000 50.7 25.7 25.0 7.80 203
1960-1965 5 000 2 000 3 000 51.2 23.8 27.4 7.80 185
1965-1970 7 000 3 000 4 000 50.3 21.6 28.6 7.60 169
1970-1975 9 000 4 000 5 000 47.8 19.4 28.4 7.20 154
1975-1980 13 000 5 000 8 000 45.2 17.4 27.8 6.80 141
1980-1985 16 000 6 000 11 000 44.0 15.5 28.6 6.60 125
1985-1990 21 000 7 000 14 000 43.1 14.5 28.6 6.40 117
1990-1995 24 000 8 000 16 000 40.1 13.4 26.7 5.85 109
1995-2000 23 000 8 000 15 000 34.4 12.2 22.2 5.11 100
2000-2005 24 000 9 000 15 000 31.2 11.3 19.9 4.52 91
2005-2010 25 000 9 000 16 000 29.4 10.5 18.9 3.95 82
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [6]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 9 853 1 082 8 771
2010 10 538 1 051 9 487
2011 10 871 1 011 9 860

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook,[2] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

828,324 (July 2015 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 22.8 years
Male: 21.1 years
Female: 24.1 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.23% (2014 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 77.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population[edit]

DJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 62.4 years
Male: 59.93 years
Female: 64.94 years (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2012 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,700 (2012 est.)
deaths: 800 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Nationality[edit]

Djiboutien or Djiboutian

Ethnic groups[edit]

Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French and Italians, Arab, Ethiopian 5%[2]

Religions[edit]

The religious adherents of Djibouti are:[2]

Muslim 94%
Christian 6%

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Djibouti

The languages of Djibouti are:[2]

French (official)
Arabic (official)
Somali
Afar

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 60%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]