Page protected with pending changes

Religious affiliations of presidents of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The majority of American presidents have belonged to some Protestant faith. St. John's Church, an Episcopal church in Washington, D.C., has been visited by every sitting president since James Madison.[1]

The religious affiliations of presidents of the United States can affect their electability, shape their stances on policy matters and their visions of society and also how they want to lead it. Speculation of Thomas Jefferson,[2] Abraham Lincoln,[3][4] and William Howard Taft[5] being atheists was reported during election campaigns, while others, such as Jimmy Carter,[6] used faith as a defining aspect of their campaigns and tenure to hold the office.

Almost all of the presidents can be characterized as Christian, at least by upbringing, though some were unaffiliated with any specific religious body. Mainline Protestants predominate, with Episcopalians and Presbyterians being the most prevalent. John F. Kennedy was the first Catholic president and Joe Biden, the current one, is the second. There have been at least four nontrinitarian presidents. No president has openly identified as atheist.[7]

Formal affiliation[edit]

Most presidents have been formal members of a particular church or religious body, and a specific affiliation can be assigned to every president from James A. Garfield on. For many earlier presidents, however, formal church membership was forestalled until they left office; and in several cases a president never joined any church. Conversely, though every president from George Washington to John Quincy Adams can be definitely assigned membership in an Anglican or Unitarian body, the significance of these affiliations is often downplayed as unrepresentative of their true beliefs.[citation needed]

The pattern of religious adherence has changed dramatically over the course of United States history, so that the pattern of presidential affiliations is quite unrepresentative of modern membership numbers. For example, Episcopalians are extraordinarily well represented among the presidents compared to a current membership of about 2% of the population; this is partly because the Church of England, from which the Episcopal Church is derived, was the established church in some of the British Colonies (such as New York and Virginia) before the American Revolution. The Episcopal Church has been much larger previously, with its decline in membership occurring only in more recent decades.[8] The first seven presidents listed as Episcopalians were all from Virginia. Unitarians are also overrepresented, reflecting the importance of those colonial churches. Conversely, Baptists are underrepresented, a reflection of their quite recent expansion in numbers; the list includes only two Catholic presidents including the current president, although they are currently the largest single denomination, and there have been no Adventist, Anabaptist, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, Pentecostal, or Latter Day Saint presidents.

While many presidents did not formally join a church until quite late in life, there is a genre of tales of deathbed conversions. Biographers usually doubt these, though the baptism of James K. Polk is well documented.[9]

Personal beliefs[edit]

The inner beliefs of the presidents are much more difficult to establish than church membership. While some presidents have been relatively voluble about religion, many have been reticent to the point of complete obscurity. Researchers have tried to draw conclusions from patterns of churchgoing or religious references in political speeches. When explicit statements are absent, it is difficult to assess whether the presidents in question were irreligious, were unorthodox in their beliefs, or simply believed that religion was not a matter for public revelation.[citation needed]

On the other hand, there are several presidents who considered themselves aligned with a particular church, but who withheld from formal affiliation for a time. James Buchanan, for instance, held himself allied with the Presbyterian church, but refrained from joining it until he left office.[10]

Some presidents changed their beliefs and affiliation at some point in their lives; synthesis of statements and membership from different periods can be misleading.[citation needed]

Deism and the Founding Fathers[edit]

Deism was a religious philosophy in common currency in colonial times, and some Founding Fathers (most notably Thomas Paine, who was an explicit proponent of it, and Benjamin Franklin, who spoke of it in his Autobiography) are identified more or less with this system. Thomas Jefferson became a deist in later life, and Washington, James Madison, James Monroe, and John Tyler are often identified as having some degree of deistic beliefs.[11]

Unitarianism and Nontrinitarianism[edit]

Four presidents are affiliated with Unitarian churches, and a fifth (Jefferson) was an exponent of ideas now commonly associated with Unitarianism. Unitarians fall outside of Trinitarian Christianity, and the question arises as to the degree to which the presidents themselves held Christian precepts. The information is generally available in the statements of the presidents themselves; for example, John Quincy Adams left detailed statements of his beliefs. William Howard Taft, a Unitarian, is noted to have said in a letter to a friend, "I am interested in the spread of Christian civilization, but to go into a dogmatic discussion of creed I will not do whether I am defeated or not. ... If the American electorate is so narrow as not to elect a Unitarian, well and good. I can stand it."[12]

Two presidents were Quakers (Herbert Hoover and Richard Nixon) and information about their religion is harder to come by. Quakerism is, by its nature, not circumscribed by doctrines, but even so it is hard to determine whether either Hoover or Nixon had much adherence even to Quaker practice. For instance, it is common among Quakers to refuse to swear oaths; however, recordings show that Nixon did swear the oath of office in the conventional manner in all cases, and while the matter is clouded for Hoover, there is newspaper and circumstantial evidence that he did likewise.[citation needed] While Abraham Lincoln never officially joined a church, there has been some research indicating that he may have had Quaker leanings. During his time in office, he had numerous meetings with Quakers and had investigated a supposed Quaker ancestry.[13]

The only other president with any association with a definitely non-Trinitarian body is Dwight D. Eisenhower, whose parents moved from the River Brethren to the antecedents of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Eisenhower himself was baptized in the Presbyterian church shortly after assuming the presidency, the only president thus far to undergo such a rite while in office; and his attendance at West Point was in sharp opposition to the tenets of the groups to which his parents belonged.[14][15]

Nonreligious presidents[edit]

There are some presidents for whom there is little evidence as to the importance of religion in their lives. For example, almost no evidence exists for Monroe's personal religious beliefs, though this may be the result of the destruction of most of his personal correspondence, in which religious sentiments may have been recorded. As with claims of deism, these identifications are not without controversy. No president has declared himself to be atheist.[7]

Civic religion[edit]

St. John's Episcopal Church (built 1815–1816) just across Lafayette Square and north of the White House, is the church nearest to the White House, and its services have been attended at least once by nearly every president since James Madison (1809–1817).[16] Another Episcopal church, Washington National Cathedral, chartered by Congress in 1893, has hosted many funeral and memorial services of presidents and other dignitaries, as well as the site of interfaith presidential prayer services after their inaugurations, and the burial place of Woodrow Wilson.[17]

Presidential proclamations, from the earliest days, have often been laden with religious if not explicitly Christian language. In at least two cases, presidents saw fit to issue denials that they were atheists. At the same time, this was tempered, especially in early years, by a strong commitment to disestablishment. Several presidents especially stand out as exponents of this. Consideration of this has become increasingly contentious as topics such as civil rights and human sexuality have increasingly put churches at odds with each other and with the government.

List of presidents by religious affiliation[edit]

# Name Religion Branch Further branch Specific denomination Years in office Notes
29 Warren G. Harding Christian Protestant Baptist Northern Baptist 1921–1923
33 Harry S. Truman Christian Protestant Baptist Northern Baptist 1945–1953
39 Jimmy Carter Christian Protestant Baptist Southern Baptist Convention, New Baptist Covenant 1977–1981
42 Bill Clinton Christian Protestant Baptist Southern Baptist 1993–2001 Later left the Southern Baptist Convention
30 Calvin Coolidge Christian Protestant Reformed Congregationalist 1923–1929
20 James A. Garfield Christian Protestant Restorationist Churches of Christ 1881–1881 Formerly a member of the Disciples of Christ before it split into the Disciples of Christ and the Churches of Christ
36 Lyndon B. Johnson Christian Protestant Restorationist Disciples of Christ 1963–1969
8 Martin Van Buren Christian Protestant Reformed Reformed Church in America 1837–1841
26 Theodore Roosevelt Christian Protestant Reformed Reformed Church in America 1901–1909
7 Andrew Jackson Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1829–1837
15 James Buchanan Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1857–1861
22+24 Grover Cleveland Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1885–1889; 1893–1897
23 Benjamin Harrison Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1889–1893 Ruling elder of First Presbyterian Church in Indianapolis
28 Woodrow Wilson Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1913–1921 Became a ruling elder of Second Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey in 1897
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower Christian Protestant Reformed United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 1953–1961
40 Ronald Reagan Christian Protestant Reformed Presbyterian Church (USA) 1981–1989 Baptized into the Disciples of Christ but disaffiliated and became a member of Bel Air Presbyterian Church in his later years
1 George Washington Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1789–1797 Baptized into the Church of England. It was reorganized as the Episcopal Church after the American Revolution. A Masonic lodge was established in Fredericksburg in September 1752, and Washington was initiated two months later at the age of 20 as one of its first Entered Apprentices. Within a year, he progressed through its ranks to become a Master Mason.[18]
4 James Madison Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1809–1817 Although baptized as an Anglican and educated by Presbyterian clergymen,[19] young Madison was an avid reader of English deist tracts.[20] As an adult, Madison paid little attention to religious matters. Though most historians have found little indication of his religious leanings after he left college,[21] some scholars indicate he leaned toward deism.[22][23]
5 James Monroe Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1817–1825
9 William Henry Harrison Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1841–1841
10 John Tyler Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1841–1845
12 Zachary Taylor Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1849–1850
14 Franklin Pierce Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1853–1857
21 Chester A. Arthur Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1881–1885
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1933–1945
38 Gerald R. Ford Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1974–1977
41 George H. W. Bush Christian Protestant Anglican Episcopalian 1989–1993
11 James K. Polk Christian Protestant Methodist Methodist 1845–1849 Never baptized until on his deathbed. Formerly more or less affiliated with Presbyterian churches. He eventually received a deathbed Methodist baptism by Methodist preacher John Berry McFerrin.[24]
18 Ulysses S. Grant Christian[25] Protestant Methodist[25] Methodist 1869–1877
25 William McKinley Christian Protestant Methodist Methodist Episcopal Church 1897–1901 Member of First Methodist Episcopal Church in Canton, Ohio
43 George W. Bush Christian Protestant Methodist United Methodist 2001–2009 Former Episcopalian. Bush left his family's Episcopal church to join his wife's United Methodist church.[26]
31 Herbert Hoover Christian Protestant Quaker N/A[27] 1929–1933
37 Richard M. Nixon Christian Protestant Quaker N/A[27] 1969–1974 Raised in an Evangelical Friends affiliated church.[28]
2 John Adams Christian Nontrinitarian Unitarian N/A 1797–1801 Former Congregationalist. He later became a Unitarian, and dropped belief in predestination, eternal damnation, the divinity of Christ, and most other Calvinist beliefs of his Puritan ancestors.
6 John Quincy Adams Christian Nontrinitarian Unitarian N/A 1825–1829
13 Millard Fillmore Christian Nontrinitarian Unitarian N/A 1850–1853
27 William Howard Taft Christian Nontrinitarian Unitarian N/A 1909–1913
19 Rutherford B. Hayes Christian[29] Protestant Unspecified Protestant[29] Presbyterian and Methodist churches 1877–1881
44 Barack Obama Christian Protestant Unspecified Protestant[30] Various, including Episcopalian, Baptist and Methodist churches 2009–2017 Former United Church of Christ member.[30] He left it as a presidential candidate during the Jeremiah Wright controversy in 2008.
45 Donald Trump Christian Protestant Unspecified Protestant[31] Largely Presbyterian 2017–2021 Was married to his wife Melania in the Episcopal church of Bethesda-by-the-Sea in Palm Beach, Florida. Their son Barron was baptized there.[32][33][34]
35 John F. Kennedy Christian Catholic Roman Catholic Latin Church 1961–1963 Kennedy was the first Catholic president.
46 Joe Biden Christian Catholic Roman Catholic Latin Church 2021–present Biden is the second Catholic president.
17 Andrew Johnson Christian N/A N/A N/A 1865–1869 Johnson self-identified as a Christian, but he is not known to have been a member or have any formal affiliation with any church. He sometimes attended Methodist services with his wife, and he also attended Catholic services.[35] [36]
16 Abraham Lincoln None specified 1861–1865
3 Thomas Jefferson Irreligious Deist N/A N/A 1801–1809 Although raised as an Anglican, Jefferson later in life rejected the idea of the divinity of Jesus and became a deist.[43][44] Jefferson compiled Jesus' biblical teachings, omitting miraculous or supernatural references. He titled the work The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, known today as the Jefferson Bible.[45]

List of presidents with details on their religious affiliation[edit]

For each president, the formal affiliation at the time of his presidency is listed first, with other affiliations listed after. Further explanation follows if needed, as well as notable detail.

  1. George WashingtonEpiscopalian and Deist[46]
  2. John AdamsUnitarian[47]
  3. Thomas Jefferson – None specified, likely Deist[54][55]

    Like many others of his time (he died just one year after the founding of institutional Unitarianism in America), Jefferson was a Unitarian in theology, though not in church membership. He never joined a Unitarian congregation: there were none near his home in Virginia during his lifetime. He regularly attended Joseph Priestley's Pennsylvania church when he was nearby, and said that Priestley's theology was his own, and there is no doubt Priestley should be identified as Unitarian. Jefferson remained a member of the Episcopal congregation near his home, but removed himself from those available to become godparents, because he was not sufficiently in agreement with the Trinitarian theology. His work, the Jefferson Bible, was Unitarian in theology ...

    • In a letter to Benjamin Rush prefacing his "Syllabus of an Estimate of the Merit of the Doctrines of Jesus", Jefferson wrote:

    In some of the delightful conversations with you, in the evenings of 1798–99, and which served as an anodyne to the afflictions of the crisis through which our country was then laboring, the Christian religion was sometimes our topic; and I then promised you, that one day or other, I would give you my views of it. They are the result of a life of inquiry & reflection, and very different from that anti-Christian system imputed to me by those who know nothing of my opinions. To the corruptions of Christianity I am indeed opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence; & believing he never claimed any other.[58]

    You are right in supposing, in one of yours, that I had not read much of Priestley's Predestination, his No-soul system, or his controversy with Horsley. but I have read his Corruptions of Christianity, & Early opinions of Jesus, over and over again; and I rest on them, and on Middleton's writings, especially his letters from Rome, and to Waterland, as the basis of my own faith. these writings have never been answered, nor can be answered, by quoting historical proofs, as they have done. for these facts therefore I cling to their learning, so much superior to my own.[59]

  4. James MadisonEpiscopalian and Deist[60]
    • Although Madison tried to keep a low profile in regards to religion, he seemed to hold religious opinions, like many of his contemporaries, that were closer to deism or Unitarianism in theology than conventional Christianity. He was raised in the Church of England and attended Episcopal services, despite his personal disputes with the theology.[61]
  5. James MonroeEpiscopalian
    • Monroe was raised in a family that belonged to the Church of England when it was the state church in Virginia, and as an adult attended Episcopal churches.[62]
    • "When it comes to Monroe's ... thoughts on religion", Bliss Isely comments in his The Presidents: Men of Faith, "less is known than that of any other President." Monroe burned much of his correspondence with his wife, and no letters survive in which he discusses his religious beliefs; nor did his friends, family or associates write about his beliefs. Letters that do survive, such as ones written on the occasion of the death of his son, contain no discussion of religion.[62]
    • Some authors conclude that Monroe's writings show evidence of "deistic tendencies".[62]
  6. John Quincy AdamsUnitarian[63]
    • Adams's religious views shifted over the course of his life. In college and early adulthood he preferred trinitarian theology, and from 1818 to 1848 he served as vice president of the American Bible Society.[64] However, as he grew older his views became more typically Unitarian, though he rejected some of the views of Joseph Priestley and the Transcendentalists.[64]
    • He was a founding member of the First Unitarian Church of Washington (D.C.).[64] However he regularly attended Presbyterian and Episcopal services as well.[64]
    • Towards the end of his life, he wrote, "I reverence God as my creator. As creator of the world. I reverence him with holy fear. I venerate Jesus Christ as my redeemer; and, as far as I can understand, the redeemer of the world. But this belief is dark and dubious."[64]
  7. Andrew JacksonPresbyterian[65]
    • He became a member of the Presbyterian Church about a year after leaving the presidency.[66]
  8. Martin Van BurenDutch Reformed[67]
  9. William Henry HarrisonEpiscopalian[71]
  10. John TylerEpiscopalian[73]
    • Although affiliated with the Episcopal church, he did not take "a denominational approach to God."[74] Tyler was a strong supporter of religious tolerance and separation of church and state.
  11. James K. PolkMethodist[75]
    • Polk came from a Presbyterian upbringing but was not baptized as a child, due to a dispute with the local Presbyterian minister in rural North Carolina. Polk's father and grandfather were Deists, and the minister refused to baptize James unless his father affirmed Christianity, which he would not do.[76][77] Polk had a conversion experience at a Methodist camp meeting when he was thirty-eight, and thereafter considered himself Methodist. Nevertheless, he continued to attend Presbyterian services with his wife, though he went to the local Methodist chapel when she was ill or out of town. On his deathbed, he summoned the Rev. John B. McFerrin, who had converted him years before, to baptize him.[75]
  12. Zachary TaylorEpiscopalian[78]
    • Although raised an Episcopalian and married to a devout Episcopalian, he never became a full communicant member in the church.[78]
  13. Millard FillmoreUnitarian[79]
  14. Franklin PierceEpiscopalian[36]
  15. James BuchananPresbyterian[80]
    • Buchanan, raised a Presbyterian, attended and supported various churches throughout his life. He joined the Presbyterian Church after leaving the presidency.[81]
  16. Abraham Lincoln – None specified[82]
    • Life before the presidency
      • Some believe that for much of his life, Lincoln was a Deist.[83]
      • Rev. Dr. Phineas D. Gurley, pastor of the New York Avenue Presbyterian church in Washington D.C., which Lincoln attended with his wife when he attended any church, never claimed a conversion. According to D. James Kennedy in his booklet, "What They Believed: The Faith of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln", "Dr. Gurley said that Lincoln had wanted to make a public profession of his faith on Easter Sunday morning. But then came Ford's Theater." (p. 59, Published by Coral Ridge Ministries, 2003) Though this is possible, we have no way of verifying the truth of the report. The chief evidence against it is that Dr. Gurley, so far as we know, never mentioned it publicly. The determination to join, if accurate, would have been extremely newsworthy. It would have been reasonable for Dr. Gurley to have mentioned it at the funeral in the White House, in which he delivered the sermon which has been preserved.[84] The only evidence we have is an affidavit signed more than sixty years later by Mrs. Sidney I. Lauck, then a very old woman. In her affidavit signed under oath in Essex County, New Jersey, February 15, 1928, she said, "After Mr. Lincoln's death, Dr. Gurley told me that Mr. Lincoln had made all the necessary arrangements with him and the Session of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church to be received into the membership of the said church, by confession of his faith in Christ, on the Easter Sunday following the Friday night when Mr. Lincoln was assassinated." Mrs. Lauck was, she said, about thirty years of age at the time of the assassination.
      • John Remsburg, president of the American Secular Union, argued against claims of Lincoln's conversion in his book Six Historic Americans (1906). He cites several of Lincoln's close associates:
        • The man who stood nearest to President Lincoln at Washington – nearer than any clergyman or newspaper correspondent – was his private secretary, Col. John G. Nicolay. In a letter dated May 27, 1865, Colonel Nicolay says: "Mr. Lincoln did not, to my knowledge, in any way change his religious ideas, opinions, or beliefs from the time he left Springfield to the day of his death."
        • After his assassination Mrs. Lincoln said: "Mr. Lincoln had no hope and no faith in the usual acceptance of these words." His lifelong friend and executor, Judge David Davis, affirmed the same: "He had no faith in the Christian sense of the term." His biographer, Colonel Lamon, intimately acquainted with him in Illinois, and with him during all the years that he lived in Washington, says: "Never in all that time did he let fall from his lips or his pen an expression which remotely implied the slightest faith in Jesus as the son of God and the Savior of men."[85]
  17. Andrew Johnson – No formal affiliation[86]
    • He accompanied his wife Eliza McCardle Johnson to Methodist services sometimes, belonged to no church himself, and sometimes attended Catholic services—remarking favorably that there was no reserved seating.[87]
  18. Ulysses S. GrantMethodist[11]
    • Grant was never baptized into any church, though he accompanied his wife Julia Grant to Methodist services. Many sources list his religious affiliation as Methodist based on a Methodist minister's account of a deathbed conversion. He did leave a note for his wife in which he hoped to meet her again in a better world.
    • In his 1875 State of the Union address, during conflicts over Catholic parochial schooling, Grant called for a constitutional amendment that would require all states to establish free public schools while "forbidding the teaching in said schools of religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets; and prohibiting the granting of any school funds or school taxes ... for the benefit ... of any religious sect or denomination."[88] The proposed Blaine Amendment to the Constitution followed.
  19. Rutherford B. Hayes – Unspecified Protestant
    • Hayes came from a Presbyterian family, but attended Methodist schools as a youth.[89]
    • Many sources list him as Methodist; in general, however, it is agreed that he held himself to be a Christian, but of no specific church.[90]
    • In his diary entry for May 17, 1890, he states: "Writing a few words for Mohonk Negro Conference, I find myself using the word Christian. I am not a subscriber to any creed. I belong to no church. But in a sense, satisfactory to myself and believed by me to be important, I try to be a Christian, or rather I want to be a Christian and to help do Christian work."[91]
    • Hayes' wife, Lucy, was a Methodist, a temperance advocate, and deeply opposed to slavery; he generally attended church with her.[90]
  20. James GarfieldDisciples of Christ[92]
    • He was baptized at age eighteen.[92]
    • Through his twenties, Garfield preached and held revival meetings, though he was never formally a minister within the church.[92]
    • Charles J. Guiteau attempted to assassinate Garfield at a sermon.[93]
  21. Chester A. ArthurEpiscopalian[94]
  22. Grover ClevelandPresbyterian[96]
  23. Benjamin HarrisonPresbyterian[97]
    • Harrison became a church elder, and taught Sunday school.
  24. Grover Cleveland – Presbyterian
  25. William McKinleyMethodist[98]
    • Early in life, he planned to become a Methodist minister.[99]
    • James Rusling, a McKinley supporter, related a story that McKinley had addressed a church delegation and had stated that one of the objectives of the Spanish–American War was "to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them".[100] Recent historians have judged this account unreliable, especially in light of implausible[vague] statements Rusling made about Lincoln's religion.[101][102]
    • McKinley is the only president to include exclusively Christian language in his Thanksgiving Day proclamation.[103]
  26. Theodore RooseveltDutch Reformed[104]
    • Roosevelt always stated that he was Dutch Reformed; however, he attended Episcopal churches where there was no Reformed church nearby. (His second wife Edith was Episcopalian from birth.)[104] As there was no Dutch Reformed church in Oyster Bay, New York, he attended Christ Church Oyster Bay when in residence there, and it was in that church that his funeral was held.[104]
    • His mother was Presbyterian and as a child he attended Presbyterian churches with her.[105]
  27. William Howard Taft – Unitarian[106]
    • Before becoming president, Taft was offered the presidency of Yale University, at that time affiliated with the Congregationalist Church; Taft turned the post down, saying, "I do not believe in the divinity of Christ."[107]
    • Taft's beliefs were the subject of some controversy, and in 1908 he found it necessary to refute a rumor that he was an atheist.[5]
  28. Woodrow WilsonPresbyterian[108]
    • Wilson's father was a Presbyterian minister and professor of theology.[108]
    • Prior to being Governor of New Jersey and President of the United States, Wilson served as President of Princeton University, which was at the time affiliated with the Presbyterian Church.[108]
  29. Warren G. HardingBaptist[109][110]
  30. Calvin CoolidgeCongregationalist[111][112]
  31. Herbert HooverQuaker[113]
    • As Quakers customarily do not swear oaths, it was expected that Hoover would affirm the oath of office, and most sources state that he did so.[114][115] However, a Washington Post article dated February 27, 1929, stated that he planned to swear, rather than affirm, the oath.[116]
  32. Franklin D. RooseveltEpiscopalian[117]
  33. Harry S. TrumanBaptist[118]
    • Truman kept his religious beliefs private and alienated some Baptist leaders by doing so.[119]
  34. Dwight D. EisenhowerPresbyterian[14]
    • Eisenhower's religious upbringing is the subject of some controversy, due to the conversion of his parents to the Bible Student movement, the forerunner of the Jehovah's Witnesses, in the late 1890s. Originally, the family belonged to the River Brethren, a Mennonite sect.[14] According to the Eisenhower Presidential Library, there is no evidence that Eisenhower participated in either the Bible Student group or the Jehovah's Witnesses, and there are records that show he attended Sunday school at a River Brethren church.[14]
    • Until he became president, Eisenhower had no formal church affiliation, a circumstance he attributed to the frequent moves demanded of an Army officer. He was baptized, confirmed, and became a communicant in the Presbyterian church in a single ceremony February 1, 1953, just 12 days after his first inauguration, the only president to undergo any of these rites while in office.[14]
    • Eisenhower was instrumental in the addition of the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954 (an act highly promoted by the Knights of Columbus), and the 1956 adoption of "In God We Trust" as the motto of the US, and its 1957 introduction on paper currency. He composed a prayer for his first inauguration, began his Cabinet meetings with silent prayer, and met frequently with a wide range of religious leaders while in office.[14]
    • His presidential library includes an inter-denominational chapel in which he, his wife Mamie, and his firstborn son (who died in childhood) are buried.
  35. John F. KennedyRoman Catholic[120]
    • Kennedy was the first Catholic president. President Biden is the second.
  36. Lyndon B. JohnsonDisciples of Christ[121]
  37. Richard M. NixonQuaker[122]
    • Contrary to Quaker custom, Nixon swore the oath of office at both of his inaugurations. He also engaged in military service, contrary to the Quaker doctrine of pacifism.
  38. Gerald R. FordEpiscopalian[123]
  39. Jimmy CarterBaptist[124]
    • In 2000, Carter criticized the Southern Baptist Convention, disagreeing over the role of women in society. He continued to teach Sunday school and serve as a deacon in his local Baptist church.
  40. Ronald ReaganPresbyterian[125]
    • Reagan's father was Catholic,[126] but Reagan was raised in his mother's Disciples of Christ denomination and was baptized there on September 21, 1922.[127] Nancy and Ronald Reagan were married in the Disciples of Christ "Little Brown Church" in Studio City, California on March 4, 1952. Beginning in 1963 Reagan generally attended Presbyterian church services at Bel Air Presbyterian Church, Bel-Air, California. During his presidency he rarely attended church services, due to the inconvenience to others in the congregation.[128] He became an official member of Bel Air Presbyterian after leaving the Presidency. Reagan stated that he considered himself a "born-again Christian".[125]
  41. George H. W. BushEpiscopalian[129]
  42. Bill ClintonBaptist[130]
    • Clinton, during his presidency, attended a Methodist church in Washington along with his wife Hillary Clinton, who is Methodist from childhood.[131]
  43. George W. BushMethodist[132]
    • Bush was raised in the Episcopal Church but converted to Methodism upon his marriage in 1977.[132]
  44. Barack Obama – Unspecified Protestant[30]
  45. Donald Trump – Unspecified Protestant[31]
  46. Joe Biden - Roman Catholic[140]

Affiliation totals[edit]

Religion # Branch # Further branch # Denomination #
Christian 42 Protestant 36 Anglican 11 Episcopalian 11
Reformed 10 Presbyterian 7
Dutch Reformed 2
Congregationalist 1
Baptist 4 Northern 2
Southern 2
Methodist 4
Restorationist 2 Disciples of Christ 1
Churches of Christ 1
Quaker 2
Unspecified 3
Nontrinitarian 4 Unitarian 4
Catholic 2 Latin Catholic 2
None specified 3[a]
Total individuals[141] 45[b]
  1. ^ Jefferson, Lincoln, and Andrew Johnson.[141]
  2. ^ Because Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd and 24th president and only counted once, the total is "off by one".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "St. John's Church". WHHA. Archived from the original on 2020-10-05. Retrieved 2020-12-20.
  2. ^ Sanford, Charles B. (1984). The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: Univ Press Of Virginia. p. 246. ISBN 0-8139-1131-1.
  3. ^ Richard N. Ostling. "Book lays out story of Lincoln' complex beliefs". Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  4. ^ "Abraham Lincoln's Humanistic Religious Beliefs". Archived from the original on January 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  5. ^ a b "Taft as a Churchman; Belongs to Unitarian Church of Cincinnati, and Has a Pew in Washington" (PDF). New York Times. June 17, 1908. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-02-16. Word reached Washington to-day that the report is being energetically circulated that Secretary Taft is an atheist, and the Secretary's friends are indignant.
  6. ^ "1980 - Bible". The Living Room Candidate. Museum of the Moving Image.
  7. ^ a b Kurtzleben, Danielle (12 June 2015). "'Religious Nones' Are Growing Quickly. Should Republicans Worry?". NPR. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  8. ^ Colonial Williamsburg website has four articles on religion in colonial Virginia
  9. ^ Byrnes, Mark Eaton (2001). James K. Polk: A Biographical Companion. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 52. ISBN 9781576070567 – via Google Books. On his deathbed Polk was baptized into the Methodist church.
  10. ^ "Timeline | Articles and Essays | James Buchanan and Harriet Lane Johnston Papers | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  11. ^ a b "Religious Affiliation of U.S. Presidents". Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  12. ^ Terzian, Philip (November 4, 2011), Weekly Standard: Bigoted Against Brigham's Faith?, National Public Radio
  13. ^ Bassuk, Daniel. (1987). "Abraham Lincoln and the Quakers". Pendle Hill Quaker Center for Study and Contemplation.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Pankratz, Herbert (July 2001). "A Guide to Historical Holdings in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Eisenhower and Religion" (PDF). United States Archives. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  15. ^ Worship the Only True God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2002, p. 159.
  16. ^ "History – St. John's Church".
  17. ^ "Timeline".
  18. ^ Randall 1997, p. 67; Chernow 2010, p. 27.
  19. ^ Feldman 2017, p. 7
  20. ^ Hoffer, Peter Charles (2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early America. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-8018-8483-2. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  21. ^ Hutson, James H. (2003). Forgotten Features of the Founding: The Recovery of Religious Themes in the Early American Republic. Lexington Books. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-7391-0570-2.
  22. ^ Miroff, Bruce; et al. (2011). Debating Democracy: A Reader in American Politics. Cengage Learning. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-495-91347-4. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  23. ^ Corbett, Michael (2013). Politics and Religion in the United States. Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-135-57975-3. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  24. ^ Mayo, Louise (2006). President James K. Polk : the dark horse president. New York: Nova History Publications. p. 8. ISBN 1594547181. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  25. ^ a b "Religion of Ulysses S Grant, U.S. President". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  26. ^ "The Jesus Factor". PBS. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  27. ^ a b There are no Quaker denominations as such to be compared with, for example, the United Methodist Church or the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and there never were. Quakers are independent of being affiliated with a specific denomination and Quaker membership can only be more or less estimated on their yearly meetings which provides a contentious image of how many Quakers there really are.
  28. ^ Dockhorn, Robert (1 November 2015). "Nixon's First Cover-Up: The Religious Life of a Quaker President — reviewed". Friends Journal. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  29. ^ a b "The religion of Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th U.S. President". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  30. ^ a b c * "American President: Barack Obama". Charlottesville, VA: Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. 2009. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2009. Religion: Christian * "The Truth about Barack's Faith" (PDF). Obama for America. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2012. * Miller, Lisa (July 18, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago. * Barakat, Matthew (November 17, 2008). "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized; D.C. churches have started extending invitations to Obama and his family". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2009. The United Church of Christ, the denomination from which Obama resigned when he left Wright's church, issued a written invitation to join a UCC denomination in Washington and resume his connections to the church. * "Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President". United Church of Christ. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States. * Sullivan, Amy (June 29, 2009). "The Obama's find a church home – away from home". Time. New York. Retrieved February 5, 2010. instead of joining a congregation in Washington, D.C., he will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David. * Kornblut, Anne E. (February 4, 2010). "Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say". The Washington Post. p. A6. Retrieved February 5, 2010. Obama prays privately ... And when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them, with the daughters attending a form of Sunday school there.
  31. ^ a b c Jenkins, Jack (24 October 2020). "Trump, confirmed a Presbyterian, now identifies as 'non-denominational Christian'". America Magazine.
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Barron Trump to attend Maryland's St. Andrew's Episcopal School in the fall". Episcopal Church. 2017-05-15. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  35. ^ "Religion of Andrew Johnson, U.S. President". Archived from the original on November 19, 2005.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  36. ^ a b "Almost all U.S. presidents, including Trump, have been Christians". Pew Research Center. 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
  37. ^ Guelzo, Allen C. (1997). "Abraham Lincoln and the Doctrine of Necessity". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 18 (1).
  38. ^ Cady, John F. (March 1941). "The Religious Environment of Lincoln's Youth". Indiana Magazine of History.
  39. ^ Mary T. Lincoln to James Smith, June 8, 1870, in Robert J. Havlik, "Abraham Lincoln and the Reverend Dr. James Smith: Lincoln's Presbyterian experience of Springfield," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (Autumn, 1999) online
  40. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). "The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln". Scribner's Monthly. 6 (3): 339. Retrieved 2010-02-20. quoting Phineas Gurley
  41. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). "The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln". 6 (3). Scribner's Monthly: 340. Retrieved 2010-02-20. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Noah Brooks to J.A. Reed, December 31, 1872
  42. ^ Steiner, Franklin (1936). "Abraham Lincoln, Deist, and Admirer of Thomas Paine". Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2010-05-31.
  43. ^ "People and Ideas: Early America's Formation | American Experience | PBS". PBS.
  44. ^
  45. ^ Jefferson Bible, 1820
  46. ^ "The Religion of George Washington". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved 2008-09-19.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  47. ^ "American President: John Adams". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  48. ^ a b "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic: Religion and the Federal Government". Library of Congress. 4 June 1998. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  49. ^ George Willis Cooke. "Unitarianism in America" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
  50. ^ Wesley White (2008). "The Roots of Our Belief" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
  51. ^ "Darlington Congregational Church: Our History". Retrieved 2011-06-23.
  52. ^ "John Adams". Unitarian Universalist Association. Archived from the original on 2002-12-31. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  53. ^ "Founders Online: From John Adams to Benjamin Rush, 28 August 1811". Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  54. ^ a b "The Religion of Thomas Jefferson". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved 2009-01-23.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  55. ^ "American President: Thomas Jefferson". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  56. ^ Gaustad, Edwin S. (1995). Sworn of the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8028-0156-2. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
  57. ^ "Thomas Jefferson". Unitarian Universalist Association. Archived from the original on 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  58. ^ transcript from "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Rush". beliefnet. Retrieved 2008-12-30. The original letter may be viewed on the Library of Congress website here [1].
  59. ^ transcript from "Thomas Jefferson to John Adams". US National Archives. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  60. ^ "American President: James Madison". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
  61. ^ James Hutson (16 March 2001). "James Madison and the Social Utility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  62. ^ a b c David Holmes (Autumn 2003). "The Religion of James Monroe". Virginia Quarterly Review. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  63. ^ "American President: John Quincy Adams: Family Life". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
  64. ^ a b c d e "John Quincy Adams". Unitarian Universalist Association. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
  65. ^ "American President: Andrew Jackson". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
  66. ^ Wilentz, Sean (2005). Andrew Jackson. Macmillan. p. 160.
  67. ^ "American President: Martin Van Buren". University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-11-12. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  68. ^ "Martin Van Buren". Kinderhook Connection. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  69. ^ "Presidential portraits: Martin Van Buren". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  70. ^ Lamb, Brian (9 February 2010). Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb. ISBN 9781586488703.
  71. ^ "American President: William Henry Harrison". University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
  72. ^ "The American Presidency: Harrison, William Henry". Encyclopedia Americana. Archived from the original on 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
  73. ^ "American President: John Tyler". University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
  74. ^ Seager II, Robert (1963). And Tyler too: A Biography of John and Julia Gardiner Tyler. McGraw-Hill. p. 109.
  75. ^ a b "American President: James Knox Polk: Family Life". University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
  76. ^ "Religion of James Polk, U.S. President". Archived from the original on November 19, 2005.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  77. ^ Seigenthaler, John (2003). James K Polk. Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-6942-9. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
  78. ^ a b "The Religious Affiliation of 12th U.S. President Zachary Taylor". Archived from the original on February 15, 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-23.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  79. ^ "American President: Millard Fillmore". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
  80. ^ "American President: James Buchanan". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-03-02. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  81. ^ Baker, Jean H. (2004). James Buchanan. New York: Henry Holt and company. p. 143. ISBN 0805069461.
  82. ^ "American President: Abraham Lincoln: Family Life". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2009-02-02.
  83. ^ Six Historic Americans: Abraham Lincoln John E. Remsburg, 1906
  84. ^ White House Funeral Sermon for President Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Online
  85. ^ Chapter III – Review Of Christian Testimony: Reed And His Witnesses Six Historic Americans: Abraham Lincoln, John E. Remsburg, 1906
  86. ^ "American President: Andrew Johnson". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  87. ^ "American President: Andrew Johnson: Family Life". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  88. ^ "American Presidency Project: Ulysses S. Grant: Seventh Annual Message". December 7, 1875. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
  89. ^ Trefousse, Hans L. (2002). Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (ed.). Rutherford B. Hayes. Macmillan. pp. 3–5.
  90. ^ a b "Frequently asked questions". Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-02-25. The president never espoused a particular religion, but attended Methodist Church with his wife Lucy.
  91. ^ Charles Richard Williams, ed. (1922). "May 17, 1890". The Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes, Nineteenth President of the United States. IV. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Archeological and Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012.
  92. ^ a b c Green, F. M. (1906). "Some Pioneers, and Others Who Have Been Prominent in the Restoration Movement: James A. Garfield". In John T. Brown (ed.). Churches of Christ. Louisville, Kentucky: John P. Morton and Company. pp. 412–414. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  93. ^ Millard, Candice (2011). Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine, and the Murder of a President. Doubleday. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-0-385-52626-5.
  94. ^ a b "American President: Chester Alan Arthur". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  95. ^ "Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur". White House. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
  96. ^ "Biography of Grover Cleveland". Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved 2008-02-16 – via National Archives.
  97. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of Benjamin Harrison 23rd U.S. President". Archived from the original on March 2, 2006.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  98. ^ "American President: William McKinley". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-03-02. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  99. ^ "President William McKinley: A Life in Brief". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  100. ^ Rusling, James (22 January 1903). "Interview with President William McKinley". The Christian Advocate: 17. ISBN 9780896082755. Reprinted in Daniel Schirmer; Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, eds. (1987). The Philippines Reader. Boston: South End Press. pp. 22–23.
  101. ^ Shenkman, Richard (1992). Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History. HarperCollins. p. 38. ISBN 9780062098870. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
  102. ^ Gould, Lewis L. (1980). The Spanish–American War and President McKinley. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9780700602278. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
  103. ^ "1900 Thanksgiving Proclamation". Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. ... the sentiments of sympathy and Christian charity by virtue of which we are one united people.
  104. ^ a b c "The Religion of Theodore Roosevelt". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  105. ^ Theodore Roosevelt (1913). "Boyhood and Youth". An Autobiography. United Kingdom: Dodo Press. ISBN 1-4065-0606-0.
  106. ^ "William Howard Taft". Unitarian Universalist Association. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  107. ^ Burton, David Henry (1998). Taft, Holmes, and the 1920s Court: An Appraisal. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780838637685. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
  108. ^ a b c Smith, Gary Scott (2006). "Woodrow Wilson: Presbyterian Statesman". Faith and the Presidency: From George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press US. pp. 159 ff. ISBN 9780198041153. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
  109. ^ "American President:Warren G. Harding". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  110. ^ "Trinity Baptist Church – Marion, Ohio: History And Development" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 18, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
  111. ^ Thomas, Rushad L. (11 April 2017). "The Pilgrim's Faith: Coolidge and Religion". Calvin Coolidge Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  112. ^ Shlaes, Amity (10 March 2013). "alvin Coolidge's faith was the secret to his success". Fox News. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  113. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. President Herbert Hoover". Archived from the original on February 7, 2006.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  114. ^ "Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  115. ^ "U.S. Swearing-in Ceremonies Highlight Religious Freedom Legacy: Constitutionally, religion is not a qualification for office". U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. 2007-01-04. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  116. ^ "Hoover Plans to Swear on Bible, Taking Oath". Washington Post. February 27, 1929. p. 5. Herbert Hoover, in taking the oath of office March 4, will swear – not affirm – with one hand on an old family Quaker Bible, that contains the date of his own birth.
  117. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of 32nd U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt". Archived from the original on February 15, 2006.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  118. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. President Harry S. Truman". Archived from the original on February 20, 2006.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  119. ^ Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, & World Affairs. "Harry S. Truman". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  120. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. President John F. Kennedy". Archived from the original on February 7, 2006.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  121. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson". Archived from the original on 2006-02-11.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  122. ^ "American President: Richard Nixon". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  123. ^ "Gerald R. Ford – Facts and Favorites". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
  124. ^ "Jimmy Carter splits with Baptists". BBC. 2000-10-21. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  125. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan Facts". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Library. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  126. ^ "CNN Special: Ronald Reagan 1911–2004". Retrieved 2008-02-28.
  127. ^ "Timeline of Ronald Reagan's Life". PBS. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  128. ^ Kengor, Paul (2007). "Ronald Reagan's Faith and Attack on Soviet Communism". In Rozell, Mark J.; Whitney, Gleaves (eds.). Religion and the American Presidency. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 176–178. ISBN 978-1-4039-7771-7. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  129. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. President George H. W. Bush". Archived from the original on December 30, 2005.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  130. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of President William Jefferson Clinton". Archived from the original on November 19, 2005.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  131. ^ Feldmann, Linda (December 20, 2007). "Candidate Clinton goes public with her private faith". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  132. ^ a b Cooperman, Alan (2004-09-15). "Openly Religious, to a Point". Washington Post. pp. A01. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  133. ^ "Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President" (Press release). United Church of Christ. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2009-01-21. Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States.
  134. ^ – many Americans can't name Obama's Religion
  135. ^ "Time (magazine)".
  136. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (August 29, 2015). "Church says Trump isn't an 'active member'". The Hill. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  137. ^ "Trump in the Middle: Why America Needs a Middle Child This Time Around", by Heather Collins-Grattan Floyd, CreateSpace 2016, pp. 17–18.
  138. ^ Peters, Jeremy W.; Dias, Elizabeth (2019-11-02). "Paula White, Newest White House Aide, Is a Uniquely Trumpian Pastor". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  139. ^ Peters, Jeremy W.; Haberman, Maggie (2019-10-31). "Paula White, Trump's Personal Pastor, Joins the White House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  140. ^ Gibson, Ginger (August 25, 2008). "Parishioners not surprised to see Biden at usual Mass". The News Journal. p. A.12. Archived from the original on June 1, 2013.
  141. ^ a b "The Religious Affiliations of U.S. Presidents". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. January 15, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]