Religion in Germany

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Religion in Germany (2014 estimate.[1])

  Non-religious (33.5%)
  Roman Catholicism (29.5%)
  Protestantism (29%)
  Islam (5%)
  Other Christian (2%)
  Others (1%)

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with an estimated 60.5%[1] of the country's total population being member of various Christian denominations. However, the 2011 census reported a slightly higher percentage of 66.8% for adherents of Christianity.[2] The second largest religion is Islam with approximately 4 million adherents (5% of the total population), of which 1 million (1.2%) have German citizenship.[3] There is also a smaller but growing presence of other religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism.[4]

During the last decades, the two largest churches, namely the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany and the Roman Catholic Church, have lost significant number of adherents. Both accounted for about 29% of the population in 2014.[1][5] An estimated 33.5% of the country's population is not affiliated with any church or religion and around 1% of the population belongs to some other religious group.[1] Since the reunification of Germany the number of non-religious people has grown, especially because of the former East Germany was a communist puppet state. Various churches were put under the pressure by the communist government for roughly 40 years, resulting in people's abandonment of religion.[6]


The religious situation in the German Empire about 1895. Tan, red and pink areas are predominantly Protestant, blue areas predominantly Catholic.


Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman Empire until the advent of the Protestant Reformation changed this drastically. In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as selling indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform. In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses which detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. It demonstrated Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope. In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly.[7] Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect evolved into what is now the modern German.

Martin Luther (1483–1546)

With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.[8]

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order. It restored Catholicism to many areas.[9] The Holy Roman Empire became religiously diverse; for the most part, the states of northern and central Germany became Protestant (chiefly Lutheran, but also Calvinist/Reformed), while the states of southern Germany and the Rhineland largely remained Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).[10]

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily in German lands, and involved most of the countries of Europe. It was largely a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.[11]


King Frederick William III ruled Prussia 1797 to 1840

Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany after 1814. Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. However, in Prussia King Frederick William III was determined to handle unification entirely on his own terms, without consultation. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop. Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia, and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod, which is still in operation as a conservative denomination. Finally in 1845 a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control.[12][13][14]

From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony. The rationalism of the late 19th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity. Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In 1844 alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus, said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new "ultramontanism" of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.[15] A sharp controversy broke out in 1837-38 in the largely Catholic Rhineland over the religious education of children of mixed marriages, where the mother was Catholic and the father Protestant. The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision. It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In 1840, the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands. However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.[16]

1870s: Kulturkampf[edit]

Main article: Kulturkampf
Between Berlin and Rome, Bismarck (left) confronts Pope Pius IX, 1875

Bismarck would not tolerate any a base of power outside Germany—in Rome—having a say in German affairs. He launched a Kulturkampf ("culture war") against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in 1873, but only in Prussia. This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals as its worst enemy and formed the Center Party.[17]

Catholics, although about a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government. After 1871, there was a systematic purge of Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy. Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against.[18][19]

Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government. Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant facing the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government. Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:

As of 1878, only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1,125 of 4,600 parishes were vacant, and nearly 1,800 priests ended up in jail or in exile....Finally, between 1872 and 1878, numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.[20]

The British ambassador Odo Russell reported to London in October 1872 how Bismarck's plans were backfiring by strengthening the ultramontane (pro-papal) position inside German Catholicism:

The German Bishops who were politically powerless in Germany and theologically in opposition to the Pope in Rome – have now become powerful political leaders in Germany and enthusiastic defenders of the now infallible Faith of Rome, united, disciplined, and thirsting for martyrdom, thanks to Bismarck's uncalled for antiliberal declaration of War on the freedom they had hitherto peacefully enjoyed.[21]

Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would entail.[22][23] The Catholic Church denounced the harsh new laws as anti-catholic and mustered the support of its rank and file voters across Germany. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.[24] The conflict ended after 1879 because Pius IX died in 1878 and Bismarck broke with the Liberals to put his main emphasis on tariffs, foreign policy, and attacking socialists. Bismarck negotiated with the conciliatory new pope Leo XIII.[25] Peace was restored, the bishops returned and the jailed clerics were released. Laws were toned down or taken back (Mitigation Laws 1880-1883 and Peace Laws 1886/87), but the main regulations such as the Pulpit Law and the laws concerning education, civil registry (incl. marriage) or religious disaffiliation remained in place. The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism.[26]

21st century[edit]

Today the divide between Former East Germany and Former West Germany shows clearly with Former East Germany being less religious and more secular.[27][28]

Religious freedom[edit]

The national constitutions of 1919 and 1949 guarantee freedom of faith and religion; earlier, these freedoms were mentioned only in state constitutions. The modern constitution of 1949 also states that no one may be discriminated against due to their faith or religious opinions. A state church does not exist in Germany.[29]

Religious communities that are of considerable size and stability and are loyal to the constitution can be recognised as "Körperschaften öffentlichen Rechtes" (statutory corporation). This gives them certain privileges, for example being able to give religious instruction in state schools (as enshrined in the German constitution, though some states are exempt from this) and having membership fees collected (for a fee) by the German revenue department as Church tax. It is a surcharge amounting to between 8 or 9% of the income tax. The status mainly applies to the Roman Catholic Church, the Mainline Protestant EKD, a number of Evangelical Free churches and Jewish communities. There have been numerous discussions of allowing other religious groups like Muslims into this system as well. The Muslim efforts were hampered by the Muslims' own disorganised state in Germany, with many small rivalling organisations and no central leadership, which does not fit well into a legal frame that was originally created with well-organized, large Christian churches in mind.


According to organizational reportings based on projections in 2008 about 32%-34% Germans have no registered religious denomination.

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 52 million adherents (61.5%) in 2015[30] of which 24.5 million are Protestants (29.9%) belonging to the EKD and 24.9 million are Catholics (30.0%) in 2008, the remainder belong to small denominations (each (considerably ) less than 0.5% of the German population).[31] The second largest religion is Islam with an estimated 3.8 to 4.3 million adherents (4.6 to 5.2%)[32] followed by Buddhism and Judaism, both with around 200,000 adherents (0.3%). Hinduism has some 90,000 adherents (0.1%) and Sikhism 75,000 (0.1%). All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (<0.1%) adherents.

Belief in a God per country (2010). Forty-five percent of Germans agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God".

Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. The former Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. Non-religious people, including atheists and agnostics might make as many as 55%, and are especially numerous in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas.[33]

Of the roughly 4 million Muslims, most are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites and other denominations.[32][34] 1.6% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians, Serbs and Greeks being the most numerous.[30] Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom).[35] In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munich.[36] Around 250,000 active Buddhists live in Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.[37]

According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 45% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% said "I do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[38] According to a new 2012 poll released by WIN-Gallup International, 51% of the German citizens said that they are religious, 33% said not religious, 15% said atheist, and 1% gave no answer.

2011 census[edit]

According to the 2011 census:


2008 map of Christian denominations in the states of Germany:[39][40][41] The 2008 distribution is confirmed by the results of the 2011 census (refer separate map on this page) Majority of population is:
  member of the Roman Catholic church
  member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD)
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with EKD the largest
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with Roman Catholic being the largest denomination
  mainly not religious, largest Christian minority is EKD

Christianity is with 61% membership the largest religion in Germany,[1] with the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) comprising 27.9% of the population and Roman Catholicism comprising 29.5%[1] as of 31 December 2014. Consequently, a majority of the German people belong to a Christian community, although many of them take no active part in church life. About 1.9% of the population is Orthodox Christian.[1]

Independent and congregational churches exist in all larger towns and many smaller ones, but most such churches are small. One of these is the confessional Lutheran Church called Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Germany.


Holy Cross Lutheran Church, Berlin



The Coptic Orthodox Monastery of St. Antonious in Waldsolms-Kröffelbach, Germany.


Catholic chapel in Lütgendorf


Before World War II, about two-thirds of the German population was Protestant and one-third was Roman Catholic. In the north and northeast of Germany especially, Protestants dominated.[48] In the former West Germany between 1945 and 1990, which contained nearly all of Germany's historically Catholic areas, Catholics have had a small majority since the 1980s. Due to a generation behind the Iron Curtain, Protestant areas of the former states of Prussia were much more affected by secularism than predominantly Catholic areas. The predominantly secularised states, such as Hamburg or the East German states, used to be Lutheran or United Protestant strongholds. Because of this, Protestantism is now strongest in two strips of territory in the former West Germany, one extending from the Danish border to Hesse, and the other extending northeast-southwest across southern Germany.

Berlin has a non-religious majority

There is a non-religious majority in Hamburg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the eastern state of Saxony-Anhalt only 19.7 percent belong to the two big denominations of the country.[49] This is the state where Martin Luther was born.

In eastern Germany both religious observance and affiliation are much lower than in the rest of the country after forty years of Communist rule. The government of the German Democratic Republic encouraged a state atheist worldview through institutions such as Jugendweihen (youth consecrations), secular coming-of-age ceremonies akin to Christian confirmation which all young people were encouraged to attend. The number of christenings, religious weddings and funerals is also lower than in the West.

According to a survey among German youths (aged between 12 and 24) in the year 2006, 30% of German youths believe in a personal god, 19% believe in some kind of supernatural power, 23% share agnostic views and 28% are atheists.[50]

No religion[edit]

Main article: Irreligion in Germany


Main article: Islam in Germany

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in the country. The majority of Muslims in Germany are of Turkish origin (63.2%), followed by those from Pakistan, countries of the former Yugoslavia, Arab countries, Iran and Afghanistan. As of 2006, according to the U.S. Department of State, approximately 3.2 million Muslims live in Germany. This figure includes the different denominations of Islam, such as Sunni, Shia, Ahmadiyya and Alevites. Studies have also shown that several thousand Germans convert to Islam annually.[51]

Muslims first came to Germany as part of the diplomatic, military and economic relations between Germany and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century.[52] In World War I about 15,000 Muslim prisoners of war were interned in Berlin. The first mosque was established in Berlin in 1915 for these prisoners, though it was closed in 1930. After the West German Government invited foreign workers in 1961, the Muslim population continuously rose.


Worms Synagogue (originally built 1034) is the oldest still existing synagogue in Germany.

Today Germany, especially its capital Berlin, has the fastest growing Jewish community worldwide. About ninety thousand Jews from the former Eastern Bloc, mostly from ex-Soviet Union countries, settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin wall. This is mainly due to a German government policy which effectively grants an immigration ticket to anyone from the CIS and the Baltic states with Jewish heritage, and the fact that today's Germans are seen as significantly more accepting of Jews than many people in the ex-Soviet realm. Some of the about 60,000 long-time resident German Jews have expressed some mixed feelings about this immigration that they perceive as making them a minority not only in their own country but also in their own community. Prior to Nazism, about 600,000 Jews lived in Germany, with communities going back to the 4th century.[55]

Buddhism, Hinduism, other religions[edit]

Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain


Matronen altar with offerings in Nettersheim.

Neopagan religions have been public in Germany at least since the 19th century. Nowadays Germanic Heathenism (Germanisches Heidentum, or Deutschglaube for its peculiar German forms) has many organisations in the country, including the Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft (Communion of Germanic Faith), the Heidnische Gemeinschaft (Heathen Communion), the Verein für germanisches Heidentum (Association for Germanic Heathenry) the Nornirs Ætt, the Eldaring, the Artgemeinschaft, the Armanen-Orden, and Thuringian Firne Sitte.

Other Pagan religions include the Celto-Germanic Matronenkult grassroots worship practiced in Rhineland, Celtoi (a Celtic religious association) and Wiccan groups. 1% of the population of North Rhine-Westphalia adheres to new religions or esoteric groups as of 2006.

Cults, sects, religious movements[edit]

The German government as well as the churches are actively involved in disseminating information and warnings about sects and cults (in colloquial language the German word Sekte is used in both senses[citation needed]) and new religious movements. In public opinion, minor religious groups are often referred to as Sekten, which can both refer to destructive cults but also to all religious movements which are not Christian or different from the Roman Catholicism and the mainstream Protestantism. However, major world religions like mainstream Orthodox Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam are not referred to as Sekten.[citation needed]

Information by the Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (Evangelic Church in Germany) and Roman Catholic Church
A free Pentecostal congregation has joined the mainline churches on this official sign.

When classifying religious groups, the Roman Catholic Church and the mainline Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) use a three-level hierarchy of "churches", "free churches" and Sekten:

  1. Kirchen (churches) is the term generally applied to the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church in Germany's member churches (Landeskirchen), and the Orthodox Churches. The churches are not only granted the status of a non-profit organisation, but they have additional rights as statutory corporations (German: Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts), which means they have the right to employ civil servants (Beamter), do official duties or issue official documents.
  2. Freikirchen (free churches) is the term generally applied to Protestant organisations outside of the EKD, e.g. Baptists, Methodists, independent Lutherans, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists. However, the Old Catholics can be referred to as a free church as well[59] The free churches are not only granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation, but many of them have additional rights as statutory corporations.
  3. Sekten is the term for religious groups which do not see themselves as part of a major religion (but maybe as the only real believers of a major religion).[60][60] Although these religious groups have full religious freedom and protection against discrimination of their members, their organisations in most cases are not granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation[citation needed].

Every Protestant Landeskirche (church whose canonical jurisdiction extends over one or several states, or Länder) and Catholic episcopacy has a Sektenbeauftragter (Sekten delegate) from whom information about religious movements may be obtained.

Information by the government

The German government also provides information about cults, sects, and new religious movements. In 1997, the parliament set up a commission for Sogenannte Sekten und Psychogruppen (literally "so-called sects and psychic groups") which delivered an extensive report on the situation in Germany regarding NRMs in 1998.[61] In 2002, the Federal Constitutional Court upheld the governmental right to provide critical information on religious organizations being referred to as Sekte, but stated that "defamatory, discriminating, or falsifying accounts" were illegal.[62]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p REMID Data of "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" retrieved 16 January 2015
  2. ^ a b [1]. Zensus 2011 - Page 10.
  3. ^ "A quarter of Muslims in Germany hold German citizenship. Rest are most Turkish nationals"
  4. ^ Germany is one of the few European countries with a Jewish community that is growing. There are an estimated 250,000 Jews in Germany, half of whom are affiliated. Berlin is a favorite city among Israelis.
  5. ^ Bevölkerung und Katholiken, 1965–2008
  6. ^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 
  7. ^ John Lotherington, The German Reformation (2014)
  8. ^ Robert Kolb, Confessing the faith: reformers define the Church, 1530-1580 (Concordia Publishing House, 1991)
  9. ^ Marvin R. O'Connell, Counter-reformation, 1559-1610 (1974)
  10. ^ Lewis W. Spitz, "Particularism and Peace Augsburg: 1555," Church History (1956) 25#2 pp. 110-126 in JSTOR
  11. ^ Peter H. Wilson, The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy 2011
  12. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 412-19
  13. ^ Christopher Clark, "Confessional policy and the limits of state action: Frederick William III and the Prussian Church Union 1817–40." Historical Journal 39.04 (1996) pp: 985-1004. in JSTOR
  14. ^ Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 485-91
  15. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 419-21
  16. ^ Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 498-509
  17. ^ Douglas W. Hatfield, "Kulturkampf: The Relationship of Church and State and the Failure of German Political Reform," Journal of Church and State (1981) 23#3 pp. 465-484 in JSTOR(1998)
  18. ^ John C.G. Roehl, "Higher civil servants in Germany, 1890-1900" in James J. Sheehan, ed., Imperial Germany (1976) pp 128-151
  19. ^ Margaret Lavinia Anderson, and Kenneth Barkin. "The myth of the Puttkamer purge and the reality of the Kulturkampf: Some reflections on the historiography of Imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1982): 647-686. esp. pp 657-62 in JSTOR
  20. ^ Anthony J. Steinhoff, "Christianity and the creation of Germany," in Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley, eds., Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8: 1814-1914 (2008) p 295
  21. ^ Quoted in Edward Crankshaw, Bismarck (1981) pp 308-9
  22. ^ John K. Zeender in The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Oct., 1957), pp. 328-330.
  23. ^ Rebecca Ayako Bennette, Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion after Unification (Harvard U.P. 2012)
  24. ^ Blackbourn, David (Dec 1975). "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg". Historical Journal 18 (4): 821–850. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00008906. JSTOR 2638516. 
  25. ^ Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947. pp. 568–576. 
  26. ^ Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871-1887 (1998).
  27. ^ Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  28. ^ Why Eastern Germany Is The Most Godless Place On Earth
  29. ^ Basic Law Art. 140
  30. ^ a b "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland 2007" (in German). Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  31. ^ Konfessionen in Deutschland(German), fowid. Retrieved 2010, 9 September 2009.
  32. ^ a b "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Demnach leben in Deutschland zwischen 3,8 und4,3 Millionen Muslime [. . .] beträgt der Anteil der Muslime an der Gesamtbevölkerungzwischen 4,6 und 5,2 Prozent. Rund 45 Prozent der in Deutschland lebenden Muslime sind deutsche Staatsangehörige,rund 55 Prozent haben eine ausländische Staatsangehörigkeit. 
  33. ^ (German) Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  34. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Der Anteil der Sunniten unter den in den Haushalten lebenden Muslimen beträgt 74 Prozent 
  35. ^ Blake, Mariah. In Nazi cradle, Germany marks Jewish renaissance Christian Science Monitor. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  36. ^ The Jewish Community of Germany European Jewish Congress. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  37. ^ (German) Die Zeit 12/07, page 13
  38. ^ Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 p.381
  39. ^ Bevölkerung und Kirchenzugehörigkeit nach Bundesländern Table 1.1 shows 63.4% of the German population to be Christians of which 2.2% outside the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD) and the Roman Catholic Church. Table 1.3 shows overview by German state of membership of the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD)and the Roman Catholic Church
  40. ^ 80% of population in Sachsen-Anhalt is without religion
  41. ^ religion by Bundesland showing non religious being the majority in Eastern Germany
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Germany
  43. ^ a b c d e f g By Location
  44. ^ a b By Location
  45. ^ a b c By Location
  46. ^ By Location
  47. ^ LDS Newsroom (Germany)
  48. ^ Ericksen & Heschel, Betrayal: German churches and the Holocaust, p.10, Fortress Press.
  49. ^
  50. ^ Thomas Gensicke: Jugend und Religiosität. In: Deutsche Shell Jugend 2006. Die 15. Shell Jugendstudie. Frankfurt a.M. 2006.
  51. ^ The Islamification of Britain: record numbers embrace Muslim faith
  52. ^ State Policies Towards Muslim Minorities. Sweden, Great Britain and Germany, "Muslims in German History until 1945", Jochen Blaschke
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ "Germany: Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Zentralrat-Mitglieder". Central Council of Jews in Germany. Retrieved March 21, 2015. 
  57. ^ "Verschiedene Gemeinschaften / neuere religiöse Bewegungen". Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen (Membership of religions in Germany). REMID - the "Religious Studies Media and Information Service" in Germany. 2007-8. Retrieved 2008-07-17.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  58. ^ Die Jesiden in Deutschland - Religion und Leben Document is in German
  59. ^ Altkatholiken Freikirche
  60. ^ a b Definition "Sekte"
  61. ^ Final report of the commission of the Bundestag on the investigation into so-called sects and psycho groups
  62. ^ Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfG, Urteil v. 26.06.2002, Az. 1 BvR 670/91

Further reading[edit]

  • Büttner, Manfred. "On the history and philosophy of the geography of religion in Germany." Religion 10#1 (1980): 86-119.
  • Drummond, Andrew Landale. German Protestantism since Luther (1951)
  • Eberle, Edward J. "Free Exercise of Religion in Germany and the United States." Tulane Law Review 78 (2003): 1023+.
  • Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743–1933 (2002)
  • Evans, Ellen Lovell. The German Center Party, 1870-1933: A Study in Political Catholicism (Southern Illinois UP, 1981)
  • Evans, Richard J. "Religion and society in modern Germany." European History Quarterly 12#3 (1982): 249-288.
  • Fetzer, Joel S., and J. Christopher Soper. Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany (Cambridge University Press, 2005) excerpt
  • Gay, Ruth. The Jews of Germany: A Historical Portrait (1992)
  • Harrington, Joel F., and Helmut Walser Smith. "Confessionalization, community, and state building in Germany, 1555-1870." Journal of Modern History (1997): 77-101. online; JSTOR
  • Kastoryano, Riva. "Religion and incorporation: Islam in France and Germany." International Migration Review 38#3 (2004) pp: 1234-1255.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, I: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Eastern Churches (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, IV: The Twentieth Century in Europe: The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Churches (1959); multiple chapters on Germany.
  • Roper, Lyndal and R. W. Scribner. Religion and Culture in Germany:(1400-1800) (Brill, 2001) online
  • Scribner, Robert W., and C. Scott Dixon. German Reformation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
  • Smith, Helmut Walser, ed. Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Germany, 1800-1914 (Bloomsbury Academic, 2001)
  • Spohn, Willfried. "Religion and Working-Class Formation in Imperial Germany 1871-1914." Politics & Society 19#1 (1991): 109-132.
  • Tal, Uriel. Christians and Jews in Germany: religion, politics, and ideology in the Second Reich, 1870-1914 (Cornell U.P. 1975)
  • Thériault, Barbara. "Conservative Revolutionaries": Protestant and Catholic Churches in Germany after Radical Political Change in the 1990s (2004); focus on merger of GDR after 1990

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