Religion in the Czech Republic
Religion in the Czech Republic was dominated by Christianity until at least the first half of the 20th century; since then it has steadily declined and today the Czech Republic has one of the least religious populations in the world.
Historically, the Czech people have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion". According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% was Roman Catholic and 10.2% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not. 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion. From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Roman Catholicism decreased from 39.0% to 26.8% and then to 10.3%.
According to a Eurobarometer Poll in 2010, 16% of Czech citizens responded that "they believe there is a God" (the lowest rate among the countries of the European Union), whereas 44% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 37% said that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".
According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Non believer/Agnostic is the largest religion in Czech Republic accounting 39% of Czech citizens. Christianity account 34% of Czech citizens, Catholic are the largest Christian group in Czech Republic, accounting for 29% of Czech citizens, while Protestants make up 2%, and Other Christian make up 3%. Atheist account's 20%, Undeclared account's 6%.
|Roman Catholic Church||4,021,385||39.0||2,740,780||26.8||1,083,899||10.3|
|Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren||203,996||2.0||117,212||1.1||51,916||0.5|
|Czechoslovak Hussite Church||178,036||1.7||99,103||1.0||39,276||0.4|
|believers identified with another certain religions||120,317||1.7||330,993||3.2||292,347||2.7|
|believers not identified with a certain religion||707,649||6.7|
|no response, unknown||1,665,617||16.2||901,981||8.8||4,774,323||45.2|
Christianity has historically been the largest religion in the country, with virtually all Czechs being Christians until the 19th century. The Czechs gradually converted to Christianity from Slavic paganism between the 8th and the 10th century. Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia, baptised by the Saints Cyril and Methodius, was the first ruler of Bohemia to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion. Christianity has been on the decline since the 20th century and today only 13.9% of the Czech population still declare themselves religious of which 10.3% Catholics and less than 1% Protestant.
Roman Catholicism was the main form of Christianity practiced by the Czechs (96.5% in 1910), until it started to decline after World War I and the breakup of Austria-Hungary due to a popular anti-Austrian and anticlerical mass movement. During the Czechoslovak unification under a Communist regime, most of the properties of the Church were confiscated by the government, although some were later returned. After the Communist regime fell, 39.0% of Czechs were still found to be Catholic in 1991, but the faith has continued to rapidly decline since. As of 2011 only 10.3% of the Czechs still considered themselves Catholic, which is about the same as in Protestant-majority England.
In the 15th century, the religious and social reformer Jan Hus formed a movement later named after him. Although Hus was named a heretic and burnt in Constance in 1415, his followers seceded from the Catholic Church and in the Hussite Wars (1419–1434) defeated five crusades organized against them by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Petr Chelčický continued with the Czech Hussite Reformation movement. During the next two centuries, most of the Czechs became adherents of Hussitism.
After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then the hereditary rulers of Bohemia. The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the Thirty Years' War, which quickly spread throughout Central Europe. In 1620, the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain, and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs' hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened. The war had a devastating effect on the local population; the people were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism.
Today Protestantism has declined to be a small minority in the country, with only 0.5% of the Czechs adhering to the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren and 0.4% to the Czechoslovak Hussite Church.
The 2001 census counted 6,817 registered Buddhists in the Czech republic. Most of the Vietnamese ethnic minority, which make up the largest immigrant ethnic group in the country, are adherents of Mahayana Buddhism. The Vietnamese mostly dwell in the cities of Prague and Cheb. Thein An Buddhist Temple in the northern province of Varnsdorf was the first Vietnamese-style temple to be consecrated in the Czech Republic, in January 2008. There are also ten Korean Buddhist temples in the Czech Republic, with three each in Prague and Brno.
Ethnic Czech Buddhists are otherwise mostly followers of Vajrayana Buddhism (Tibetan Buddhism). The Vajrayana practitioners are mainly centered on the Nyingma and Kagyu schools. The Karma Kagyu tradition has established about 50 centers and meditation groups. The Diamond Way tradition of Vajrayana Buddhism, founded and directed by Ole Nydahl is active in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. A large temple of the school is going to be built in the city of Prague.
The revived native religion of the Slavs (Rodnovery in English, Rodnověří in Czech) has a presence in the Czech Republic. The largest organisation is the "Community of the Native Faith". There are also Wiccan followers, and one Kemetic group in the country, Per Kemet.
The Czech Republic is one of the least religious countries in the world.
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- "Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
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- Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
- "Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses" (PDF) (in Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- "Eurobarometer on Biotechnology 2010 – page 381" (PDF). Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383 (European Union: European Commission), 2012, p. 233, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
- "Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses" (PDF) (in Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
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