Religion in Germany

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Predominant confessions in Germany as revealed by the 2011 census; purple: EKD Protestant, yellow: Catholic, blue: Nonreligious.

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with an estimated 59.4% of the country's population in 2015[1] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[2] The two historical and largest churches of the country are the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), together forming 56% of the population in 2015, of which 28.9% the Catholic Church and 27.1% the Evangelical Church.[1] The Orthodox Church constitutes 1.9% of the population in 2015, and other minority Christian churches form 1.5%.[3] 34-35% of the country's population are not affiliated with any church or religion, and a minority adhere to other religions.[4][3] The second largest religion in Germany is Islam, with between 2.1 and 4.3 million adherents (2.6% to 5.4%).[4] Smaller religious groups (less than 1%) include Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism.[4][3]

History[edit]

Since its foundation in 1871, Germany has been about two-thirds Protestant[5] and one-third Roman Catholic, with a notable Jewish minority. Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany almost lost its Jewish minority during the Holocaust and the country's religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following 1945, with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies. It continues to diversify after the German reunification in 1990.[6]

The Aula Palatina of Trier, a basilica constructed during 306–337 AD
The Palatine Chapel, Aachen, built during 800-814 AD

Prehistory to early Roman settlement: 1st millennium BC to 300 AD[edit]

Late Roman and Carolingian eras: 300-1000[edit]

Further information: Carolingian architecture

In the territories of Germany under the control of the Roman Empire (the provinces Germania Superior and Germania Inferior), early Christianity was introduced and began to flourish after the 4th century. Although pagan Roman temples existed beforehand, Christian religious structures were soon built, such as the Aula Palatina in Trier (then the capital of the Roman province Gallia Belgica), completed during the reign of Constantine I (306-337 AD).

During the Carolingian period, Christianity spread throughout Germany, particularly during the reign of Charlemagne (r. 800-814 AD) and his expansionary military campaigns. Religious structures built during the Carolingian period include the Palatine Chapel, Aachen, a surviving component of the Palace of Aachen.

Pre-Reformation: 1000-1500[edit]

Territories of the present-day Germany, like much of Europe, were entirely Roman Catholic with religious break-offs being suppressed by both the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor.

Reformation: 1500-1648[edit]

Martin Luther (1483–1546)

Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman Empire until the advent of the Protestant Reformation changed this drastically. In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as selling indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform. In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses which detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. It demonstrated Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope. In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly.[7] Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect evolved into what is now the modern German.

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.[8]

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order. It restored Catholicism to many areas.[9] The Holy Roman Empire became religiously diverse; for the most part, the states of northern and central Germany became Protestant (chiefly Lutheran, but also Calvinist/Reformed), while the states of southern Germany and the Rhineland largely remained Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).[10]

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily in German lands, and involved most of the countries of Europe. It was largely a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.[11]

1790-1870[edit]

Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany after 1814. Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. However, in Prussia King Frederick William III was determined to handle unification entirely on his own terms, without consultation. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop. Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia, and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod, which is still in operation as a conservative denomination. Finally in 1845 a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control.[12][13][14]

The religious situation in the German Empire about 1895. Tan, purple, and pink areas are predominantly Protestant, lilac and blue areas predominantly Catholic.

From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony. The rationalism of the late 18th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity. Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In 1844 alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus, said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new "ultramontanism" of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.[15] A sharp controversy broke out in 1837-38 in the largely Catholic Rhineland over the religious education of children of mixed marriages, where the mother was Catholic and the father Protestant. The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision. It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In 1840, the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands. However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.[16]

Kulturkampf: 1870[edit]

Main article: Kulturkampf

Bismarck would not tolerate any a base of power outside Germany—in Rome—having a say in German affairs. He launched a Kulturkampf ("culture war") against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in 1873, but only in Prussia. This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals as its worst enemy and formed the Center Party.[17]

Catholics, although about a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government. After 1871, there was a systematic purge of Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy. Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against.[18][19]

Between Berlin and Rome, Bismarck (left) confronts Pope Pius IX, 1875

Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government. Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant facing the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government. Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:

As of 1878, only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1,125 of 4,600 parishes were vacant, and nearly 1,800 priests ended up in jail or in exile....Finally, between 1872 and 1878, numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.[20]

The British ambassador Odo Russell reported to London in October 1872 how Bismarck's plans were backfiring by strengthening the ultramontane (pro-papal) position inside German Catholicism:

The German Bishops who were politically powerless in Germany and theologically in opposition to the Pope in Rome – have now become powerful political leaders in Germany and enthusiastic defenders of the now infallible Faith of Rome, united, disciplined, and thirsting for martyrdom, thanks to Bismarck's uncalled for antiliberal declaration of War on the freedom they had hitherto peacefully enjoyed.[21]

Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would entail.[22][23] The Catholic Church denounced the harsh new laws as anti-catholic and mustered the support of its rank and file voters across Germany. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.[24] The conflict ended after 1879 because Pius IX died in 1878 and Bismarck broke with the Liberals to put his main emphasis on tariffs, foreign policy, and attacking socialists. Bismarck negotiated with the conciliatory new pope Leo XIII.[25] Peace was restored, the bishops returned and the jailed clerics were released. Laws were toned down or taken back (Mitigation Laws 1880-1883 and Peace Laws 1886/87), but the main regulations such as the Pulpit Law and the laws concerning education, civil registry (incl. marriage) or religious disaffiliation remained in place. The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism.[26]

Religious freedom: 1919-2015[edit]

Since 2008 [2] all religions can be presented on road signs.

The national constitutions of 1919 and 1949 guarantee freedom of faith and religion; earlier, these freedoms were mentioned only in state constitutions. The modern constitution of 1949 also states that no one may be discriminated against due to their faith or religious opinions. No state church exists in Germany.[27]

Religious communities that are of sufficient size and stability and are loyal to the constitution can be recognised as Körperschaften öffentlichen Rechtes (statutory corporations). This gives them certain privileges, for example being able to give religious instruction in state schools (as enshrined in the German constitution, though some states are exempt from this) and having membership fees collected (for a fee) by the German revenue department as "Church tax": a surcharge of between 8 and 9% of the income tax. The status mainly applies to the Roman Catholic Church, the mainline Protestant EKD, a number of Evangelical Free churches and Jewish communities. There has been much discussion about allowing other religious groups like Muslims into this system as well. In the former communist state of East Germany, Christian churches were restricted by the government.[28]

In the 21st century Eastern German territories including the capital Berlin is less religious and more secular than Western Germany.[29][30]

Statistics[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Germany (2015)[1]

  Not religious (34.8%)
  Roman Catholicism (28.9%)
  Evangelical Church (27.1%)
  Other Christian groups (1.5%)
  Orthodox Church (1.9%)
  Islam (5%)
  Other religions (0.8%)

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 50 million adherents (59.4%) in 2015[1] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[2] of whom 23.7 million are Catholics (28.9%) and 22.2 milion are Protestants (27.1%).[1] The Orthodox Church has 1.5 million members or 1.9% of the population.[1] Other minority Christian churches together form 1.5% of the total population.[3] The second largest religion is Islam with between 2.1 and 4.5 million adherents (2.6% to 5.5%) followed by Buddhism around 270,000 adherents.[3] Judaism has around 100,000 known adherents[4][3] although there might be a further 90,000 whose religious status is unclear.[3] Hinduism has around 100,000 adherents.[3] Sikhism has about 75,000 adherents (0.1%).[citation needed] All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (<0.1%) adherents. 35% of the population is not religious.

Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. The former Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. Not religious people, including atheists and agnostics, might make up as many as 55%, and are the majority in the former East Germany and great metropolitan areas.[31]

1.3-1.9% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians: mainly Serbs and Greeks.[32]

Belief in a God by country (2010). 44% of Germans agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God".

Most Muslims are Sunnis and Alevis from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'a and other currents.[33][34] Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom).[35] In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munich.[36] Around 270,000 active Buddhists live in Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.[37]

In a 2012 Eurobarometer Poll ("Do you consider yourself to be ...?"), 31% self-identified as Catholic, 30% as Protestant, 2% as Orthodox, 2% as "other Christian", 3% as Muslim, 9% as Atheist, 18% as non-believer/agnostic, 1% "other (spontaneous)", and 4% did not answer (DK).[38]

According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 44% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% said "I do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[39] According to a 2012 poll released by WIN-Gallup International, 51% of the German citizens said that they were religious, 33% said not religious, 15% said atheist, and 1% gave no answer.

A 2015 study estimated some 15,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background in the country, most of whom belong to an evangelical or Pentecostal community.[40]

2011 census[edit]

According to the 2011 census:

Christianity[edit]

Christianity is with 50 million (59.4%) membership the largest religion in Germany,[4][3] with the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) comprising 27.1% of the population and Roman Catholicism comprising 28.9% as of 2015.[1] Consequently, a majority of the German people belong to a Christian community, although many of them take no active part in church life. About 1.8% of the population is Orthodox Christian.[1]

Independent and congregational churches exist in all larger towns and many smaller ones, but most such churches are small. One of these is the confessional Lutheran Church called Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Germany.

Protestantism[edit]

Catholicism[edit]

Orthodox Christianity[edit]

The Coptic Orthodox Monastery of St. Antonious in Waldsolms-Kröffelbach, Germany.

Others[edit]

Secularism[edit]

Before World War II, about two-thirds of the German population was Protestant and one-third was Roman Catholic. In the north and northeast of Germany especially, Protestants dominated.[49] In the former West Germany between 1945 and 1990, which contained nearly all of Germany's historically Catholic areas, Catholics have had a small majority since the 1980s. Due to a generation behind the Iron Curtain, Protestant areas of the former states of Prussia were much more affected by secularism than predominantly Catholic areas. The predominantly secularised states, such as Hamburg or the East German states, used to be Lutheran or United Protestant strongholds. Because of this, Protestantism is now strongest in two strips of territory in the former West Germany, one extending from the Danish border to Hesse, and the other extending northeast-southwest across southern Germany.

Berlin has a non-religious majority

There is a non-religious majority in Hamburg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the eastern state of Saxony-Anhalt only 19.7 percent belong to the two big denominations of the country.[50] This is the state where Martin Luther was born.

In eastern Germany both religious observance and affiliation are much lower than in the rest of the country after forty years of Communist rule. The government of the German Democratic Republic encouraged a state atheist worldview through institutions such as Jugendweihen (youth consecrations), secular coming-of-age ceremonies akin to Christian confirmation which all young people were encouraged to attend. The number of christenings, religious weddings and funerals is also lower than in the West.

According to a survey among German youths (aged between 12 and 24) in the year 2006, 30% of German youths believe in a personal god, 19% believe in some kind of supernatural power, 23% share agnostic views and 28% are atheists.[51]

No religion[edit]

Main article: Irreligion in Germany

Islam[edit]

Main article: Islam in Germany

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in the country. There are between 2.1 and 4.3 million Muslims.[4][3][52] This lack of exactitude has to do with the fact that about half of the 4.2 million people with origins in the Muslim world are not religious believers, according to a study[4] The majority of Muslims in Germany are of Turkish origin (63.2%), followed by those from Pakistan, countries of the former Yugoslavia, Arab countries, Iran and Afghanistan. This figure includes the different denominations of Islam, such as Sunni, Shia, Ahmadiyya and Alevites. Muslims first came to Germany as part of the diplomatic, military and economic relations between Germany and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century.[53] In World War I about 15,000 Muslim prisoners of war were interned in Berlin. The first mosque was established in Berlin in 1915 for these prisoners, though it was closed in 1930. After the West German Government invited foreign workers in 1961, the Muslim population continuously rose.

Judaism[edit]

Worms Synagogue (originally built 1034) is the oldest still existing synagogue in Germany.

Jewish communities in German speaking regions going back to the 4th century.[59] In 1910 about 600,000 Jews lived in Germany. Since 1990, Germany is one of the few European countries with a Jewish community that is growing. Especially its capital Berlin has one of the fastest growing communities worldwide.

About ninety thousand Jews from the former Eastern Bloc, mostly from ex-Soviet Union countries, settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin wall. This is mainly due to a German government policy which effectively grants an immigration opportunity to anyone from the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic states with Jewish heritage, and the fact that today's Germans are seen as significantly accepting of Jews than many people in the ex-Soviet realm.

Buddhism, Hinduism, other religions[edit]

Hindu temple in Germany.

Buddhists 270,000 (0.27%)[3]

Paganism[edit]

Matronen altar with offerings in Nettersheim.

Neopagan religions have been public in Germany at least since the 19th century. Nowadays Germanic Heathenism (Germanisches Heidentum, or Deutschglaube for its peculiar German forms) has many organisations in the country, including the Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft (Communion of Germanic Faith), the Heidnische Gemeinschaft (Heathen Communion), the Verein für germanisches Heidentum (Association for Germanic Heathenry) the Nornirs Ætt, the Eldaring, the Artgemeinschaft, the Armanen-Orden, and Thuringian Firne Sitte.

Other Pagan religions include the Celto-Germanic Matronenkult grassroots worship practiced in Rhineland, Celtoi (a Celtic religious association) and Wiccan groups. 1% of the population of North Rhine-Westphalia adheres to new religions or esoteric groups as of 2006.

Cults, sects, religious movements[edit]

The German government provides information and warnings about cults, sects, and new religious movements. In 1997, the parliament set up a commission for Sogenannte Sekten und Psychogruppen (literally "so-called sects and psychic groups") which delivered an extensive report on the situation in Germany regarding NRMs in 1998.[61] In 2002, the Federal Constitutional Court upheld the governmental right to provide critical information on religious organizations being referred to as Sekte, but stated that "defamatory, discriminating, or falsifying accounts" were illegal.[62]

In public opinion, minor religious groups are often referred to as Sekten, which can both refer to destructive cults but also to all religious movements which are not Christian or different from the Roman Catholicism and the mainstream Protestantism. However, major world religions like mainstream Orthodox Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam are not referred to as Sekten.[citation needed]

When classifying religious groups, the Roman Catholic Church and the mainline Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) use a three-level hierarchy of "churches", "free churches" and Sekten:

  1. Kirchen (churches) is the term generally applied to the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church in Germany's member churches (Landeskirchen), and the Orthodox Churches. The churches are not only granted the status of a non-profit organisation, but they have additional rights as statutory corporations (German: Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts), which means they have the right to employ civil servants (Beamter), do official duties or issue official documents.
  2. Freikirchen (free churches) is the term generally applied to Protestant organisations outside of the EKD, e.g. Baptists, Methodists, independent Lutherans, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists. However, the Old Catholics can be referred to as a free church as well[63] The free churches are not only granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation, but many of them have additional rights as statutory corporations.
  3. Sekten is the term for religious groups which do not see themselves as part of a major religion (but maybe as the only real believers of a major religion).[64][64] Although these religious groups have full religious freedom and protection against discrimination of their members, their organisations in most cases are not granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation[citation needed].

Every Protestant Landeskirche (church whose canonical jurisdiction extends over one or several states, or Länder) and Catholic episcopacy has a Sektenbeauftragter (Sekten delegate) from whom information about religious movements may be obtained.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Numbers and Facts about Church Life in Germay 2016 Report. Evangelical Church of Germany. Retrieved 06 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b c [1]. Zensus 2011 - Page 10.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w REMID Data of "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" retrieved 16 January 2015
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Religionszugehörigkeit Bevölkerung Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen in Deutschland. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  5. ^ German Protestantism has been overwhelmingly a mixture of Lutheran, Reformed (i.e. Calvinist), and United (Lutheran & Reformed/Calvinist) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and various other Protestants being only a recent development.
  6. ^ Solsten, Eric (1999). Germany: A Country Study. Diane Publishing. pp. 173–175. ISBN 9780788181795. 
  7. ^ John Lotherington, The German Reformation (2014)
  8. ^ Robert Kolb, Confessing the faith: reformers define the Church, 1530-1580 (Concordia Publishing House, 1991)
  9. ^ Marvin R. O'Connell, Counter-reformation, 1559-1610 (1974)
  10. ^ Lewis W. Spitz, "Particularism and Peace Augsburg: 1555," Church History (1956) 25#2 pp. 110-126 in JSTOR
  11. ^ Peter H. Wilson, The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy 2011
  12. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 412-19
  13. ^ Christopher Clark, "Confessional policy and the limits of state action: Frederick William III and the Prussian Church Union 1817–40." Historical Journal 39.04 (1996) pp: 985-1004. in JSTOR
  14. ^ Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 485-91
  15. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 419-21
  16. ^ Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 498-509
  17. ^ Douglas W. Hatfield, "Kulturkampf: The Relationship of Church and State and the Failure of German Political Reform," Journal of Church and State (1981) 23#3 pp. 465-484 in JSTOR(1998)
  18. ^ John C.G. Roehl, "Higher civil servants in Germany, 1890-1900" in James J. Sheehan, ed., Imperial Germany (1976) pp 128-151
  19. ^ Margaret Lavinia Anderson, and Kenneth Barkin. "The myth of the Puttkamer purge and the reality of the Kulturkampf: Some reflections on the historiography of Imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1982): 647-686. esp. pp 657-62 in JSTOR
  20. ^ Anthony J. Steinhoff, "Christianity and the creation of Germany," in Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley, eds., Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8: 1814-1914 (2008) p 295
  21. ^ Quoted in Edward Crankshaw, Bismarck (1981) pp 308-9
  22. ^ John K. Zeender in The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Oct., 1957), pp. 328-330.
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  24. ^ Blackbourn, David (Dec 1975). "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg". Historical Journal. 18 (4): 821–850. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00008906. JSTOR 2638516. 
  25. ^ Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947. pp. 568–576. 
  26. ^ Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871-1887 (1998).
  27. ^ Basic Law Art. 140
  28. ^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  29. ^ Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  30. ^ Why Eastern Germany Is The Most Godless Place On Earth
  31. ^ (German) Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  32. ^ "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland" [EKD Statistics: Christians in Germany]. Evangelical Church in Germany (in German). Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  33. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Demnach leben in Deutschland zwischen 3,8 und4,3 Millionen Muslime [. . .] beträgt der Anteil der Muslime an der Gesamtbevölkerungzwischen 4,6 und 5,2 Prozent. Rund 45 Prozent der in Deutschland lebenden Muslime sind deutsche Staatsangehörige,rund 55 Prozent haben eine ausländische Staatsangehörigkeit. 
  34. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Der Anteil der Sunniten unter den in den Haushalten lebenden Muslimen beträgt 74 Prozent 
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  36. ^ "The Jewish Community of Germany". European Jewish Congress. Retrieved 30 November 2006. [dead link]
  37. ^ (German) Die Zeit 12/07, page 13
  38. ^ European Commission (2012). Special Eurobarometer 393 , Discrimination in the EU 2012, pp. T98-T99
  39. ^ Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 p.381
  40. ^ Miller, Duane; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10). Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g Germany
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  43. ^ a b Adherents.com: By Location
  44. ^ a b c Adherents.com: By Location
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  48. ^ LDS Newsroom (Germany)
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  58. ^ Der Tagesspiegel: Moschee in Wilmersdorf: Mit Kuppel komplett, 29 August 2001, Retrieved 5 January 2016
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  60. ^ "Zentralrat - Mitglieder" [Central Council - Members]. Central Council of Jews in Germany (in German). Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  61. ^ Final report of the commission of the Bundestag on the investigation into so-called sects and psycho groups
  62. ^ Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfG, Urteil v. 26.06.2002, Az. 1 BvR 670/91
  63. ^ Altkatholiken Freikirche
  64. ^ a b Definition "Sekte"

Further reading[edit]

  • Büttner, Manfred. "On the history and philosophy of the geography of religion in Germany." Religion 10#1 (1980): 86-119.
  • Drummond, Andrew Landale. German Protestantism since Luther (1951)
  • Eberle, Edward J. "Free Exercise of Religion in Germany and the United States." Tulane Law Review 78 (2003): 1023+.
  • Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743–1933 (2002)
  • Evans, Ellen Lovell. The German Center Party, 1870-1933: A Study in Political Catholicism (Southern Illinois UP, 1981)
  • Evans, Richard J. "Religion and society in modern Germany." European History Quarterly 12#3 (1982): 249-288.
  • Fetzer, Joel S., and J. Christopher Soper. Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany (Cambridge University Press, 2005) excerpt
  • Gay, Ruth. The Jews of Germany: A Historical Portrait (1992)
  • Harrington, Joel F., and Helmut Walser Smith. "Confessionalization, community, and state building in Germany, 1555-1870." Journal of Modern History (1997): 77-101. online; JSTOR
  • Kastoryano, Riva. "Religion and incorporation: Islam in France and Germany." International Migration Review 38#3 (2004) pp: 1234-1255.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, I: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Eastern Churches (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, IV: The Twentieth Century in Europe: The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Churches (1959); multiple chapters on Germany.
  • Roper, Lyndal and R. W. Scribner. Religion and Culture in Germany:(1400-1800) (Brill, 2001) online
  • Scribner, Robert W., and C. Scott Dixon. German Reformation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
  • Smith, Helmut Walser, ed. Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Germany, 1800-1914 (Bloomsbury Academic, 2001)
  • Spohn, Willfried. "Religion and Working-Class Formation in Imperial Germany 1871-1914." Politics & Society 19#1 (1991): 109-132.
  • Tal, Uriel. Christians and Jews in Germany: religion, politics, and ideology in the Second Reich, 1870-1914 (Cornell U.P. 1975)
  • Thériault, Barbara. "Conservative Revolutionaries": Protestant and Catholic Churches in Germany after Radical Political Change in the 1990s (2004); focus on merger of GDR after 1990

External links[edit]