Religion in Germany

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Religion in Germany (according to church data and "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" (REMID)).[1][2][3]

  Not religious (33.5%)
  Roman Catholicism (29.5%)
  Evangelical Church (27.9%)
  Other Christians including Orthodox Church (3.3%)
  Islam (5%)
  Other Religions (0.8%)

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Religion in Germany (2014 estimate by "Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen Deutschland" (fowid)).[4]

  Not religious (34%)
  Roman Catholicism (29.9%)
  Protestantism (29.8%)
  Islam (2.6%)
  Orthodox Church (1.3%)
  Others (2.3%)

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with an estimated 61% of the country's population[3][4] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[5] The second largest religion is Islam, with between 2.1 to 4 million adherents (2.6% to 5%).[3][4] Smaller religious groups (less than 1%) include Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism.[3][4]

The two largest churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), have lost significant number of adherents. In 2014 the Catholic Church accounted for 29.5%[2] and the Evangelical Church for 27.9%[1] of the population. Other Christian churches and groups summed up to 3.3%[3] with estimations for the Orthodox Church between 1.3%[4] and 1.9%.[3] Since the reunification of Germany, the number of non-religious people has grown and an estimated 34% of the country's population is not affiliated with any church or religion.[3][4]


The religious situation in the German Empire about 1895. Tan, red and pink areas are predominantly Protestant, blue areas predominantly Catholic.


Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman Empire until the advent of the Protestant Reformation changed this drastically. In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as selling indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform. In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses which detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. It demonstrated Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope. In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly.[6] Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect evolved into what is now the modern German.

Martin Luther (1483–1546)

With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.[7]

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order. It restored Catholicism to many areas.[8] The Holy Roman Empire became religiously diverse; for the most part, the states of northern and central Germany became Protestant (chiefly Lutheran, but also Calvinist/Reformed), while the states of southern Germany and the Rhineland largely remained Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).[9]

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily in German lands, and involved most of the countries of Europe. It was largely a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.[10]


King Frederick William III ruled Prussia 1797 to 1840

Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany after 1814. Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. However, in Prussia King Frederick William III was determined to handle unification entirely on his own terms, without consultation. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop. Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia, and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod, which is still in operation as a conservative denomination. Finally in 1845 a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control.[11][12][13]

From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony. The rationalism of the late 18th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity. Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In 1844 alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus, said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new "ultramontanism" of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.[14] A sharp controversy broke out in 1837-38 in the largely Catholic Rhineland over the religious education of children of mixed marriages, where the mother was Catholic and the father Protestant. The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision. It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In 1840, the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands. However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.[15]

1870s: Kulturkampf[edit]

Main article: Kulturkampf
Between Berlin and Rome, Bismarck (left) confronts Pope Pius IX, 1875

Bismarck would not tolerate any a base of power outside Germany—in Rome—having a say in German affairs. He launched a Kulturkampf ("culture war") against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in 1873, but only in Prussia. This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals as its worst enemy and formed the Center Party.[16]

Catholics, although about a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government. After 1871, there was a systematic purge of Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy. Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against.[17][18]

Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government. Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant facing the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government. Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:

As of 1878, only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1,125 of 4,600 parishes were vacant, and nearly 1,800 priests ended up in jail or in exile....Finally, between 1872 and 1878, numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.[19]

The British ambassador Odo Russell reported to London in October 1872 how Bismarck's plans were backfiring by strengthening the ultramontane (pro-papal) position inside German Catholicism:

The German Bishops who were politically powerless in Germany and theologically in opposition to the Pope in Rome – have now become powerful political leaders in Germany and enthusiastic defenders of the now infallible Faith of Rome, united, disciplined, and thirsting for martyrdom, thanks to Bismarck's uncalled for antiliberal declaration of War on the freedom they had hitherto peacefully enjoyed.[20]

Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would entail.[21][22] The Catholic Church denounced the harsh new laws as anti-catholic and mustered the support of its rank and file voters across Germany. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.[23] The conflict ended after 1879 because Pius IX died in 1878 and Bismarck broke with the Liberals to put his main emphasis on tariffs, foreign policy, and attacking socialists. Bismarck negotiated with the conciliatory new pope Leo XIII.[24] Peace was restored, the bishops returned and the jailed clerics were released. Laws were toned down or taken back (Mitigation Laws 1880-1883 and Peace Laws 1886/87), but the main regulations such as the Pulpit Law and the laws concerning education, civil registry (incl. marriage) or religious disaffiliation remained in place. The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism.[25]

21st century[edit]

Today the divide between Former East Germany and Former West Germany shows clearly with Former East Germany being less religious and more secular.[26][27]

Religious freedom[edit]

The national constitutions of 1919 and 1949 guarantee freedom of faith and religion; earlier, these freedoms were mentioned only in state constitutions. The modern constitution of 1949 also states that no one may be discriminated against due to their faith or religious opinions. No state church exists in Germany.[28]

Religious communities that are of sufficient size and stability and are loyal to the constitution can be recognised as Körperschaften öffentlichen Rechtes (statutory corporations). This gives them certain privileges, for example being able to give religious instruction in state schools (as enshrined in the German constitution, though some states are exempt from this) and having membership fees collected (for a fee) by the German revenue department as "Church tax": a surcharge of between 8 and 9% of the income tax. The status mainly applies to the Roman Catholic Church, the mainline Protestant EKD, a number of Evangelical Free churches and Jewish communities. There has been much discussion about allowing other religious groups like Muslims into this system as well. The Muslim efforts were hampered by the Muslims' own disorganised state in Germany, with many small rival organisations and no central leadership, which does not fit well into a legal framework that was created with well-organized, large Christian churches in mind.

In the former communist state of East Germany, Christian churches were restricted by the government.[29]


In 2014, about 34% of Germans have no religious denomination.[3][4]

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 50 million adherents (61%)[3][4] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[5] of whom 22.6 million are Protestants (27.9%)[1] belonging to the EKD and 23.9 million are Catholics (29.5%).[2] The Orthodox Church accounts for around 1.9%.[3][4] In 2008, the remainder belong to small Christian denominations (each considerably less than 0.5% of the German population).[3] The second largest religion is Islam with between 2.1 and 4.5 million adherents (2.6% to 5.5%) followed by Buddhism around 270,000 adherents.[3] Judaism has around 100,000 known adherents[3][4] although there might be a further 90,000 whose religious status is unclear.[3] Hinduism has around 100,000 adherents.[3] Sikhism has about 75,000 adherents (0.1%).[citation needed] All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (<0.1%) adherents.

Belief in a God by country (2010). 44% of Germans agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God".

Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. The former Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. Non-religious people, including atheists and agnostics, might make up as many as 55%, and are especially numerous in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas.[30]

Most Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites and other denominations.[31][32] 1.3% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians: mainly Serbs and Greeks.[33] Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom).[34] In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munich.[35] Around 270,000 active Buddhists live in Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.[36]

According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 44% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% said "I do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[37] According to a new 2012 poll released by WIN-Gallup International, 51% of the German citizens said that they were religious, 33% said not religious, 15% said atheist, and 1% gave no answer.

2011 census[edit]

According to the 2011 census:


2008 map of Christian denominations in the states of Germany:[38][39][40] The 2008 distribution is confirmed by the results of the 2011 census (refer separate map on this page) Majority of population is:
  member of the Roman Catholic church
  member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD)
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with EKD the largest
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with Roman Catholic being the largest denomination
  mainly not religious, largest Christian minority is EKD

Christianity is with 50 million (61%) membership the largest religion in Germany,[3][4] with the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) comprising 28.9% of the population and Roman Catholicism comprising 29.9% as of 2014.[3][4] Consequently, a majority of the German people belong to a Christian community, although many of them take no active part in church life. About 1.3% of the population is Orthodox Christian.[3][4]

Independent and congregational churches exist in all larger towns and many smaller ones, but most such churches are small. One of these is the confessional Lutheran Church called Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Germany.


Holy Cross Lutheran Church, Berlin



The Coptic Orthodox Monastery of St. Antonious in Waldsolms-Kröffelbach, Germany.


Catholic chapel in Lütgendorf


Before World War II, about two-thirds of the German population was Protestant and one-third was Roman Catholic. In the north and northeast of Germany especially, Protestants dominated.[47] In the former West Germany between 1945 and 1990, which contained nearly all of Germany's historically Catholic areas, Catholics have had a small majority since the 1980s. Due to a generation behind the Iron Curtain, Protestant areas of the former states of Prussia were much more affected by secularism than predominantly Catholic areas. The predominantly secularised states, such as Hamburg or the East German states, used to be Lutheran or United Protestant strongholds. Because of this, Protestantism is now strongest in two strips of territory in the former West Germany, one extending from the Danish border to Hesse, and the other extending northeast-southwest across southern Germany.

Berlin has a non-religious majority

There is a non-religious majority in Hamburg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the eastern state of Saxony-Anhalt only 19.7 percent belong to the two big denominations of the country.[48] This is the state where Martin Luther was born.

In eastern Germany both religious observance and affiliation are much lower than in the rest of the country after forty years of Communist rule. The government of the German Democratic Republic encouraged a state atheist worldview through institutions such as Jugendweihen (youth consecrations), secular coming-of-age ceremonies akin to Christian confirmation which all young people were encouraged to attend. The number of christenings, religious weddings and funerals is also lower than in the West.

According to a survey among German youths (aged between 12 and 24) in the year 2006, 30% of German youths believe in a personal god, 19% believe in some kind of supernatural power, 23% share agnostic views and 28% are atheists.[49]

No religion[edit]

Main article: Irreligion in Germany


Main article: Islam in Germany

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in the country. There are between 2.1 to 4 million Muslims.[50][3][4] This lack of exactitude has to do with the fact that about half of the 4.2 million persons from the Muslim World aren't believers according a study[4] The majority of Muslims in Germany are of Turkish origin (63.2%), followed by those from Pakistan, countries of the former Yugoslavia, Arab countries, Iran and Afghanistan. This figure includes the different denominations of Islam, such as Sunni, Shia, Ahmadiyya and Alevites. Studies have also found that about 4,000 thousand persons convert to Islam annually in the country.[51] The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees says that estimates of the number of converts to Islam in Germany have ranged between 13,000 to 100,000 persons but it also warns that these same estimates have no scientific basis.[52]

Muslims first came to Germany as part of the diplomatic, military and economic relations between Germany and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century.[53] In World War I about 15,000 Muslim prisoners of war were interned in Berlin. The first mosque was established in Berlin in 1915 for these prisoners, though it was closed in 1930. After the West German Government invited foreign workers in 1961, the Muslim population continuously rose.


Worms Synagogue (originally built 1034) is the oldest still existing synagogue in Germany.

Today Germany, especially its capital Berlin, is one of the few European countries with a Jewish community that is growing and has the fastest growing one worldwide. About ninety thousand Jews from the former Eastern Bloc, mostly from ex-Soviet Union countries, settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin wall. This is mainly due to a German government policy which effectively grants an immigration ticket to anyone from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Baltic states with Jewish heritage, and the fact that today's Germans are seen as significantly more accepting of Jews than many people in the ex-Soviet realm. Some of the about 60,000 long-time resident German Jews have expressed some mixed feelings about this immigration that they perceive as making them a minority not only in their own country but also in their own community. Prior to Nazism, about 600,000 Jews lived in Germany, with communities going back to the 4th century.[58]

Buddhism, Hinduism, other religions[edit]

Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain


Matronen altar with offerings in Nettersheim.

Neopagan religions have been public in Germany at least since the 19th century. Nowadays Germanic Heathenism (Germanisches Heidentum, or Deutschglaube for its peculiar German forms) has many organisations in the country, including the Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft (Communion of Germanic Faith), the Heidnische Gemeinschaft (Heathen Communion), the Verein für germanisches Heidentum (Association for Germanic Heathenry) the Nornirs Ætt, the Eldaring, the Artgemeinschaft, the Armanen-Orden, and Thuringian Firne Sitte.

Other Pagan religions include the Celto-Germanic Matronenkult grassroots worship practiced in Rhineland, Celtoi (a Celtic religious association) and Wiccan groups. 1% of the population of North Rhine-Westphalia adheres to new religions or esoteric groups as of 2006.

Cults, sects, religious movements[edit]

The German government as well as the churches are actively involved in disseminating information and warnings about sects and cults (in colloquial language the German word Sekte is used in both senses[citation needed]) and new religious movements. In public opinion, minor religious groups are often referred to as Sekten, which can both refer to destructive cults but also to all religious movements which are not Christian or different from the Roman Catholicism and the mainstream Protestantism. However, major world religions like mainstream Orthodox Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam are not referred to as Sekten.[citation needed]

Information by the Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (Evangelic Church in Germany) and Roman Catholic Church
Since 2008 [2] all religions can be presented on road signs.

When classifying religious groups, the Roman Catholic Church and the mainline Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) use a three-level hierarchy of "churches", "free churches" and Sekten:

  1. Kirchen (churches) is the term generally applied to the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church in Germany's member churches (Landeskirchen), and the Orthodox Churches. The churches are not only granted the status of a non-profit organisation, but they have additional rights as statutory corporations (German: Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts), which means they have the right to employ civil servants (Beamter), do official duties or issue official documents.
  2. Freikirchen (free churches) is the term generally applied to Protestant organisations outside of the EKD, e.g. Baptists, Methodists, independent Lutherans, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists. However, the Old Catholics can be referred to as a free church as well[62] The free churches are not only granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation, but many of them have additional rights as statutory corporations.
  3. Sekten is the term for religious groups which do not see themselves as part of a major religion (but maybe as the only real believers of a major religion).[63][63] Although these religious groups have full religious freedom and protection against discrimination of their members, their organisations in most cases are not granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation[citation needed].

Every Protestant Landeskirche (church whose canonical jurisdiction extends over one or several states, or Länder) and Catholic episcopacy has a Sektenbeauftragter (Sekten delegate) from whom information about religious movements may be obtained.

Information by the government

The German government also provides information about cults, sects, and new religious movements. In 1997, the parliament set up a commission for Sogenannte Sekten und Psychogruppen (literally "so-called sects and psychic groups") which delivered an extensive report on the situation in Germany regarding NRMs in 1998.[64] In 2002, the Federal Constitutional Court upheld the governmental right to provide critical information on religious organizations being referred to as Sekte, but stated that "defamatory, discriminating, or falsifying accounts" were illegal.[65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Official press release of the Evangelical Church in Germany on 2014 membership data, retrieved 25. January 2016
  2. ^ a b c d Official church statistics of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany 2015, retrieved 25. January 2016
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af REMID Data of "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" retrieved 16 January 2015
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Religionszugehörigkeit Bevölkerung Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen in Deutschland. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c [1]. Zensus 2011 - Page 10.
  6. ^ John Lotherington, The German Reformation (2014)
  7. ^ Robert Kolb, Confessing the faith: reformers define the Church, 1530-1580 (Concordia Publishing House, 1991)
  8. ^ Marvin R. O'Connell, Counter-reformation, 1559-1610 (1974)
  9. ^ Lewis W. Spitz, "Particularism and Peace Augsburg: 1555," Church History (1956) 25#2 pp. 110-126 in JSTOR
  10. ^ Peter H. Wilson, The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy 2011
  11. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 412-19
  12. ^ Christopher Clark, "Confessional policy and the limits of state action: Frederick William III and the Prussian Church Union 1817–40." Historical Journal 39.04 (1996) pp: 985-1004. in JSTOR
  13. ^ Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 485-91
  14. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 419-21
  15. ^ Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 498-509
  16. ^ Douglas W. Hatfield, "Kulturkampf: The Relationship of Church and State and the Failure of German Political Reform," Journal of Church and State (1981) 23#3 pp. 465-484 in JSTOR(1998)
  17. ^ John C.G. Roehl, "Higher civil servants in Germany, 1890-1900" in James J. Sheehan, ed., Imperial Germany (1976) pp 128-151
  18. ^ Margaret Lavinia Anderson, and Kenneth Barkin. "The myth of the Puttkamer purge and the reality of the Kulturkampf: Some reflections on the historiography of Imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1982): 647-686. esp. pp 657-62 in JSTOR
  19. ^ Anthony J. Steinhoff, "Christianity and the creation of Germany," in Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley, eds., Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8: 1814-1914 (2008) p 295
  20. ^ Quoted in Edward Crankshaw, Bismarck (1981) pp 308-9
  21. ^ John K. Zeender in The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Oct., 1957), pp. 328-330.
  22. ^ Rebecca Ayako Bennette, Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion after Unification (Harvard U.P. 2012)
  23. ^ Blackbourn, David (Dec 1975). "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg". Historical Journal 18 (4): 821–850. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00008906. JSTOR 2638516. 
  24. ^ Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947. pp. 568–576. 
  25. ^ Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871-1887 (1998).
  26. ^ Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  27. ^ Why Eastern Germany Is The Most Godless Place On Earth
  28. ^ Basic Law Art. 140
  29. ^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 
  30. ^ (German) Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  31. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Demnach leben in Deutschland zwischen 3,8 und4,3 Millionen Muslime [. . .] beträgt der Anteil der Muslime an der Gesamtbevölkerungzwischen 4,6 und 5,2 Prozent. Rund 45 Prozent der in Deutschland lebenden Muslime sind deutsche Staatsangehörige,rund 55 Prozent haben eine ausländische Staatsangehörigkeit. 
  32. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Der Anteil der Sunniten unter den in den Haushalten lebenden Muslimen beträgt 74 Prozent 
  33. ^ "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland 2007" (in German). Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  34. ^ Blake, Mariah. In Nazi cradle, Germany marks Jewish renaissance Christian Science Monitor. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  35. ^ The Jewish Community of Germany European Jewish Congress. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  36. ^ (German) Die Zeit 12/07, page 13
  37. ^ Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 p.381
  38. ^ Bevölkerung und Kirchenzugehörigkeit nach Bundesländern Table 1.1 shows 63.4% of the German population to be Christians of which 2.2% outside the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD) and the Roman Catholic Church. Table 1.3 shows overview by German state of membership of the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD)and the Roman Catholic Church
  39. ^ 80% of population in Sachsen-Anhalt is without religion
  40. ^ religion by Bundesland showing non religious being the majority in Eastern Germany
  41. ^ a b c d e f g Germany
  42. ^ a b c d e f g By Location
  43. ^ a b By Location
  44. ^ a b c By Location
  45. ^ By Location
  46. ^ LDS Newsroom (Germany)
  47. ^ Ericksen & Heschel, Betrayal: German churches and the Holocaust, p.10, Fortress Press.
  48. ^
  49. ^ Thomas Gensicke: Jugend und Religiosität. In: Deutsche Shell Jugend 2006. Die 15. Shell Jugendstudie. Frankfurt a.M. 2006.
  50. ^ Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (2009). "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland 2008", pp 11, 80
  51. ^ The Islamification of Britain: record numbers embrace Muslim faith
  52. ^
  53. ^ State Policies Towards Muslim Minorities. Sweden, Great Britain and Germany, "Muslims in German History until 1945", Jochen Blaschke
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mitgliederzahlen: Islam", in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst|Religionswissenschaftliche Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID), Retrieved 4 January 2016
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Anzahl der Muslime in Deutschland nach Glaubensrichtung im Jahr 2015* (in 1.000)", in: Statista GmbH, Retrieved 4 January 2016
  56. ^ "Was ist "Ahmadiyyat"?", in: Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat Germany Website, Retrieved 4 January 2016
  57. ^ Der Tagesspiegel: Moschee in Wilmersdorf: Mit Kuppel komplett, 29 August 2001, Retrieved 5 January 2016
  58. ^ "Germany: Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Zentralrat-Mitglieder". Central Council of Jews in Germany. Retrieved March 21, 2015. 
  60. ^ "Verschiedene Gemeinschaften / neuere religiöse Bewegungen". Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen (Membership of religions in Germany). REMID - the "Religious Studies Media and Information Service" in Germany. 2007-8. Retrieved 2008-07-17.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  61. ^ Die Jesiden in Deutschland - Religion und Leben Document is in German
  62. ^ Altkatholiken Freikirche
  63. ^ a b Definition "Sekte"
  64. ^ Final report of the commission of the Bundestag on the investigation into so-called sects and psycho groups
  65. ^ Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfG, Urteil v. 26.06.2002, Az. 1 BvR 670/91

Further reading[edit]

  • Büttner, Manfred. "On the history and philosophy of the geography of religion in Germany." Religion 10#1 (1980): 86-119.
  • Drummond, Andrew Landale. German Protestantism since Luther (1951)
  • Eberle, Edward J. "Free Exercise of Religion in Germany and the United States." Tulane Law Review 78 (2003): 1023+.
  • Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743–1933 (2002)
  • Evans, Ellen Lovell. The German Center Party, 1870-1933: A Study in Political Catholicism (Southern Illinois UP, 1981)
  • Evans, Richard J. "Religion and society in modern Germany." European History Quarterly 12#3 (1982): 249-288.
  • Fetzer, Joel S., and J. Christopher Soper. Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany (Cambridge University Press, 2005) excerpt
  • Gay, Ruth. The Jews of Germany: A Historical Portrait (1992)
  • Harrington, Joel F., and Helmut Walser Smith. "Confessionalization, community, and state building in Germany, 1555-1870." Journal of Modern History (1997): 77-101. online; JSTOR
  • Kastoryano, Riva. "Religion and incorporation: Islam in France and Germany." International Migration Review 38#3 (2004) pp: 1234-1255.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, I: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Eastern Churches (1959); Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, IV: The Twentieth Century in Europe: The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Churches (1959); multiple chapters on Germany.
  • Roper, Lyndal and R. W. Scribner. Religion and Culture in Germany:(1400-1800) (Brill, 2001) online
  • Scribner, Robert W., and C. Scott Dixon. German Reformation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
  • Smith, Helmut Walser, ed. Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Germany, 1800-1914 (Bloomsbury Academic, 2001)
  • Spohn, Willfried. "Religion and Working-Class Formation in Imperial Germany 1871-1914." Politics & Society 19#1 (1991): 109-132.
  • Tal, Uriel. Christians and Jews in Germany: religion, politics, and ideology in the Second Reich, 1870-1914 (Cornell U.P. 1975)
  • Thériault, Barbara. "Conservative Revolutionaries": Protestant and Catholic Churches in Germany after Radical Political Change in the 1990s (2004); focus on merger of GDR after 1990

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