Religious affiliation in the United States Senate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article covers the religious affiliation in the United States Senate.

While the religious preference of elected officials is by no means an indication of their allegiance nor necessarily reflective of their voting record, the religious affiliation of prominent members of all three branches of government is a source of commentary and discussion among the media and public. The topic is also of interest to religious groups and the general public who may appeal to senators of their denomination on religious or moral issues facing the United States Senate.

Religious affiliation of members of the 117th U.S. Senate.svg
General religious affiliation of members of the 117th U.S. Senate.svg

Current United States senators[edit]

The following list reports the religious affiliation of the members of the United States Senate in the 117th Congress. In most cases, besides specific sources, the current senators' religious affiliations are those mentioned in regular researches by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life at the Pew Research Center.[1]

Christians (86)[edit]

Protestants (58)[edit]

Presbyterians (13)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Sen. Marsha Blackburn (R-TN) official headshot - 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Marsha Blackburn Republican Tennessee Presbyterian[2]
John Barrasso official portrait 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Barrasso Republican Wyoming Presbyterian[3][4] Former Catholic.
Shelley Moore Capito official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Shelley Moore Capito Republican West Virginia Presbyterian[5]
Tom Carper, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Tom Carper Democratic Delaware Presbyterian[6][7]
Chris Coons, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Coons Democratic Delaware Presbyterian[8][9] Attends a Catholic church.[10]
Steve Daines official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Steve Daines Republican Montana Presbyterian[11]
Deb Fischer, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Deb Fischer Republican Nebraska Presbyterian[12][13]
Jim Inhofe official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Inhofe Republican Oklahoma Presbyterian[14][15]
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress alternate (cropped).jpg Rand Paul Republican Kentucky Presbyterian[16][17] Raised as an Episcopalian.[18][19]
Ben Sasse official portrait (cropped).jpg Ben Sasse Republican Nebraska Presbyterian[20] Raised as Lutheran;[21][22] former Reformed.[23][24]
Richard Shelby, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Richard Shelby Republican Alabama Presbyterian[25][26]
Tina Smith official photo (cropped).jpg Tina Smith Democratic Minnesota Presbyterian[1] Swore by an old Heilige Bibel, a family Bible.[27]
Mark Warner, official 111th Congress photo portrait (cropped).jpg Mark Warner Democratic Virginia Presbyterian[28][29]
Baptists (11)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Roy Blunt, Official Portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Roy Blunt Republican Missouri Baptist[30][31]
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Cory Booker Democratic New Jersey Baptist[32] Raised as a Methodist.[33]
John Boozman, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Boozman Republican Arkansas Baptist[34][35]
Ted Cruz official 116th portrait (cropped).jpg Ted Cruz Republican Texas Baptist[36][37]
Lindsey Graham, Official Portrait 2006 (cropped).jpg Lindsey Graham Republican South Carolina Baptist[38][39]
Chuck Grassley official photo 2017.jpg Chuck Grassley Republican Iowa Baptist[40][41]
Cindy Hyde-Smith official photo.jpg Cindy Hyde-Smith Republican Mississippi Baptist[42]
James Lankford official Senate photo (cropped).jpg James Lankford Republican Oklahoma Baptist[43][44] Former student ministries and evangelism specialist
for the Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma.
Mitch McConnell 2016 official photo (cropped).jpg Mitch McConnell Republican Kentucky Baptist[45][46]
Raphael Warnock official photo (cropped).jpg Raphael Warnock Democratic Georgia Baptist Pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church.
Roger F. Wicker crop.jpg Roger Wicker Republican Mississippi Baptist[47][48]
Methodists (7)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Richard Burr official portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Burr Republican North Carolina Methodist[49][50]
Tom Cotton official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Tom Cotton Republican Arkansas Methodist[51]
John Neely Kennedy, official portrait, 115th Congress.jpg John Neely Kennedy Republican Louisiana Methodist[52]
Jerry Moran, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Jerry Moran Republican Kansas Methodist[53][54]
Rob Portman official portrait (cropped).jpg Rob Portman Republican Ohio Methodist[55][56] Former Presbyterian.[57][58]
Debbie Stabenow, official portrait 2.jpg Debbie Stabenow Democratic Michigan Methodist[59][60]
Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Elizabeth Warren Democratic Massachusetts Methodist[61][62] Attends various churches.[63]
Lutherans (6)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Sherrod Brown 117th Congress (1) (cropped).jpg Sherrod Brown Democratic Ohio Lutheran[64][65][66]
Joni Ernst, official portrait, 116th Congress 2 (cropped).jpg Joni Ernst Republican Iowa Lutheran[64]
Heinrich Official Headshot 2019 (cropped).jpg Martin Heinrich Democratic New Mexico Lutheran[64][67][68]
Ron Johnson, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Ron Johnson Republican Wisconsin Lutheran[64][69][70]
Cynthia Lummis U.S. Senator (cropped).jpg Cynthia Lummis Republican Wyoming Lutheran[64][71]
Jeff Merkley, 115th official photo (cropped).jpg Jeff Merkley Democratic Oregon Lutheran[64][72][73]
Evangelicals (6)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Bill Cassidy official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Bill Cassidy Republican Louisiana Evangelical[74]
Kevin Cramer, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped).jpg Kevin Cramer Republican North Dakota Evangelical[75] Former Lutheran.[75]
Josh Hawley, official portrait, 116th congress.jpg Josh Hawley Republican Missouri Evangelical[76] Raised as a Methodist.[76]
Official Portrait of Senator Rick Scott (cropped).jpg Rick Scott Republican Florida Evangelical[77] Former Presbyterian.[77]
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Tim Scott Republican South Carolina Evangelical[78][79]
John Thune, official portrait, 111th Congress (cropped).jpg John Thune Republican South Dakota Evangelical[80][81]
Episcopalians (5)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Sen. Bill Hagerty official Senate portrait, 117th Congress (cropped).jpg Bill Hagerty Republican Tennessee Episcopalian[1]
Angus King, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Angus King Independent Maine Episcopalian[82][83][84]
Gary Peters official photo 115th congress (cropped).jpg Gary Peters Democratic Michigan Episcopalian[82][85][86]
Chris Van Hollen official portrait 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Van Hollen Democratic Maryland Episcopalian[82][87]
Sheldon Whitehouse 2010 (cropped).jpg Sheldon Whitehouse Democratic Rhode Island Episcopalian[82][88][89]
Congregationalists (2)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Maggie Hassan, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Maggie Hassan Democratic New Hampshire Congregationalist
(United Church of Christ)
Amy Klobuchar, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped closein3x4).jpg Amy Klobuchar Democratic Minnesota Congregationalist
(United Church of Christ)[90][91]
Restorationists (2)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
John Cornyn official senate portrait (cropped).jpg John Cornyn Republican Texas Restorationist
(Churches of Christ)[92][93]
Tommy Tuberville 117th Congress Portrait.jpg Tommy Tuberville Republican Alabama Restorationist
(Churches of Christ)[94]
Holiness (1)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
JonTester (cropped).jpg Jon Tester Democratic Montana Holiness
(Church of God)[95][96]
Quakers (1)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
John Hickenlooper, official portrait, 117th Congress (cropped).jpeg John Hickenlooper Democratic Colorado Quaker[97] "Raised on the periphery of the Episcopal Church",[98]
but misidentified as an Episcopalian in the Pew Report.[1]
Unspecified Protestants (4)[edit]
Senator Party State Religion Notes
Chris Murphy, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg Chris Murphy Democratic Connecticut Protestant[99][100] Raised as a Congregationalist.[101]
Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate photo portrait, 2009 (cropped).jpg Jeanne Shaheen Democratic New Hampshire Protestant[102][103]
Senator Todd Young official portrait (cropped).jpg Todd Young Republican Indiana Protestant[104]
Roger Marshall official portrait.jpg Roger Marshall Republican Kansas Protestant

Catholics (25)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Mike Braun, Official Portrait, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Braun Republican Indiana Catholic[105]
Maria Cantwell (cropped).jpg Maria Cantwell Democratic Washington Catholic[106][107]
Bob Casey Jr. official photo (cropped).jpg Bob Casey Democratic Pennsylvania Catholic[108][109]
Senator Susan Collins 2022 official portrait (cropped).jpg Susan Collins Republican Maine Catholic[110][111]
Catherine Cortez Masto official portrait (cropped).jpg Catherine Cortez Masto Democratic Nevada Catholic[112][113][114]
Richard Durbin official photo (cropped).jpg Dick Durbin Democratic Illinois Catholic[115][116]
Kirsten Gillibrand, official photo, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Kirsten Gillibrand Democratic New York Catholic[117][118]
John Hoeven, Official Senate Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg John Hoeven Republican North Dakota Catholic[119][120]
Tim Kaine 116th official portrait (cropped).jpg Tim Kaine Democratic Virginia Catholic[121][122]
Mark Kelly, Official Portrait 117th (cropped).jpg Mark Kelly Democratic Arizona Catholic[1] His wife, former Rep. Gabby Giffords, is Jewish.
Patrick Leahy official photo (cropped).jpg Patrick Leahy Democratic Vermont Catholic[123][124]
Ben Ray Lujan, 117th Congress portrait (cropped).jpg Ben Ray Luján Democratic New Mexico Catholic[1]
Joe Manchin official portrait 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Joe Manchin Democratic West Virginia Catholic[118][125]
Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Ed Markey Democratic Massachusetts Catholic[126][127]
Robert Menendez official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Bob Menendez Democratic New Jersey Catholic[128][129]
Lisa Murkowski.jpg Lisa Murkowski Republican Alaska Catholic[130][131]
Patty Murray, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Patty Murray Democratic Washington Catholic[132][133]
Alex Padilla 117th Congress portrait (cropped).jpg Alex Padilla Democratic California Catholic[134]
Jack Reed, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Jack Reed Democratic Rhode Island Catholic[135][136]
Jim Risch official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Risch Republican Idaho Catholic[137][138]
Mike Rounds official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Rounds Republican South Dakota Catholic[139][140]
Marco Rubio, Official Portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Marco Rubio Republican Florida Catholic[141][142] Former Latter-day Saint.[143]
Senator Dan Sullivan official (cropped).jpg Dan Sullivan Republican Alaska Catholic[144]
Thom Tillis official photo (cropped).jpg Thom Tillis Republican North Carolina Catholic
Pat Toomey, Official Portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Pat Toomey Republican Pennsylvania Catholic[145][146]

Latter-day Saints (3)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Mike Crapo Official Photo 110th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Crapo Republican Idaho Latter-day Saint[147][148]
Mike Lee official portrait 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Lee Republican Utah Latter-day Saint[149][150]
Mitt Romney official US Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Mitt Romney Republican Utah Latter-day Saint[151][152]

Jews (9)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Richard Blumenthal Official Portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Blumenthal Democratic Connecticut Jewish[153][154]
Jon Ossoff Senate Portrait 2021 (cropped).jpg Jon Ossoff Democratic Georgia Jewish[155]
Ben Cardin official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Ben Cardin Democratic Maryland Jewish[156][157]
Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2 (cropped).jpg Dianne Feinstein Democratic California Jewish[158][159][160]
Bernie Sanders (cropped).jpg Bernie Sanders Independent Vermont Jewish[161][162] Non-practicing.
Jacky Rosen, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped-1).jpg Jacky Rosen Democratic Nevada Jewish[163][164]
Brian Schatz, official portrait, 113th Congress 2 (cropped).jpg Brian Schatz Democratic Hawaii Jewish[165][166]
Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg Chuck Schumer Democratic New York Jewish[167][168]
Ron Wyden official photo (cropped).jpg Ron Wyden Democratic Oregon Jewish[169][170]

Buddhists (1)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Mazie Hirono, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Mazie Hirono Democratic Hawaii Buddhist
(Jōdo Shinshū)[171][172]

Unknown/refused to specify (3)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Tammy Baldwin, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Tammy Baldwin Democratic Wisconsin Unknown/Refused to specify[1][173][174] Baptized as an Episcopalian.[175]
Michael Bennet Official Photo (cropped).jpg Michael Bennet Democratic Colorado Unknown/Refused to specify[1][176][177] Raised in both Jewish and Christian traditions.[178]
Tammy Duckworth 115th official portrait (cropped).jpg Tammy Duckworth Democratic Illinois Unknown/Refused to specify[1] Sometimes acknowledged as Deist.[179]

Unaffiliated (1)[edit]

Senator Party State Religion Notes
Kyrsten Sinema (cropped).jpg Kyrsten Sinema Democratic Arizona Unaffiliated Raised as a Latter-day Saint.[180] Wore crucifix necklace on senate floor in 2022.

Comparison with general population[edit]

In conjunction with figures derived from the Pew Research Center's 2014 Religious Landscape Study,[181] the most basic breakdown of the above data indicates that 86% of the Senate identify as Christian (compared with 70.6% of the population), 9% of the Senate identify as Jewish (compared with 1.9% of the population), 1% of the Senate identifies with other religions (compared with 5.9% of the population), 3% of the Senate have unknown religions or refused to specify them (compared with 0.6% of the population), and 1% of the Senate remains unaffiliated (compared with 22.8% of the population).

The following table compares reported religious affiliations of U.S. senators to religious statistics of the demographics of the United States:

Religion Group # of sens % of sens % of population
Christians Catholics
25 / 100
25% 20.8%
13 / 100
13% 2.2%
11 / 100
11% 15.3%
7 / 100
7% 4.4%
6 / 100
6% 3.6%
5 / 100
5% 1.2%
Various other Protestants
16 / 100
16% 15.7%
Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
3 / 100
3% 1.6%
9 / 100
9% 1.9%
1 / 100
1% 1%
Unknown/Refused to state
3 / 100
3% 0.6%
1 / 100
1% 22.8%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Religious affiliation of members of 117th Congress" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  2. ^ Barnette, Amy (June 30, 2010). "Marsha Blackburn – 7th Congressional District". The Commercial Appeal. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012.
  3. ^ "Sen. John Barrasso (R-Wyo.)". March 21, 2013.
  4. ^ University of California, Santa Cruz (March 21, 2013). "Sen. John Barrasso (R-WY) 2nd term Republican from Wyoming. Appt. June 22, 2007".
  5. ^ "Shelley Moore Capito".
  6. ^ University of Delaware (January 19, 2011). "Thomas R. Carper Congressional Papers Biographical Note".
  7. ^ "Tom Carper". March 21, 2013.
  8. ^ "Senator Coons talks about faith and poverty". March 9, 2011. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013.
  9. ^ Frank Bruni (October 11, 2010). "With O'Donnell as Foil, Democrat Plays It Safe". New York Times.
  10. ^ "Sen. Christopher A. Coons, Democrat". June 29, 2016.
  11. ^ "Steve Daines".
  12. ^ "Roll Call New Member Profiles: 113th Congress Deb Fischer, R-Nebraska Senate". March 24, 2013.
  13. ^ Leslie Reed (April 22, 2012). "Fischer: Don't count me out". Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013.
  14. ^ "National Journal Almanac Oklahoma Sen. James Inhofe (R)". National Journal. March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  15. ^ United States Government Printing Office (October 17, 2005). Official Congressional Directory 2005-2006: 109th Congress. ISBN 9780160724671.
  16. ^ Bruce Schreiner; Roger Alford (October 18, 2010). "Rand Paul, Jack Conway Senate race turns bitter over religious accusations". Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press.
  17. ^ Steve Kornaki (May 17, 2010). "Will Rand Paul run for president in 2012?".
  18. ^ "5 faith facts about Rand Paul: 'My faith has never been easy for me'". February 2016.
  19. ^ Caldwell, Christopher (February 22, 2007). "Ron Paul - Presidential Election of 2008 - Elections - Candidates - Republicans". The New York Times.
  20. ^ J.C. Derrick (October 15, 2016). "Ben Sasse: A Reformed reformer". WORLD News Group.
  21. ^ "Ben Sasse Bio" Archived December 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Sarpy County Republican Party; retrieved December 16, 2014 and archived. on December 16, 2014 at Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Ben Sasse Biography". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  23. ^ Sasse, Ben (June 9, 2016). "2016 Commencement Address: Never Again Will Jerusalem Grieve". Westminster Seminary California. 2:00 minute mark.
  24. ^ Westminster Seminary California, Catalogue 2014–2015, p. 89; retrieved June 27, 2016.
  25. ^ "Richard Craig Shelby (R)". Washington Post. March 22, 2013.
  26. ^ University of California, Santa Cruz (March 22, 2013). "Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL)".
  27. ^ "There's a story behind that old Bible Tina Smith took the Senate oath on [sic]". Pioneer Press. January 3, 2018.
  28. ^ Matt Bai (March 12, 2006). "The Fallback". New York Times.
  29. ^ "2008 Democratic Hopefuls OFF THE TRAIL - Mark Warner". CBS News. March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010.
  30. ^ "Missouri: Seventh District Rep. Roy Blunt (R)". National Journal. July 10, 2013. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012.
  31. ^ "Sen. Roy Blunt (R-Mo.)". March 23, 2013.
  32. ^ Dan Gilgoff (August 7, 2009). "Newark Mayor Cory Booker's Course on World Religions". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  33. ^ "Newark Mayor Cory Booker's Course on World Religions (In Hebrew and English) - God & Country". U.S. News & World Report. August 7, 2009. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013.
  34. ^ "John Boozman (R)". Washington Post. March 22, 2013.
  35. ^ James O'Bryan (March 22, 2013). "What Is John Boozman's Religion?".
  36. ^ Lisa Olson; Houston Chronicle (October 15, 2012). "Profile: A man of many contrasts, Ted Cruz defies easy stereotypes".
  37. ^ Elizabeth Hartfield (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Wins In Texas GOP Senate Runoff".
  38. ^ "NationalJournal Sen. Lindsey Graham (R) South Carolina". National Journal. March 22, 2013.
  39. ^ Rebecca Eidson; Tri-County Technical College (April 24, 2012). "Senator Lindsey Graham to Deliver Spring Commencement Address".
  40. ^ "Chuck Grassley of Iowa --- United States Senator". March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013.
  41. ^ "Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa)". March 22, 2013.
  42. ^ "Meet Cindy".
  43. ^ Barone, Michael; Chuck McCutcheon (2011). The Almanac of American Politics 2012. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. pp. 1331–1333. ISBN 978-0-226-03807-0.
  44. ^ "About | James Lankford". Archived from the original on March 12, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  45. ^ "Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.)". March 22, 2013.
  46. ^ "Almanac Sen. Mitch McConnell (R) Kentucky". National Journal. November 9, 2013. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012.
  47. ^ "ISSUE STATEMENT : Family Values Protecting Family Values". March 22, 2013.
  48. ^ Edwin Smith (April 12, 2012). "U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker to Deliver Commencement Address". University of Mississippi.
  49. ^ "Richard M. Burr (R)". Washington Post. June 30, 2004.
  50. ^ Albert J. Menendez; United Methodist Church (January 6, 2009). "United Methodist members of 111th Congress". Archived from the original on February 23, 2011.
  51. ^ "Cotton draws religious beliefs into Arkansas Senate fight". Arkansas News Bureau. July 2, 2014.
  52. ^ "John Kennedy | United States senator [born 1951]". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  53. ^ "Jerry Moran (R)". Washington Post. June 30, 2004.
  54. ^ United Methodist Church (November 13, 2000). "News Archives United Methodist numbers increase in Congress".
  55. ^ Ververs, Vaughn (June 16, 2008). "Potential VP Bios: Republicans".
  56. ^ Jeff Zeleny (July 3, 2012). "Possible No. 2 to Romney Knows Ways of the Capital". New York Times.
  57. ^ Noah, Timothy (August 9, 2012). "Portman's Shaker Problem". The New Republic.
  58. ^ "Rob Portman's political profile remains high despite exclusion from national ticket: Analysis". cleveland. August 12, 2012.
  59. ^ Albert J. Menendez; United Methodist Church (November 27, 2012). "45 United Methodists in diverse Congress". Archived from the original on April 16, 2013.
  60. ^ "Michigan Manual 2009-2010 SENATOR DEBBIE STABENOW" (PDF). March 23, 2013.
  61. ^ Katrina vanden Heuvel (July 20, 2010). "The Case For Elizabeth Warren". The Nation.
  62. ^ Chris Moody (September 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren to DNC: The 'system is rigged' against you".
  63. ^ Victoria McGrane (September 2, 2017). "Religion is constant part of Elizabeth Warren's life". Boston Globe.
  64. ^ a b c d e f "Lutherans in Congress". Living Lutheran. January 5, 2015.
  65. ^ "New Member Profile: Sen.-Elect Sherrod Brown (D—Ohio)". New York Times. November 7, 2007.
  66. ^ Stephen Koff (September 21, 2011). "Sherrod Brown says 'Happy Jewish New Year.' Josh Mandel says it shows he's worried".
  67. ^ "Roll Call New Member Profiles: 113th Congress Martin Heinrich, D-N.M. (Senate)". March 22, 2013.
  68. ^ "Senator Martin T. Heinrich's Biography". March 22, 2013.
  69. ^ Larry Givins; Gannett Company (January 8, 2012). "Republican U.S. Senator Ron Johnson, of Oshkosh, carves niche as deficit hawk".
  70. ^ Crop Science Society of America. "JUNIOR SENATOR/WISCONSIN Sen. Ron Johnson (R) Elected 2010; 1st term" (PDF).
  71. ^ "Sen. Cynthia Lummis, R-Wyo". Roll Call.
  72. ^ "Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-Ore.)". March 22, 2013.
  73. ^ University of California, Los Angeles (March 22, 2013). "Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR) 1st term Democrat from Oregon".
  74. ^ "Bill Cassidy".
  75. ^ a b Balluck, Kyle (September 6, 2013). "Rep. Cramer, a loyal Republican, is wary of Tea Party's masterminds". TheHill.
  76. ^ a b "Can Missouri's young man in a hurry outrun his state's scandal?". Impact 2020. September 10, 2018.
  77. ^ a b "Rick Scott left Presbyterian church to help found Naples Community Church". July 31, 2010.
  78. ^ "GOP's Tim Scott's star rockets to the top". September 26, 2011. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014.
  79. ^ "Santorum Gains Support from Social Conservatives". Wall Street Journal. January 15, 2012.
  80. ^ "John Randolph Thune (R)". Washington Post. March 22, 2013.
  81. ^ "John Thune Fast Facts". March 7, 2013.
  82. ^ a b c d Services, Civil. "Episcopalian Senators of the United States Senate". Civil Services.
  83. ^ Colin Woodard (September 23, 2012). "The making of a man without a party The former governor's view of the world was shaped long before be [sic] ran for public office, and will likely continue to inform his choices". Portland Press Herald.
  84. ^ Alan Silverleib (February 15, 2013). "Independent's Day: King hopes to bridge divided D.C."
  85. ^ "Sen. Gary Peters (D-Mich.)". September 8, 2014.
  86. ^ "Michigan Senate: Gary Peters (D)". National Journal. 2014. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015.
  87. ^ "17 Episcopalians in Congress Who Oppose Gay Marriage". InsideSources. July 2, 2015.
  88. ^ "Senator Sheldon Whitehouse's Biography". March 23, 2012.
  89. ^ "Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.)". March 23, 2012.
  90. ^ United States Government Printing Office; United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing (March 22, 2013). Official Congressional Directory: 110th Congress : 2007-2008. ISBN 9780160788796.
  91. ^ United States Government Printing Office (March 22, 2013). "Congressional Directory for the 112th Congress (2011-2012), December 2011".
  92. ^ Houston Chronicle (August 3, 2010). "Texas delegation in depth: John Cornyn".
  93. ^ "Texas: Junior Senator Sen. John Cornyn (R)". National Journal. June 22, 2005. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
  94. ^ "What churches do U.S. senate candidates Tuberville, Jones attend?". October 28, 2020.
  95. ^ "Sen.-Elect Jon Tester (D—Mont.)". New York Times. November 8, 2006.
  96. ^ "Sen. Jon Tester (D-Mont.)". March 24, 2013.
  97. ^ "John Hickenlooper: Everything you need to know about the former 2020 presidential candidate". ABC News. August 15, 2019.
  98. ^ "The Happy Shrewdness of John W. Hickenlooper". 5280. August 2012.
  99. ^ "NationalJournalAlmanac Connecticut District 5 Rep. Chris Murphy (D)". National Journal. March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  100. ^ "Almanac CAMPAIGN 2006: THE NEWLY ELECTED Connecticut's 5th District: Chris Murphy (D)". National Journal. November 8, 2006. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  101. ^ "The Pope Addressed A Congress That's Much More Christian Than America". September 24, 2015.
  102. ^ "Candidate Profile from Congressional Quarterly Jeanne Shaheen (D) of Madbury". 1996.
  103. ^ Albert J. Menendez (2009). "111th Congress -- Religious Affiliations" (PDF).
  104. ^ "Members of Congress: Religious Affiliations". January 5, 2015.
  105. ^ "Michael Braun". Indiana Legislator Database. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  106. ^ United States Congress Joint Committee on Printing (January 4, 2005). Official Congressional Directory, 2005-2006, 109th Congress, Convened January 4, 2005 (Clothbound). ISBN 9780160724671.
  107. ^ Steve Benen (February 28, 2009). "POLITICAL ANIMAL THIS WEEK IN GOD".
  108. ^ John M. Broder (August 8, 2008). "Casey, an Abortion Opponent, Praises Obama". New York Times.
  109. ^ James O'Toole (September 10, 2006). "Casey says he's more than just the 'anti-Santorum'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  110. ^ "AllPolitics is presenting the freshmen of the 105th Congress every day between now and January". March 21, 2013.
  111. ^ "Senator Susan M. Collins's Biography". March 21, 2013.
  112. ^ Hertzke, Allen D.; Olson, Laura R.; Den Dulk, Kevin R.; Fowler, Robert Booth (August 6, 2018). Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices. ISBN 9780429947353.
  113. ^ "'It's About Time': 1st Latina Senator, 7 new Latinos sworn in House". NBC News. January 4, 2017.
  114. ^ "As Catholics and Americans, we can't sit by while our country destroys the planet". America Magazine. November 30, 2017.
  115. ^ "Senator Richard 'Dick' J. Durbin's Biography". March 21, 2013.
  116. ^ Mike Dorning, Margaret Talev (February 8, 2012). "Obama Weighed Religious Politics in Contraceptives Decision".
  117. ^ "Addresses of Legislators Listed in Order of District Number" (PDF). March 21, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2015.
  118. ^ a b Gail Russell Chaddock (February 9, 2012). "Catholic furor over birth control rule turns Democrats on one another". The Christian Science Monitor.
  119. ^ "John Hoeven (R) - Washington Post". Washington Post. March 21, 2013.
  120. ^ Harry Bradford (November 2, 2010). "What Is John Hoeven's Religion?".
  121. ^ "ONE NATION: RELIGION & POLITICS Tim Kaine: Democrats and Religious Outreach". September 4, 2012.
  122. ^ Timothy Dwyer (November 3, 2005). "For Kaine, a Faith in Service". Washington Post.
  123. ^ "On Politics VERMONT/U.S. Senate Patrick J. Leahy (D) Senior Senator from Vermont". Washington Post. January 29, 2000.
  124. ^ "Sen. Patrick Leahy (D) Vermont". National Journal. March 21, 2013.
  125. ^ "Governor of the State of West Virginia - Joe Manchin III". March 21, 2013. Archived from the original on March 11, 2013.
  126. ^ "Sen. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.)".
  127. ^ Noah Bierman (April 21, 2013). "A drive that stunned Markey's family, and never ebbed Representative came in as a rebel, then rose".
  128. ^ "Senator Robert 'Bob' Menendez's Biography". March 21, 2013.
  129. ^ "Sen. Robert Menendez (D-N.J.)". March 21, 2013.
  130. ^ "Senator Lisa A. Murkowski's Biography". March 24, 2013.
  131. ^ "Alaska U.S. Senate candidates answer questions about abortion, immigration, 'gay marriage' and capital punishment". October 30, 2010. Archived from the original on April 14, 2013.
  132. ^ Chris McGann, Claudia Rose (July 19, 2004). "Archbishop warns Catholic politicians on abortion". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
  133. ^ Nancy Frazier O'Brien (November 11, 2004). "At 29 percent of 109th Congress, Catholics remain largest faith group". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on November 17, 2004.
  134. ^ "Alex Padilla's Biography". Vote Smart. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  135. ^ G. Wayne Miller (March 21, 2013). "A Humble Path to Power". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013.
  136. ^ "Sen. Jack Reed (D-R.I.)". March 21, 2013.
  137. ^ Carolyn LaDelle Bennett (May 12, 2010). Same Ole Or Something New: Uprooting Power ENTRENCHMENT. ISBN 9781450086905.
  138. ^ Albert J. Menendez (2011). "112th Congress -- Religious Affiliations" (PDF).
  139. ^ "Rounds for Senate".
  140. ^ "Mike Rounds | United States senator". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  141. ^ Mark Oppenheimer (November 26, 2010). "Marco Rubio: Catholic or Protestant?". New York Times.
  142. ^ Chris Moody (June 19, 2012). "Whether Mormon, Catholic or Protestant, faith a major theme in Rubio memoir".
  143. ^ "Marco Rubio's book explains why he left Mormonism". The Salt Lake Tribune. June 20, 2012.
  144. ^ Hadro, Matt (November 3, 2014). "How the Catholic vote could sway Alaska's crucial Senate race". Catholic News Agency.
  145. ^ "Senator Patrick 'Pat' J. Toomey's Biography". March 21, 2013.
  146. ^ "Pennsylvania Catholic Conference Interview with U.S. Senate Candidate Pat Toomey- July 13, 2010" (PDF). July 13, 2010.
  147. ^ "Sen. Mike Crapo (R) Idaho". National Journal. March 24, 2013.
  148. ^ Cameron Joseph (July 23, 2012). "Mormons on cusp of new powerful era".
  149. ^ "Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah)". March 24, 2013.
  150. ^ Cameron Joseph (June 12, 2012). "Sen. Mike Lee: Mormons have 'added dose of a belief in American exceptionalism'".
  151. ^ Kranish, Michael; Paulson, Michael (June 25, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 2: Centered in faith, a family emerges". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. Also available as "Mitt's LDS roots run deep". Deseret Morning News. July 2, 2007.
  152. ^ Kaleem, Jaweed (August 29, 2012). "Mitt Romney Holds Mormon Faith Close Through Political Rise". The Huffington Post.
  153. ^ David Plotz (September 15, 2000). "Richard Blumenthal He was supposed to be president. So why is he only Connecticut's attorney general?".
  154. ^ Nick Baumann (January 7, 2010). "Why Richard Blumenthal is Popular".
  155. ^ Kampeas, Ron (March 21, 2017). "A Jewish candidate gives Democrats hope in Atlanta's suburbs". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  156. ^ "NationalJournalAlmanac Maryland Sen. Ben Cardin (D)". National Journal. March 24, 2013. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  157. ^ "Senator Benjamin 'Ben' L. Cardin's Biography". March 24, 2013.
  158. ^ "Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.)". March 24, 2013.
  159. ^ Pearl, Judea; Pearl, Ruth; Barak, Ehud; Boorstein, Sylvia; Bronfman, Edgar M.; Colmes, Alan; Douglas, Kirk; Dreyfuss, Richard; Dukakis, Kitty (January 1, 2005). I Am Jewish: Personal Reflections Inspired by the Last Words of Daniel Pearl. Jewish Lights Publishing. ISBN 9781580232593.
  160. ^ Carolyn Lochhead (October 22, 2012). "Dianne Feinstein: 4 decades of influence".
  161. ^ "SENATOR BERNIE SANDERS United States Senator for Vermont" (PDF). March 24, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2013.
  162. ^ Michael Powell (November 5, 2006). "Exceedingly Social, But Doesn't Like Parties". Washington Post.
  163. ^ Lochhead, Colton (July 4, 2016). "Congressional candidate Jacky Rosen a newcomer, unknown to most Southern Nevadans". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  164. ^ "Congressional candidate Jacky Rosen talks issues from health care to national security". Las Vegas Sun. April 20, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  165. ^ Sean Sullivan (December 27, 2012). "Who is Brian Schatz?". Washington Post.
  166. ^ Seung Min Kim. "Why Neil Abercrombie bucked Daniel Inouye pick".
  167. ^ Jqanette Friedman (March 24, 2013). "What Is Charles Schumer's Religion?".
  168. ^ Jennifer Senior (November 8, 2004). "See Chuck Run. And Run. And Run. And Run. But where is he going?".
  169. ^ "Senator Ron Wyden's Biography". March 24, 2013.
  170. ^ Shelley M. Buxbaum, Sara E. Karesh (November 2002). Jewish Faith in America Prominent Jewish Politicians. ISBN 9781438102559.
  171. ^ Yoree Koh (November 6, 2012). "Hirono Becomes First U.S. Senator Born in Japan". Wall Street Journal.
  172. ^ Elizabeth Tenety (January 3, 2013). "In 113th Congress: First Hindu, first Buddhist in Senate, and (maybe) first 'none'". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013.
  173. ^ Mark Oppenheimer (November 9, 2012). "Politicians Who Reject Labels Based on Religion". New York Times.
  174. ^ "BIO: Who Is Tammy Baldwin?". November 6, 2012. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
  175. ^ Doug Erickson (November 20, 2012). "In the Spirit: When it comes to religious affiliation, Baldwin, Pocan 'unspecified'". Wisconsin State Journal.
  176. ^ "Sen. Michael Bennet (D-Colo.)". March 24, 2013.
  177. ^ "Sen. Michael Bennet (D) Colorado". National Journal. March 24, 2013.
  178. ^ Kurt F. Stone (December 29, 2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. ISBN 9780810877382.
  179. ^ "Faith on the Hill: The Religious Composition of the 113th Congress". November 16, 2012.
  180. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (January 3, 2013). "Congress' first openly bisexual member grew up Mormon, graduated from BYU". Standard Examiner. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015.
  181. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". May 12, 2015.


External links[edit]