Religious broadcasting

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Religious broadcasting refers to the dissemination of television and/or radio content that intentionally has religious ideas, religious experience, or religious practice as its core focus. In some countries, religious broadcasting developed primarily within the context of public service provision (as in the UK), whilst in others, it has been driven more by religious organisations themselves (as in the USA). Across Europe and in the US and Canada, religious broadcasting began in the earliest days of radio, usually with the transmission of religious worship, preaching or 'talks'. Over time, formats evolved to include a broad range of styles and approaches, including radio and television drama, documentary, and chat show formats, as well as more traditional devotional content. Today, many religious organizations record sermons and lectures, and have moved into distributing content on their own web-based IP channels.[1]

Religious broadcasting can be funded commercially or through some sort of public broadcasting-style arrangement (religious broadcasters are often recognized as non-profit organizations). Donations from listeners and viewers, often tax-deductible, are solicited by some broadcasters.[2] In the US, 42 percent of non-commercial radio stations currently have a religious format where on the other hand about 80 percent of the 2,400 Christian radio stations and 100 full-power Christian TV stations throughout the entire United States are considered non-profit.[3]

In some countries, particularly those with an established state religion, broadcasting related to one particular religion only is allowed, or in some cases required. For example, a function of the state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation is by law "to broadcast such programmes as may promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam..." (s. 10(1)(b)).

Radio[edit]

(The distinction between radio and television broadcasters is not rigid; broadcasters in both areas may appear in the Radio or Television section in this article.)

Australia[edit]

Religious radio stations include

India[edit]

  • World Hindu Radio ;World latest Hindu Community Radio Station based in Ayodhya,India
  • Angel Radio
  • Jai Ram Community Radio
  • Hindustan World Radio
  • Malabar Muslim Radio
  • Asian Muslim World
  • Lord Radio
  • Jwiees Radio International
  • Vice of Hindu(VOH)
  • Vice of Jain(VOJ)
  • Vice of Sikkh (VOS)
  • Vice of Parasi (VOP)
  • Vice of Christian (VOC)
  • VOC Hindi
  • VOC Tamil
  • VOC Bangla

Italy[edit]

  • Radio Maria ; International catholic radio broadcasting, founded by Erba, has branches in 55 countries around the world. Vatican Radio is its sister media.

Netherlands[edit]

  • Buddhist Broadcasting Foundation[4]
  • Humanistische Omroep: A small broadcaster dedicated to secular Humanism.
  • IKON (Interkerkelijke Omroep Nederland): A small broadcaster representing a diverse set of nine mainstream Christian churches.
  • Joodse Omroep The new name of NIKmedia (Nederlands-Israëlitisch Kerkgenootschap): Dutch-Jewish broadcaster.
  • NIO (Nederlandse Islamitische Omroep): Small Islamic broadcaster.
  • NMO (Nederlandse Moslim Omroep): Small Islamic broadcaster, slightly more progressive than the NIO.
  • OHM (Organisatie Hindoe Media): Small Hindu broadcaster.
  • RKK (Rooms-Katholiek Kerkgenootschap): Small Roman Catholic broadcaster, actual programming produced by the KRO. Roman Catholic events and services on television are broadcast by the RKK.
  • ZvK (Zendtijd voor Kerken): Small broadcaster that broadcasts church services from some smaller Protestant churches.

New Zealand[edit]

  • Rhema Media encompasses three radio networks; Rhema, Life FM and Star.

South Korea[edit]

  • GCN Global Christian Network (broadcaster)
  • CTS (Christian Television System)
  • CBS (Christian Broadcasting System)
  • FEBC Korea (Far East Broadcasting Company)
  • PBC (Pyeonghwa/Peace Broadcasting Corporation) ; catholic
  • BBS (Buddhist Broadcasting System)
  • WBS (원음방송 - Original Sound Broadcasting)

Spain[edit]

Religious Broadcasting in Europe[edit]

Europe's future of religious broadcasting is lying in its unity, a unity that is built on economic presuppositions and not surrounded by other topics such as ethics, philosophy, and culture. Over the past couple of years, the process of unification has accelerated which resulted in major improvement since it has first been introduced. Unification has been on the right track because of economic incentives, something that convinces or encourages one to do something. One of the biggest challenges for religious broadcasting in all of Europe is to explain the story clearly so when they mention the Incarnation, it must be taken seriously. There will be some generations that will necessarily not need the explanation of faith compared to the topics where people will need to know the meaning of human life. Christian broadcasters can be satisfied when they mention briefly or distribute explicit Christian topics. When it comes to religious broadcasting, Europe has two futures to consider such as commercial and public where on the other hand religion has three futures (a commercial, service one, and the one that we have no control at all). The elements that are still missing to fulfill religious broadcasting in Europe is an addition of interest and capital towards Church leaders and believers as well as realism and modesty so believers can know what goes on around them. Each country has their own aspect of religious broadcasting.

Religious broadcasting is very important in the life of the Church than the whole majority of Church leaders would realize immediately. There is a wide span of the diversity of numerous practices about religious broadcasting. For example, the Netherlands, along with their four religious broadcasting associations will benefit many communicators and their viewership will expand based on the promotion of their programs. The Catholic Church, in Portugal, owns a popular radio station and they're wishing to play a considering role by spreading their word on television and expand viewership. The diversity in Europe will continue to thrive and won't be affected by any other obstacles that will prevent it. Broadcasting will be at the inner core of Europe. TV and radio will be accompanied by this process as well as greenlighting change and promoting diversity. The role of religion in the timeline since Europe has been divided became very ambiguous which later on ties between religion and secular power became so strong that there were movements of change and renewal had automatically turned anti-religious. There has been suspicion of science by a religious establishment and that ended up with a breakup between the scientific and religious communities. Later on, it became even worse leading up to the religious forces ended up with no backup and became defenseless. In the end, they were defeated and humiliated by the public as slowly churches became empty, less and fewer people were attending and religious institutions became abandoned.

United Kingdom[edit]

Religious broadcasting in the UK was established in 1922, when the first radio sermon was transmitted by the BBC. The religious ethos of the Corporation, and the importance attributed to the place of its religious output is predominantly due to the distinctive and formative role played by the BBC’s first Director-General, John Reith.  Reith was the son of a Presbyterian minister.  Although opposed to narrow dogmatism, he strongly believed that it was a public service duty of the BBC to actively promote religion. The pattern established by Reith in the early days, and the advisory system that he established, continued to exert a strong influence on the corporation's religious output through the war years and beyond, and eventually extend from radio into television.

British broadcasting laws prohibit religious organisations, political parties, local government and trade unions from running national analogue terrestrial stations. Some religious radio stations are available in certain areas on the MW (medium wave) or VHF (FM) wavebands; others transmit using other methods, some of them nationally (such as via digital terrestrial TV broadcasting, satellite and cable).

Premier Radio is available on MW in the London area and also nationally on DAB. United Christian Broadcasters is available in both the London and Stoke-on-Trent areas, and nationally as well via DAB. There are several UK-based radio stations which serve a genre group or locality, such as Cross Rhythms based in Stoke-on-Trent, a contemporary music station with a local FM community radio licence. Branch FM operates across West Yorkshire and is a volunteer-run community Christian radio station. Like most other local Christian stations, they also use the Internet to gain national coverage. There are other UK-based radio channels which apply for regular temporary licenses, such as Flame FM on the Wirral, Cheshire which applies for two months of local FM broadcasting per year via a Restricted Service Licence (RSL), and Refresh FM, which regularly broadcasts in Manchester for 3 or 4 weeks over the Easter period.

Also there are religious broadcasters that transmit to the UK from outside on medium wave at night (when MW signals travel much further) by buying airtime on commercial stations such as Manx Radio (from the Isle of Man) and Trans World Radio (from Monte Carlo).

Although there are tight restrictions on religious groups setting up their own radio and TV stations, there is a legal requirement for the BBC and ITV to broadcast a certain amount of religious programming. Some commercial local radio stations carry a limited amount of religious programming, particularly in Northern Ireland and parts of Scotland

United States[edit]

The most prominent religion on the radio in the United States is Christianity, particularly the evangelical sect. It has changed since its inception with a growing audience and different regulations. The audience for Christian radio has grown in the past twenty years and has a dispersed audience throughout the U.S.. The Moody Bible Institute was the first religious organization to use satellite radio to reach a larger audience than before. The Moody Bible Institute was also one of the first religious broadcasting networks to receive a non-commercial educational FM license from the FCC allowing them to open other stations. Religious broadcasting in the United States is mainly the province of local or regional networks which produce programming relevant to their community, and is usually heard on stations holding non-commercial educational broadcast licenses. Although religious radio began as locally owned, because of the deregulation in the 1996 Telecommunications act it has become more consolidated with local affiliates under a national radio company. Several national networks do exist, which include:

Television[edit]

(The distinction between radio and television broadcasters is not rigid; broadcasters in both areas may appear in the Radio or Television section in this article.)

Africa[edit]

Dove TV is a Christian television network by the Redeemed Christian Church of God (www.rccg.tv)

T.B. Joshua's Emmanuel TV.[5]

Ezekiel TV is a Christian television network started by Ezekiel Guti of ZAOGA Forward in Faith Ministries International (FIFMI) in 2008, based in South Africa. Most of the programming is from Zimbabwe, where ZAOGA FIFMI is headquartered. The channel broadcasts on the internet on the FIFMI Website, www.fifmi.org

  • Deen TV is an Islamic TV station broadcasting to a wide range of audience interest based in South Africa. One of the Channels Directors is popular Talk Show Host Faizal Sayed of The Faizal Sayed Show.

Liberty TV (Prophet Eric SEM) is founder of Liberty Ministry International also owns Liberty TV. website,He started his miniseterial work in Mundemba of the south west province. From there, he moved on to Ndokotti, Douala, where launched his present ministry. (www.libertycm.tv)

Asia[edit]

South Korea[edit]

  • BBS (Buddhist Broadcasting System)
  • CPBC TV (Catholic Peace Broadcasting TV)
  • CPBS TV (Confucianism Peace Broadcasting Corporation TV)
  • CGNTV (Confucianism Global Network Television)
  • Kantas-HSTV (Kantor Warta Swastiyastu-Hindu Spirits Television)
  • Kantas-HSTV

India[edit]

  • Aastha TV (Hinduism)
  • Sanskar TV(Hinduism,Sikh)
  • ANGEL TV (Christianity)
  • GOD TV ASIA (Christianity)
  • HopeTV (Christianity)
  • Islamiya (Islam)
  • MH Sarrdha (Hinduism, Sikh, Jain)
  • Omkar (Buddhism,Hinduism)
  • PaigaamTV (Islam)
  • RamrajTV (Hinduism)
  • Sadana TV (Hinduism)
  • Sanskar (Jainism)
  • Sanskar (Sanatan Dharam, Hinduism)
  • Shree Sankara (Hinduism)
  • Sikha TV (Sikhism, Hinduism)
  • Vadic Brobcact (Hinduism, Sikhism)

Canada[edit]

Networks

Name Owner Religious Affiliation Base Range Notes
Yes TV Crossroads Christian Communications Christianity (some multi-faith) Burlington, Ontario Nationwide Airs a mixture of religious and general entertainment programming.

Also available over-the-air in:

Channels

Name Owner Religious Affiliation Base Range Notes
ATN Aastha TV Asian Television Network Hinduism Newmarket, Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
ATN Punjabi 5 Asian Television Network Sikhism Markham, Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
ATN Sikh Channel Asian Television Network Sikhism Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
Daystar Canada World Impact Ministries Christianity (Evangelical) Vancouver, British Columbia Nationwide Only available on pay television
HopeTV ZoomerMedia Christianity Winnipeg, Manitoba Nationwide Available over-the-air in Manitoba (Winnipeg) and pay television nationwide.
Joytv ZoomerMedia Multi-faith Fraser Valley, British Columbia Nationwide Available over-the-air in British Columbia (Vancouver, Lower Mainland, and Victoria) and pay television nationwide.
Salt + Light Television Salt & Light Catholic Media Foundation Christianity (Catholicism) Toronto, Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
Vertical TV Vertical Entertainment Christianity Brampton, Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
VisionTV ZoomerMedia Multi-faith Toronto, Ontario Nationwide Only available on pay television
CFSO-TV Logan & Corey McCarthy Christianity (Mormonism) Cardston, Alberta Local Only available over-the-air; airs selected programming from BYUtv
CFEG-TV Clearbrook Mennonite Brethren Church Christianity (Mennonite Brethren) Abbotsford, British Columbia Local Only available over-the-air
Miracle Channel The Miracle Channel Association Christianity (Evangelical) Lethbridge, Alberta Local Only available over-the-air; secondary affiliate of Trinity Broadcasting Network

France[edit]

  • HolyGod TV, Christian station based in France with stated mission "to evangelise people in India, Sri Lanka, Africa, Europe and other countries and plant churches"[6]
  • HOSFO TV, Christian station in France founded by Pastor Allen IKADI and is wife Josiane Ondeu through their private Christian media company group HOSFO SAS[7]
  • KTO ; TV Catholique for the Archdiocese of Paris
  • NLM TV (New Living Ministries), Christian station based in France with presence in other countries[8]

Germany[edit]

  • K-TV; K-TV Katholisches Fernsehen. Catholic broadcaster founded by Father Hans Buschor in 1999 in Gossau, Switzerland. K-TV produces live mass broadcasts and original programming in German and is the first and largest German Catholic satellite and cable broadcast organisation operating in the DACH region. It is supported solely via private donations.

Italy[edit]

Middle East[edit]

In the Middle East, Christian satellite broadcaster SAT-7 operates five channels, SAT-7 ARABIC, SAT-7 PARS (Farsi), SAT-7 KIDS (Arabic), SAT-7 PLUS (Arabic) and SAT-7 TÜRK (Turkish), which broadcast in the prominent languages of the region with more than 80% of programs made by and for people of the region.[9] SAT-7's satellite footprints reach 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as 50 countries in Europe, with "free to air" programming. SAT7, founded in 1995, is the first and largest Christian satellite broadcast organization operating in the region. It is supported by Christian churches from a variety of denominations in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as supporters from Europe, Canada [2], United States [3], and Asia.

Norway[edit]

  • Visjon Norge, a Norwegian Christian television channel that broadcasts over Scandinavia.
  • Kanal 10 Norge, a Norwegian Christian television channel and branch of the Swedish Kanal 10.

Pakistan[edit]

A function of the state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation is by law "to broadcast such programmes as may promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam..." (s. 10(1)(b)).

Turkey[edit]

Islamic broadcasters include:[10]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the UK, In the UK, the first religious channel was Muslim TV Ahmadiyya which launched in 1992 however religious television is dominated by the main non-commercial terrestrial public service broadcaster, the BBC, obliged by its licence to broadcast 110 hours per year.[11] Long-running programmes like Songs of Praise continue to draw loyal audiences, although declining interest in devotional-style religious programmes, and sometimes erratic scheduling decisions, have taken their toll. Up until the turn of the century, the ITV channels and Channel 4 also produced religious programme content, and for many years Sunday evenings were dominated by 'the God slot' - a seventy-minute diet of back-to-back religious programmes broadcast simultaneously on BBC 1 and ITV. Attempts to extend the range of formats and experiment in more populist styles, reached its zenith in the late 1960s with the light entertainment show, Stars on Sunday (Yorkshire Television, 1969–79) on ITV, reaching audiences of 15 million.[12]  The show was conceived and presented by Yorkshire Television's Head of Children's Programmes, Jess Yates and ran for a decade. Serious documentary-style religious content emerged in the 1970s, with the BBC's Everyman, and ITV's Credo programme series'. Religious broadcasting began to go into decline in the later 1970s and 1980s. The birth of the fourth public service channel in 1982 with a remit to cater for minority interests, raised great expectations followed by enormous disappointment among many who believed that Channel 4 would provide exciting now opportunities for religious broadcasting. Channel 4's first major religious programme commission caused a furore: Jesus: The Evidence (London Weekend Television for Channel 4), broadcast over the Easter period in 1984, proved to be a pivotal moment in the disintegrating relationship between the broadcasting institutions and the churches.[13]

In 2010, the commercial public service television broadcasters de-prioritised their religious output due to commercial pressures. The 2009 Ofcom report found that religious broadcasting on public service channels was watched on average for 2.3 hours per year per viewer on the main PSB channels in 2011,[14] 2.7 hours in 2008, reducing steadily from 3.2 in 2006 and 3.6 in 2001. In 2006, 5% of viewers found religious broadcasting to be of personal importance.[15]

In 2017, the BBC announced that it was closing its dedicated Religious and Ethics Department and outsourcing its religious expertise and production work: a move described as 'dangerous' by at least one national newspaper, suggesting that the decision was based on a mistaken presumption that religion was 'a preoccupation of people who are old, strange or both, something of no interest to those happy enough to be neither' [16] The BBC's decision, and the quantitative decline in religious broadcasting over several decades (as well as a growing sense that there was an absence of informed portrayals of religion in content more generally), has been implicated in what has been described as a rise in religious illiteracy.[17] Partly in response to these concerns, there was a major internal review at the BBC during 2017 'to reassess our role and strategy in this area, and reconsider how best to deliver our public service mission'.[18] According to the BBC's internal report in December of that year:

In practice, that means the BBC will: Raise our game across all output – Increase specialist expertise with a new Religious Affairs Team and Religion Editor in News (p19); Create networks of specialists (p27); Develop stakeholder relations (p27); Reach as many people as possible – Landmark series and programmes (p21); Cross-genre commissions (p16), A ‘Year of Beliefs’ in 2019 (p23); Content and social media aimed at a next generation audience (p23); Portray the diversity of beliefs and society – Diversify our range of contributors (p14); Increase coverage of religious events (p15); Enhance portrayal in mainstream programming (p17); Help people understand their values and decisions – Innovative content that works across genres (p17); Innovative online services that include archive content that is still relevant (p25) [18]

The BBC has yet to unveil details of plans for its 2019 'Year of Beliefs'.

Dedicated religious channels are relatively new, and transmit via direct-to-home satellite, some, are streamed live via the Internet or, like TBN, broadcast 24 hours on terrestrial Freeview. Dedicated religious channels available include:

  • Daystar, US network, broadcast 24 hours on terrestrial digital freeview.
  • TBN, broadcast 24 hours on terrestrial freeview and Sky.
  • GOD TV, based in Sunderland (UK), is the longest established of the currently running TV channels on Sky in the UK and the only one that is also on the major cable TV systems in the UK.
  • God's Learning Channel (GLC) broadcasts the same lineup simultaneously to the US and Europe via the Eutelsat W-2 Satellite for Direct-to-Home broadcast.
  • Inspiration, US Network. Programming from around the world. Preaching. Missionary bias.
  • Islam Channel. Broadcasts across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa and streamed on the Internet, and will broadcast in North America. Ruled to have breached the UK broadcasting code by airing discussions containing contentious views on violence against women and marital rape in 2008 and 2009.[19]
  • Revelation TV, in London, produce a lot of live programmes from their studios.

See also List of Islamic television and radio stations in the United Kingdom

United States[edit]

Religious television stations in the United States experienced growth in the 1990s, the number of faith-based T.V. stations alone has tripled. The United States government does not regulate these networks it is instead the National Religious Broadcasters. Religious television is widely used by evangelical groups, but other religions using television broadcasting is also growing, such as Jewish groups broadcasting on the Odyssey. The audience for religious television is still mainly white, middle-class, evangelicals but, that is also changing as there is an increase in young Catholic viewers and Spanish-language religious television. There has also been a growth in the number and power of television preachers in the United States, particularly evangelical preachers, also known as televangelists. An example is Pat Robertson, who appears on the show “The 700 Club” on CBN, regularly comments on other aspects of non-religious life.[20]

In the United States, Christian organizations are by far the most widespread compared with other religions, with upwards of 1,600 television and radio stations across the country (not necessarily counting broadcast translators, though because many outlets have low power and repeat national telecasts, the difference is often hard to define).

Christian television outlets in the U.S. usually broadcast in the UHF band. While there are many religious content providers for religious and faith-based television, there are few nationally recognized non-commercial television networks—funded by soliciting donations—such as Daystar Television Network (operated by Marcus Lamb and Joni Lamb) and Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) (operated by Paul Crouch and Jan Crouch). Unlike the larger religious network providers available to the mass public, many smaller religious organizations have a presence on cable television systems, either with their own channels (such as the 3ABN service) or by transmissions on public-access television (common for local congregations) or leased access channels. Religious programs are sometimes also transmitted on Sunday mornings by general commercial broadcasters not dedicated to religious programming. Religious broadcasters in the U.S. include:

Industry organizations[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

The UK equivalent of the NRB is the Christian Broadcasting Council, but affiliation is much less common. Additionally in the UK is the Church and Media Network, formed in 2009 as a successor to the Churches' Media Council, which states that it seeks to be a bridge between the media and the Christian community.

United States[edit]

Christian broadcasters (but not other religions) in the U.S. are organized through the National Religious Broadcasters (NRB) organization.

Funding[edit]

Financially, US channels tend to fare a lot better than UK based ones. The American concept of asking viewers to donate money to a channel to keep it going on air is considered more culturally acceptable than in the UK; as a result more money is raised this way. However this has become more contentious as television preachers have been accused of corruption and soliciting donations for their own personal use. There used to be no advertising revenue model – the traditional method of running commercial TV in the UK – that worked for religious TV channels[citation needed]. The UK government's Broadcasting Act 1990 allowed ownership of broadcasting licences by religious organisations and their officers and those who controlled them in some circumstances;[28] this had previously not been allowed.

Religious channels aimed at a UK audience could get around this previous restriction by basing themselves offshore, often in a European country that permits asking viewers for money on air. Stations may appear to be based in the UK, but actually broadcast from another country. However Ofcom since lifted the restriction, and channels with UK licences can now ask for funds on air.

The other primary method for raising funds to run religious channels is to accept paid advertising. Traveling preachers and large churches and ministries often set up a TV department filming what they do; they then buy slots on TV channels to show their programmes. Often the same programme from an organization is shown on several channels at different times as they buy slots. The vast majority of organizations which do this are US-based. In the UK this tends to make Christian TV channels appear to be US-based, as most material originates there. Some UK TV channels have invested in making programmes to complement advertising, most notably GOD TV and Revelation TV.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ben Armstrong (1978). Religious broadcasting sourcebook. National Religious Broadcasters. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  2. ^ "KPLE-TV". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  3. ^ "Religious Broadcasting" (PDF). FCC: 2. November 2017 – via FCC.gov.
  4. ^ Human Content Media Producties B.V. "Buddhist Broadcasting Foundation - Buddhist Broadcast Foundation". Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  5. ^ Manasa, Makweembo (11 February 2010). "TB Joshua - 21st Century Prophet In Our Midst?". Zambian Watchdog. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010.
  6. ^ Holy God Television Ministries, France: mission statement Archived 19 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ [1] Archived 10 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ New Living Ministries. "Contact us". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  9. ^ "SAT-7 - IMAM HUSSEIN MEDIA GROUP by running 4 TV channels in Arabic, Persian (Farsi), English and Turkish has a huge number of muslim audience in different countries. www.imamhussein.tv - Making God's Love Visible". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  10. ^ "The rise of "Islamic" broadcasting in Turkey". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  11. ^ "ITV will broadcast just one hour of religious programming this year". Telegraph.co.uk. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Obituary: Jess Yates". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  13. ^ Richard, Wallis,. Channel 4 and the declining influence of organized religion on UK television. The case of Jesus: The Evidence. OCLC 945882509.
  14. ^ Ofcom: Public Service Broadcasting, 2011
  15. ^ "Public Service Broadcasting: Annual Reports". 20 March 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  16. ^ Editorial (2017-04-07). "The Guardian view on religious broadcasting: imagination and commitment needed | Editorial". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  17. ^ Dinham, Adam; Francis, Matthew (2015-03-18), "Religious literacy", Religious literacy in policy and practice, Policy Press, pp. 3–26, ISBN 9781447316657, retrieved 2018-08-18
  18. ^ a b "BBC - BBC Religion & Ethics Review - December 2017 - Inside the BBC". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  19. ^ "Islam Channel breaches broadcasting code". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  20. ^ "700club". http://www1.cbn.com/700club. The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc. External link in |website= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  21. ^ "Islamic Broadcasting Network - The Voice of American Muslims". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  22. ^ Sandra Gonzalez. "Church of Scientology to launch TV channel". CNN Money. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  23. ^ Michael O'Connell. "Scientology Poised to Launch TV Network". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  24. ^ Erin Jensen. "Scientology Network will make TV debut Monday, the church says". USAToday. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  25. ^ Guardian staff. "Church of Scientology to launch TV network". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  26. ^ Associated Press. "New ScientologyTV will put members, founder in spotlight". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  27. ^ JSM Web Dept. "SonLife Broadcasting Network - Christian Television - SBN - Jimmy Swaggart Ministries". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  28. ^ "Broadcasting Act 1990". Retrieved 23 August 2015.

External links[edit]