Religious affiliation in the United States Senate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

While the religious preference of elected officials is by no means an indication of their allegiance nor necessarily reflective of their voting record, the religious affiliation of prominent members of all three branches of government is a source of commentary and discussion among the media and public. The topic is also of interest to religious groups and the general public who may appeal to Senators of their denomination on religious or moral issues facing the United States Senate.

Incumbent United States Senators[edit]

The following lists show the count of the reported religious affiliation of the members of the United States Senate in the 115th Congress.[1]


Senator Party State Religious affiliation
LamarAlexander.jpg Lamar Alexander Republican Tennessee Presbyterian[2][3]
John Barrasso official portrait 112th Congress.jpg John Barrasso Republican Wyoming Presbyterian[4][5]
Shelley Moore Capito official Senate photo.jpg Shelley Moore Capito Republican West Virginia Presbyterian
Thomas Carper.jpg Tom Carper Democrat Delaware Presbyterian[6][7]
Chris Coons, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Chris Coons Democrat Delaware Presbyterian[8][9]
Bobcorker.jpg Bob Corker Republican Tennessee Presbyterian[10][11]
Steve Daines official Senate portrait.jpg Steve Daines Republican Montana Presbyterian
Mike Enzi, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg Mike Enzi Republican Wyoming Presbyterian[12][13]
Deb Fischer, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Deb Fischer Republican Nebraska Presbyterian[14][15]
Jim Inhofe, official photo portrait, 2007.jpg Jim Inhofe Republican Oklahoma Presbyterian[16][17]
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress alternate.jpg Rand Paul Republican Kentucky Presbyterian[18][19]
Richard Shelby, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Richard Shelby Republican Alabama Presbyterian[20][21]
Mark Warner, official 111th Congress photo portrait.jpg Mark Warner Democrat Virginia Presbyterian[22][23]
Roy Blunt, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Roy Blunt Republican Missouri Baptist[24][25]
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Cory Booker Democrat New Jersey Baptist[26]
John Boozman, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg John Boozman Republican Arkansas Baptist[27][28]
CochranThad(R-MS).jpg Thad Cochran Republican Mississippi Baptist[29][30]
Ted Cruz, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Ted Cruz Republican Texas Baptist[31][32]
Lindsey Graham, Official Portrait 2006.jpg Lindsey Graham Republican South Carolina Baptist[33][34]
Sen Chuck Grassley official.jpg Chuck Grassley Republican Iowa Baptist[35][36]
Kamala Harris Official Attorney General Photo.jpg Kamala Harris Democratic California Baptist
James Lankford official Senate photo.jpg James Lankford Republican Oklahoma Baptist
John McCain official portrait 2009.jpg John McCain Republican Arizona Baptist[37][38]
Sen Mitch McConnell official.jpg Mitch McConnell Republican Kentucky Baptist[39][40]
SenatorRogerWicker(R-MS).jpg Roger Wicker Republican Mississippi Baptist[41][42]
Richard Burr Official Picture 2.jpg Richard Burr Republican North Carolina Methodist[43][44]
Tom Cotton, Official Portrait, 113th Congress small.jpeg Tom Cotton Republican Arkansas Methodist
Johnny Isakson.jpg Johnny Isakson Republican Georgia Methodist[45][46]
John Neely Kennedy official portrait.jpg John Neely Kennedy Republican Louisiana Methodist
Jerry Moran, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Jerry Moran Republican Kansas Methodist[47][48]
David Perdue official Senate photo.jpg David Perdue Republican Georgia Methodist
Rob Portman, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Rob Portman Republican Ohio Methodist[49][50]
Pat Roberts official photo.jpg Pat Roberts Republican Kansas Methodist[51][52]
Jeff Sessions official portrait.jpg Jeff Sessions Republican Alabama Methodist[53][54]
Debbie Stabenow, official portrait.jpg Debbie Stabenow Democrat Michigan Methodist[55][56]
Elizabeth Warren--Official 113th Congressional Portrait--.jpg Elizabeth Warren Democrat Massachusetts Methodist[57][58]
Sherrod Brown official photo 2009.jpg Sherrod Brown Democrat Ohio Lutheran[59][60]
Joni Ernst Official photo portrait 114th Congress.jpg Joni Ernst Republican Iowa Lutheran
Cory Gardner official Senate portrait.jpeg Cory Gardner Republican Colorado Lutheran
Martin Heinrich, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Martin Heinrich Democrat New Mexico Lutheran[61][62]
Ron Johnson, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Ron Johnson Republican Wisconsin Lutheran[63][64]
Jeff Merkley, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Jeff Merkley Democrat Oregon Lutheran[65][66]
Ben Sasse Official photo.jpg Ben Sasse Republican Nebraska Presbyterian
Angus King, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Angus King Independent Maine Episcopalian[67][68]
Bill Nelson.jpg Bill Nelson Democrat Florida Episcopalian[69][70]
Gary Peters, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Gary Peters Democrat Michigan Episcopalian[71][72]
Chris Van Hollen official portrait, 2010.jpg Chris Van Hollen Democrat Maryland Episcopalian
Sheldon Whitehouse 2010.jpg Sheldon Whitehouse Democrat Rhode Island Episcopalian[73][74]
Maggie Hassan, official portrait, 115th Congress.jpg Maggie Hassan Democrat New Hampshire Congregationalist
Chris Murphy official portrait.jpg Chris Murphy Democrat Connecticut Protestant[75][76]
Todd Young, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Todd Young Republican Indiana Protestant
Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate photo portrait, 2009.jpg Jeanne Shaheen Democrat New Hampshire Protestant[77][78]
John Thune, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg John Thune Republican South Dakota Protestant[79][80]
Amy Klobuchar.jpg Amy Klobuchar Democrat Minnesota United Church of Christ[81][82]
John Cornyn official portrait, 2009.jpg John Cornyn Republican Texas Church of Christ[83][84]
Jon Tester, official 110th Congress photo.jpg Jon Tester Democrat Montana Church of God[85][86]
Bill Cassidy official Senate photo.jpg Bill Cassidy Republican Louisiana Evangelical Protestant[87]
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Tim Scott Republican South Carolina Evangelical Protestant[88][89]


Senator Party State Religious affiliation
Maria Cantwell, official portrait, 110th Congress.jpg Maria Cantwell Democrat Washington Catholic[90][91]
Senator Bob Casey official photo 2010.jpg Bob Casey, Jr. Democrat Pennsylvania Catholic[92][93]
Sen Susan Collins official.jpg Susan Collins Republican Maine Catholic[94][95]
Joe Donnelly, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Joe Donnelly Democrat Indiana Catholic[96][97]
Richard Durbin official photo.jpg Dick Durbin Democrat Illinois Catholic[98][99]
SenatorGillibrandpic.jpg Kirsten Gillibrand Democrat New York Catholic[100][101]
Heidi Heitkamp official portrait 113th Congress.jpg Heidi Heitkamp Democrat North Dakota Catholic[102][103]
John Hoeven, Official Senate Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg John Hoeven Republican North Dakota Catholic[104][105]
Tim Kaine, official 113th Congress photo portrait.jpg Tim Kaine Democrat Virginia Catholic[106][107]
Leahy2009.jpg Patrick Leahy Democrat Vermont Catholic[108][109]
Joe Manchin official portrait 112th Congress.jpg Joe Manchin Democrat West Virginia Catholic[101][110]
Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Ed Markey Democrat Massachusetts Catholic[111][112]
Catherine Cortez Masto (cropped).jpg Catherine Cortez Masto Democratic Nevada Catholic
Claire McCaskill, Official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Claire McCaskill Democrat Missouri Catholic[113][114]
Robert Menendez, official Senate photo.jpg Bob Menendez Democrat New Jersey Catholic[115][116]
Lisa Murkowski.jpg Lisa Murkowski Republican Alaska Catholic[117][118]
Patty Murray, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Patty Murray Democrat Washington Catholic[119][120]
Jack Reed, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Jack Reed Democrat Rhode Island Catholic[121][122]
Jim Risch official portrait.jpg Jim Risch Republican Idaho Catholic[123][124]
Mike Rounds official Senate portrait.jpg Mike Rounds Republican South Dakota Catholic
Marco Rubio, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Marco Rubio Republican Florida Catholic[125][126]
DanielSSullivan.jpg Dan Sullivan Republican Alaska Catholic
Senator Thom Tillis Official Portrait.jpg Thom Tillis Republican North Carolina Catholic
Pat Toomey, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Pat Toomey Republican Pennsylvania Catholic[127][128]

Mormon/The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[edit]

Senator Party State Religious affiliation
Mike Crapo Official Photo 110th Congress.jpg Mike Crapo Republican Idaho Mormon[129][130]
Jeff Flake, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Jeff Flake Republican Arizona Mormon[131][132]
Orrin Hatch, official 110th Congress photo.jpg Orrin Hatch Republican Utah Mormon[133][134]
Dean Heller, Official Senate Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Dean Heller Republican Nevada Mormon[135][136]
Mike Lee official portrait 112th Congress.jpg Mike Lee Republican Utah Mormon[137][138]
Tom Udall official Senate portrait.jpg Tom Udall Democrat New Mexico Mormon[139][140]


Senator Party State Religious affiliation
Richard Blumenthal Official Portrait.jpg Richard Blumenthal Democrat Connecticut Judaism[141][142]
Ben Cardin official Senate portrait.jpg Ben Cardin Democrat Maryland Judaism[143][144]
Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2.jpg Dianne Feinstein Democrat California Judaism[145][146][147]
Al Franken Official Senate Portrait.jpg Al Franken Democrat Minnesota Judaism[148][149]
Bernie Sanders.jpg Bernie Sanders Independent Vermont Judaism[150][151]
Brian Schatz official portrait.jpg Brian Schatz Democrat Hawaii Judaism[152][153]
Chuck Schumer January 2016.jpg Chuck Schumer Democrat New York Judaism[154][155]
Ron Wyden official photo.jpg Ron Wyden Democrat Oregon Reform Judaism[156][157]


Senator Party State Religious affiliation
Mazie Hirono, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Mazie Hirono Democrat Hawaii Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism[158][159]


Senator Party State Religious affiliation Notes
Tammy Baldwin, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Tammy Baldwin Democrat Wisconsin Unaffiliated[160][161] Baptized Episcopalian[162]
Michael Bennet Official Photo.jpg Michael Bennet Democrat Colorado Unaffiliated[163][164] Raised in both Jewish and Christian traditions.[165]
Tammy Duckworth, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Tammy Duckworth Democrat Illinois Unaffiliated

Compared with general population[edit]

The most basic breakdown of the above data indicates that 85% of the Senate is Christian (compared with 71%[166] of the population) and 9% of the Senate is Jewish (compared with 1.7% of the population).

The following list compares reported religious affiliations of U. S. Senators to religious statistics of the demographics of the United States of America:

  • Catholics are represented by 28% of the Senate for 25.9% of the population. (1.08×)
  • Baptists are represented by 10% of the Senate for 17.2% of the population. (0.58×)
  • Unaffiliated persons are represented by 3% of the Senate for 16.1% of the population. (0.19×)
  • Methodists are represented by 8% of the Senate for 7.2% of the population. (1.11×)
  • Lutherans are represented by 5% of the Senate for 4.6% of the population. (1.09×)
  • Presbyterians are represented by 13% of the Senate for 2.8% of the population. (4.64×)
  • Episcopalians are represented by 4% of the Senate for 1.8% of the population. (2.22×)
  • Jews are represented by 9% of the Senate for 1.7% of the population. (5.88×)
  • Latter-Day Saints are represented by 7% of the Senate for 1.4% of the population. (5.00×)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (January 3, 2013). "THE RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF EACH MEMBER OF CONGRESS" (PDF). 
  2. ^ University of Pittsburgh (March 21, 2013). "LAMAR ALEXANDER". 
  3. ^ "Sen. Lamar Alexander Background Information". March 21, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Sen. John Barrasso (R-Wyo.)". March 21, 2013. 
  5. ^ University of California, Santa Cruz (March 21, 2013). "Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) 2nd term Republican from Wyoming. Appt. June 22, 2007.". 
  6. ^ University of Delaware (January 19, 2011). "Thomas R. Carper Congressional Papers Biographical Note". 
  7. ^ "Tom Carper". March 21, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Senator Coons talks about faith and poverty". March 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Frank Bruni (October 11, 2010). "With O'Donnell as Foil, Democrat Plays It Safe". 
  10. ^ "Robert Corker's Biography".  External link in |publisher= (help)
  11. ^ "U.S. Senator Bob Corker". 
  12. ^ "Senator's Biography Michael B. Enzi was sworn in as Wyoming's 20th United States Senator on January 7, 1997.". March 22, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Almanac Sen. Michael Enzi (R) Wyoming". November 11, 1999. 
  14. ^ "Roll Call New Member Profiles: 113th Congress Deb Fischer, R-Nebraska Senate". March 24, 2013. 
  15. ^ Leslie Reed (April 22, 2012). "Fischer: Don't count me out". Omaha World-Herald. 
  16. ^ "NationalJournalAlmanac Oklahoma Sen. James Inhofe (R)". March 22, 2013. 
  17. ^ United States Government Printing Office (October 17, 2005). Official Congressional Directory 2005-2006: 109th Congress. ISBN 9780160724671. 
  18. ^ Bruce Schreiner, Roger Alford; Associated Press (October 18, 2010). "Rand Paul, Jack Conway Senate race turns bitter over religious accusations". Christian Science Monitor. 
  19. ^ Steve Kornaki (May 17, 2010). "Will Rand Paul run for president in 2012?". 
  20. ^ "Richard Craig Shelby (R)". March 22, 2013. 
  21. ^ University of California, Santa Cruz (March 22, 2013). "Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL)". 
  22. ^ Matt Bai (March 12, 2006). "The Fallback". 
  23. ^ "2008 Democratic Hopefuls OFF THE TRAIL - Mark Warner". March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Missouri: Seventh District Rep. Roy Blunt (R)". July 10, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Sen. Roy Blunt (R-Mo.)". March 23, 2013. 
  26. ^ Dan Gilgoff (August 7, 2009). "Newark Mayor Cory Booker's Course on World Religions". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 
  27. ^ "John Boozman (R)". March 22, 2013. 
  28. ^ James O'Bryan (March 22, 2013). "What Is John Boozman's Religion?". 
  29. ^ "ThadCochran UNited States Senator for Mississippi Biography". March 22, 2013. 
  30. ^ Northwest Mississippi Community College (April 11, 2011). "Sen. Thad Cochran to headline Nursing Facility Dedication and Open House". 
  31. ^ Lisa Olson; Houston Chronicle (October 15, 2012). "Profile: A man of many contrasts, Ted Cruz defies easy stereotypes". 
  32. ^ Elizabeth Hartfield (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Wins In Texas GOP Senate Runoff". 
  33. ^ "NationalJournal Sen. Lindsey Graham (R) South Carolina". March 22, 2013. 
  34. ^ Rebecca Eidson; Tri-County Technical College (April 24, 2012). "Senator Lindsey Graham to Deliver Spring Commencement Address". 
  35. ^ "Chuck Grassley of Iowa --- United States Senator". March 22, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa)". March 22, 2013. 
  37. ^ Jennifer Parker (September 17, 2013). "John (McCain) the Baptist?". 
  38. ^ Sally Quinn (September 5, 2007). "McCain's Conversion: Political or Spiritual?". 
  39. ^ "Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.)". March 22, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Almanac Sen. Mitch McConnell (R) Kentucky". November 9, 2013. 
  41. ^ "ISSUE STATEMENT : Family Values Protecting Family Values". March 22, 2013. 
  42. ^ Edwin Smith; University of Mississippi (April 12, 2012). "U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker to Deliver Commencement Address". 
  43. ^ "Richard M. Burr (R)". June 30, 2004. 
  44. ^ Albert J. Menendez; United Methodist Church (January 6, 2009). "United Methodist members of 111th Congress". 
  45. ^ "ABOUT JOHNNY Biography". March 23, 2013. 
  46. ^ Oglethorpe University (May 9, 2009). "OGLETHORPE UNIVERSITY CITATION Johnny Isakson Doctor of Laws, honoris causa" (PDF). 
  47. ^ "Jerry Moran (R)". June 30, 2004. 
  48. ^ United Methodist Church (November 13, 2000). "News Archives United Methodist numbers increase in Congress". 
  49. ^ Ververs, Vaughn (June 16, 2008). "Potential VP Bios: Republicans". 
  50. ^ Jeff Zeleny (July 3, 2012). "Possible No. 2 to Romney Knows Ways of the Capital". 
  51. ^ "Sen. Pat Roberts (R-Kan.)". March 23, 2013. 
  52. ^ Albert J. Menendez (January 25, 2011). "GOP dominates church's congressional group". United Methodist Church. 
  53. ^ Phillip Rucker (June 3, 2009). "A Senator Who's Seen the Other Side". 
  54. ^ United States Government Printing Office (March 23, 2013). "Congressional Directory ALABAMA" (PDF). 
  55. ^ Albert J. Menendez; United Methodist Church (November 27, 2012). "45 United Methodists in diverse Congress". 
  56. ^ "Michigan Manual 2009-2010 SENATOR DEBBIE STABENOW" (PDF). March 23, 2013. 
  57. ^ Katrina vanden Heuvel (July 20, 2010). "The Case For Elizabeth Warren". The Nation. 
  58. ^ Chris Moody (September 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren to DNC: The 'system is rigged' against you". 
  59. ^ "New Member Profile: Sen.-Elect Sherrod Brown (D—Ohio)". November 7, 2007. 
  60. ^ Stephen Koff (September 21, 2011). "Sherrod Brown says 'Happy Jewish New Year.' Josh Mandel says it shows he's worried.". 
  61. ^ "Roll Call New Member Profiles: 113th Congress Martin Heinrich, D-N.M. (Senate)". March 22, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Senator Martin T. Heinrich's Biography". March 22, 2013. 
  63. ^ Larry Givins; Gannett Company (January 8, 2012). "Republican U.S. Senator Ron Johnson, of Oshkosh, carves niche as deficit hawk". 
  64. ^ Crop Science Society of America. "JUNIOR SENATOR/WISCONSIN Sen. Ron Johnson (R) Elected 2010; 1st term" (PDF). 
  65. ^ "Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-Ore.)". March 22, 2013. 
  66. ^ University of California, Los Angeles (March 22, 2013). "Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR) 1st term Democrat from Oregon.". / 
  67. ^ Colin Woodard (September 23, 2012). "The making of a man without a party The former governor's view of the world was shaped long before be ran for public office, and will likely continue to inform his choices.". Portland Press Herald. 
  68. ^ Alan Silverleib (February 15, 2013). "Independent's Day: King hopes to bridge divided D.C.". 
  69. ^ "Elections THE NEWLY ELECTED Florida Senate: Bill Nelson (D)". November 8, 2000. 
  70. ^ "Potential VP Bios: Democrats". 2008. 
  71. ^ "Sen. Gary Peters (D-Mich.)". September 8, 2014. 
  72. ^ "Michigan Senate: Gary Peters (D)". 2014. 
  73. ^ "Senator Sheldon Whitehouse's Biography". March 23, 2012. 
  74. ^ "Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.)". March 23, 2012. 
  75. ^ "NationalJournalAlmanac Connecticut District 5 Rep. Chris Murphy (D)". March 22, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Almanac CAMPAIGN 2006: THE NEWLY ELECTED Connecticut's 5th District: Chris Murphy (D)". November 8, 2006. 
  77. ^ "Candidate Profile from Congressional Quarterly Jeanne Shaheen (D) of Madbury". 1996. 
  78. ^ Albert J. Menendez (2009). "111th Congress -- Religious Affiliations" (PDF). 
  79. ^ "John Randolph Thune (R)". March 22, 2013. 
  80. ^ "John Thune Fast Facts". March 7, 2013. 
  81. ^ United States Government Printing Office; United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing (March 22, 2013). Official Congressional Directory: 110th Congress : 2007-2008. ISBN 9780160788796. 
  82. ^ United States Government Printing Office (March 22, 2013). "Congressional Directory for the 112th Congress (2011-2012), December 2011.". 
  83. ^ Houston Chronicle (August 3, 2010). "Texas delegation in depth: John Cornyn". 
  84. ^ "Texas: Junior Senator Sen. John Cornyn (R)". June 22, 2005. 
  85. ^ "Sen.-Elect Jon Tester (D—Mont.)". November 8, 2006. 
  86. ^ "Sen. Jon Tester (D-Mont.)". March 24, 2013. 
  87. ^ "Bill Cassidy". 
  88. ^ "GOP's Tim Scott's star rockets to the top". September 26, 2011. 
  89. ^ "Santorum Gains Support from Social Conservatives". Wall Street Journal. January 15, 2012. 
  90. ^ United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing (January 4, 2005). Official Congressional Directory, 2005-2006, 109th Congress, Convened January 4, 2005 (Clothbound). 
  91. ^ Steve Benen (February 28, 2009). "POLITICAL ANIMAL THIS WEEK IN GOD". 
  92. ^ John M. Broder (August 8, 2008). "Casey, an Abortion Opponent, Praises Obama". 
  93. ^ James O'Toole (September 10, 2006). "Casey says he's more than just the 'anti-Santorum'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  94. ^ "AllPolitics is presenting the freshmen of the 105th Congress every day between now and January.". March 21, 2013. 
  95. ^ "Senator Susan M. Collins's Biography". March 21, 2013. 
  96. ^ Scott Neuman (October 10, 2012). "Tale Of The Tape: Senate Showdown In Indiana". 
  97. ^ "Joe Simon Donnelly (D)". June 30, 2004. 
  98. ^ "Senator Richard 'Dick' J. Durbin's Biography". March 21, 2013. 
  99. ^ Mike Dorning, Margaret Talev (February 8, 2012). "Obama Weighed Religious Politics in Contraceptives Decision". 
  100. ^ "Addresses of Legislators Listed in Order of District Number" (PDF). March 21, 2013. 
  101. ^ a b Gail Russell Chaddock (February 9, 2012). "Catholic furor over birth control rule turns Democrats on one another". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  102. ^ "Roll Call New Member Profiles: 113th Congress Heidi Heitkamp, D-N.D. (Senate)". March 21, 2013. 
  103. ^ Laurie Goodstein (January 25, 2013). "In Fight Over Life, a New Call by Catholics". 
  104. ^ "John Hoeven (R) - Washington Post". March 21, 2013. 
  105. ^ Harry Bradford (November 2, 2010). "What Is John Hoeven's Religion?". 
  106. ^ "ONE NATION: RELIGION & POLITICS Tim Kaine: Democrats and Religious Outreach". September 4, 2012. 
  107. ^ Timothy Dwyer (November 3, 2005). "For Kaine, a Faith in Service". 
  108. ^ "On Politics VERMONT/U.S. Senate Patrick J. Leahy (D) Senior Senator from Vermont". January 29, 2000. 
  109. ^ "Sen. Patrick Leahy (D) Vermont". March 21, 2013. 
  110. ^ "Governor of the State of West Virginia - Joe Manchin III". March 21, 2013. 
  111. ^ "Sen. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.)". 
  112. ^ Noah Bierman (April 21, 2013). "A drive that stunned Markey's family, and never ebbed Representative came in as a rebel, then rose". 
  113. ^ Doris Weatherford (March 21, 2013). Women in American Politics: History and Milestones, Volume 1. ISBN 9781608710072. 
  114. ^ "Sen. Claire McCaskill (D) Missouri". March 21, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Senator Robert 'Bob' Menendez's Biography". March 21, 2013. 
  116. ^ "Sen. Robert Menendez (D-N.J.)". March 21, 2013. 
  117. ^ [:// "Senator Lisa A. Murkowski's Biography"] Check |url= value (help). March 24, 2013. 
  118. ^ "Alaska U.S. Senate candidates answer questions about abortion, immigration, 'gay marriage' and capital punishment". October 30, 2010. 
  119. ^ Chris McGann, Claudia Rose (July 19, 2004). "Archbishop warns Catholic politicians on abortion". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  120. ^ Nancy Frazier O'Brien (November 11, 2004). "At 29 percent of 109th Congress, Catholics remain largest faith group". Catholic News Service. 
  121. ^ G. Wayne Miller (March 21, 2013). "A Humble Path to Power". 
  122. ^ "Sen. Jack Reed (D-R.I.)". March 21, 2013. 
  123. ^ Carolyn LaDelle Bennett (May 12, 2010). Same Ole Or Something New: Uprooting Power ENTRENCHMENT. ISBN 9781450086905. 
  124. ^ Albert J. Menendez (2011). "112th Congress -- Religious Affiliations" (PDF). 
  125. ^ Mark Oppenheimer (November 26, 2010). "Marco Rubio: Catholic or Protestant?". 
  126. ^ Chris Moody (June 19, 2012). "Whether Mormon, Catholic or Protestant, faith a major theme in Rubio memoir". 
  127. ^ "Senator Patrick 'Pat' J. Toomey's Biography". March 21, 2013. 
  128. ^ "Pennsylvania Catholic Conference Interview with U.S. Senate Candidate Pat Toomey- July 13, 2010" (PDF). July 13, 2010. 
  129. ^ "Sen. Mike Crapo (R) Idaho". March 24, 2013. 
  130. ^ Cameron Joseph (July 23, 2012). "Mormons on cusp of new powerful era". 
  131. ^ "Arizona, Senate Jeff Flake (R)". November 7, 2012. 
  132. ^ David Wagner; The Arizona Republic (November 8, 2012). "Profile: Arizona Sen.-elect Jeff Flake". 
  133. ^ Manu Raju (August 28, 2012). "Orrin Hatch: No need for Mitt Romney to talk Mormonism". 
  134. ^ Morgan Little (April 5, 2012). "Sen. Hatch predicts Obama campaign to 'throw Mormon church' at Romney". 
  135. ^ Peter Hambly (July 3, 2012). "Mormon influence in Nevada fading, but still a factor". 
  136. ^ Norimitsu Onishi (October 27, 2012). "In Nevada Senate Race, Ethics Inquiry Looms Large". 
  137. ^ "Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah)". March 24, 2013. 
  138. ^ Cameron Joseph (June 12, 2012). "Sen. Mike Lee: Mormons have 'added dose of a belief in American exceptionalism'". 
  139. ^ Patrick O'Driscoll (December 7, 2007). "Udall family is latest political dynasty". 
  140. ^ Kate Nash (November 29, 2007). "Ten things to know about Senate hopeful Rep. Tom Udall". The Albuquerque Tribune. 
  141. ^ David Plotz (September 15, 2000). "Richard Blumenthal He was supposed to be president. So why is he only Connecticut's attorney general?". 
  142. ^ Nick Baumann (January 7, 2010). "Why Richard Blumenthal is Popular". 
  143. ^ "NationalJournalAlmanac Maryland Sen. Ben Cardin (D)". March 24, 2013. 
  144. ^ "Senator Benjamin 'Ben' L. Cardin's Biography". March 24, 2013. 
  145. ^ "Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.)". March 24, 2013. 
  146. ^ Pearl, Judea; Pearl, Ruth; Barak, Ehud; Boorstein, Sylvia; Bronfman, Edgar M.; Colmes, Alan; Douglas, Kirk; Dreyfuss, Richard; Dukakis, Kitty (2005-01-01). I Am Jewish: Personal Reflections Inspired by the Last Words of Daniel Pearl. Jewish Lights Publishing. ISBN 9781580232593. 
  147. ^ Carolyn Lochhead (October 22, 2012). "Dianne Feinstein: 4 decades of influence". 
  148. ^ Jay Weiner (July 6, 2010). "Tuesday, Franken's hand will be on Wellstone Bible, his thoughts likely on the many Minnesotans he's met". 
  149. ^ Jilian Fama (December 11, 2012). "Jewish Representation in Congress Declines". 
  150. ^ "SENATOR BERNIE SANDERS United States Senator for Vermont" (PDF). March 24, 2013. 
  151. ^ Michael Powell (November 5, 2006). "Exceedingly Social, But Doesn't Like Parties". 
  152. ^ Sean Sullivan (December 27, 2012). "Who is Brian Schatz?". 
  153. ^ Seung Min Kim. "Why Neil Abercrombie bucked Daniel Inouye pick". 
  154. ^ Jqanette Friedman (March 24, 2013). "What Is Charles Schumer's Religion?". 
  155. ^ Jennifer Senior (November 8, 2004). "See Chuck Run. And Run. And Run. And Run. But where is he going?". 
  156. ^ "Senator Ron Wyden's Biography". March 24, 2013. 
  157. ^ Shelley M. Buxbaum, Sara E. Karesh (November 2002). Jewish Faith in America Prominent Jewish Politicians. ISBN 9781438102559. 
  158. ^ Yoree Koh (November 6, 2012). "Hirono Becomes First U.S. Senator Born in Japan". Wall Street Journal. 
  159. ^ Elizabeth Tenety (January 3, 2013). "In 113th Congress: First Hindu, first Buddhist in Senate, and (maybe) first 'none'". 
  160. ^ Mark Oppenheimer (November 9, 2012). "Politicians Who Reject Labels Based on Religion". 
  161. ^ "BIO: Who Is Tammy Baldwin?". November 6, 2012. 
  162. ^ Doug Erickson (November 20, 2012). "In the Spirit: When it comes to religious affiliation, Baldwin, Pocan 'unspecified'". Wisconsin State Journal. 
  163. ^ "Sen. Michael Bennet (D-Colo.)". March 24, 2013. 
  164. ^ "Sen. Michael Bennet (D) Colorado". March 24, 2013. 
  165. ^ Kurt F. Stone (December 29, 2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. ISBN 9780810877382. 
  166. ^ The Pew Research Center - America's Changing Religious Landscape


External links[edit]