Sect

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This article is about religious groups. For other uses, see Sect (disambiguation).

A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger religious group. Although it used to be mostly used to refer to religious groups, it can now refer to any organization that breaks away from a larger one to follow a different set of rules and principles. The term is occasionally used in a malicious way to suggest the broken-off group follows a more negative path than the original.

The historical usage of the term sect in Christendom has had pejorative connotations and refers to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox.[1]

A sect, in an Indian context, refers to an organized tradition.[2]

Major denominations and religions of the world

Etymology[edit]

A Catalogue of the Severall Sects and Opinions in England and other Nations: With a briefe Rehearsall of their false and dangerous Tenents. Broadsheet. 1647

The word sect comes from the Latin noun secta (a feminine form of a variant past participle of the verb sequi, to follow[3]), meaning "a way, road", and figuratively a (prescribed) way, mode, or manner, and hence metonymously, a discipline or school of thought as defined by a set of methods and doctrines. The present gamut of meanings of sect has been influenced by confusion with the homonymous (but etymologically unrelated) Latin word secta (the feminine form of the past participle of the verb secare, to cut), as though sects were scissionsWiktionary entry cast aside from the mainstream religion.[3]

Sociological definitions and descriptions[edit]

Main article: Church-sect typology

There are several different sociological definitions and descriptions for the term.[4] Among the first to define them were Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch (1912).[4] In the church-sect typology they are described as newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. The American sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge assert that "sects claim to be authentic purged, refurbished version of the faith from which they split".[5] They further assert that sects have, in contrast to churches, a high degree of tension with the surrounding society.[6] Other sociologists of religion such as Fred Kniss have asserted that sectarianism is best described with regard to what a sect is in tension with. Some religious groups exist in tension only with co-religious groups of different ethnicities, or exist in tension with the whole of society rather than the church which the sect originated from.[7]

Sectarianism is sometimes defined in the sociology of religion as a worldview that emphasizes the unique legitimacy of believers' creed and practices and that heightens tension with the larger society by engaging in boundary-maintaining practices.[8]

The English sociologist Roy Wallis[9] argues that a sect is characterized by “epistemological authoritarianism”: sects possess some authoritative locus for the legitimate attribution of heresy. According to Wallis, “sects lay a claim to possess unique and privileged access to the truth or salvation and “their committed adherents typically regard all those outside the confines of the collectivity as 'in error'”. He contrasts this with a cult that he described as characterized by “epistemological individualism” by which he means that “the cult has no clear locus of final authority beyond the individual member.”[10][11]

In other languages[edit]

The corresponding words for "sect" in European languages other than EnglishSekte (German), secte (French), secta (Spanish, Catalan, Romanian), seita (Portuguese, Galician), sekta (Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovenian, Latvian, Lithuanian), sekt (Danish, Estonian, Norwegian, Swedish), sekte (Dutch) and szekta (Hungarian), секта (Russian, Bulgarian) — refer to a harmful religious sect and translate into English as "cult".[citation needed] In France, since the 1970s, secte has a specific meaning[which?] which is very different from the English word.[12][need quotation to verify]

In Buddhism[edit]

Main article: Schools of Buddhism

In Jainism[edit]

In Christianity[edit]

While the historical usage of the term "sect" in Christendom has had pejorative connotations, referring to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox,[13][14] its primary meaning is to indicate a community which has separated itself in some way from the larger body from which its members came and to which they may or may not still adhere. The term remains valid for this purpose.

Roman Catholic sects[edit]

There are many groups outside the Roman Catholic Church which regard themselves as Catholic, such as the Community of the Lady of All Nations, the Palmarian Catholic Church, the Philippine Independent Church, the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, the Neocatechumenal Way, and others.

In Hinduism[edit]

Main article: Hindu denominations

The Indologist Axel Michaels writes in his book about Hinduism that in an Indian context the word "sect does not denote a split or excluded community, but rather an organized tradition, usually established by founder with ascetic practices."[2] According to Michaels, "Indian sects do not focus on heresy, since the lack of a center or a compulsory center makes this impossible – instead, the focus is on adherents and followers."[2]

In Islam[edit]

Main articles: Muslim denominations, fiqh, and madhhab

The ancient schools of fiqh or sharia in Islam are known as "madhhabs." In the beginning Islam was classically divided into three major sects. These political divisions are well known as Sunni Islam, Shia Islam and Khariji Islam. Each sect developed several distinct jurisprudence systems reflecting their own understanding of the Islamic law during the course of the history of Islam.

For instance, Sunnis are separated into five sub-sects, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Ẓāhirī.

The Shia, on the other hand, first developed Kaysanism, which in turn divided into three major groupings known as Fivers, Seveners and Twelvers. The Zaydis separated first. The non-Zaydis are initially called as "Rafida Groups." These Rafidis were later divided into two sub-groups known as Imamiyyah and Batiniyyah.[15]

The Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali Sunnis, the Twelver groups, the Ismā'īlī groups, the Zaydis, the Ibadis, and the Ẓāhirīs continue to exist. In addition, new sects like Ahmadiyya movement, Black Muslim movements, Gülen movement, Quranists, Salafis, Wahhabis, and Zikris have been emerged independently.

Amman Message[edit]

Main article: Amman Message
Further information: Islamic denominations

An Islamic convention held in Jordan in July 2005, which brought 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries together, announced the official recognition of eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence[16] and the varying schools of Islamic theology.[17] The eight recognized Islamic schools and branches are:

  1. Sunni Hanafi
  2. Sunni Maliki
  3. Sunni Shafi'i
  4. Sunni Hanbali
  5. Shi'i Imāmī (followers of the Ja'fari jurisprudence)
  6. Shi'i Zaydi
  7. Khariji Ibadi
  8. Sunni Ẓāhirī

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilson, Bryan Religion in Sociological Perspective 1982, ISBN 0-19-826664-2 Oxford University Press page 89
    "In English, it is a term that designates a religiously separated group, but in its historical usage in Christendom it carried a distinctly pejorative connotation. A sect was a movement committed to heretical beliefs and often to ritual acts and practices like isolation that departed from orthodox religious procedures."
  2. ^ a b c Michaels, Axel. Hinduism past and Present (2004) translated from German "Der Hinduismus" (1998). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08952-3. 
  3. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "sect". Online Etymology Dictionary. etymonline.com. Retrieved 2010-03-14. c.1300, "distinctive system of beliefs or observances; party or school within a religion," from Old French secte, from Late Latin secta "religious group, sect," from Latin secta "manner, mode, following, school of thought," literally "a way, road," from fem. of sectus, variant past participle of sequi "follow," from PIE *sekw- "to follow" (see sequel). 
  4. ^ a b McCormick Maaga, Mary excerpt from her book Hearing the Voices of Jonestown (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998) available online
  5. ^ Stark, Rodney, and Williams Sims Bainbridge (1979) Of Churches, Sects, and Cults: Preliminary Concepts for a Theory of Religious Movements Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18, no 2: 117-33
  6. ^ Stark, Rodney, and William Sims Bainbridge (1985) The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival, and Cult formation Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
  7. ^ Kniss, Fred, and Numrich, Paul (2007) Sacred Assemblies and Civic EngagementRutgers University Press
  8. ^ McGuire, Meredith B. "Religion: the Social Context" fifth edition (2002) ISBN 0-534-54126-7 page 338
  9. ^ Barker, E. New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction (1990), Bernan Press, ISBN 0-11-340927-3
  10. ^ Wallis, Roy The Road to Total Freedom A Sociological analysis of Scientology (1976) available online (bad scan)
  11. ^ Wallis, Roy Scientology: Therapeutic Cult to Religious Sect abstract only (1975)
  12. ^ Esquerre Arnaud, "Lutter contre les sectes: l’invention d’un psycho-pouvoir", Le Banquet, n°24, février 2007, p. 199-212
  13. ^ Wilson, Bryan Religion in Sociological Perspective 1982, ISBN 0-19-826664-2 Oxford University Press page 89
    "In English, it is a term that designates a religiously separated group, but in its historical usage in Christendom it carried a distinctly pejorative connotation. A sect was a movement committed to heretical beliefs and often to ritual acts and practices like isolation that departed from orthodox religious procedures."
  14. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Sect and Sects". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  15. ^ Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Kısas-ı Enbiyâ, vol. II, page 12.
  16. ^ The Amman Message summary - Official website
  17. ^ The Three Points of The Amman Message V.1

External links[edit]