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José Joaquim de Sousa Reis
José Joaquim de Sousa Reis (a.k.a. Remexido): an engraving ca. 1836
Born (1796-10-19)19 October 1796
Lagoa, Kingdom of the Algarve
Died 2 August 1838(1838-08-02) (aged 41)
Faro, Kingdom of the Algarve
Nationality Portuguese
Other names Remexido
Known for Miguelista guerrilla leader

Remexido or Remechido, the nickname of José Joaquim de Sousa Reis (Lagoa, Estômbar, 19 October 1796 – Faro, 2 August 1838), was a notorious guerrilla leader of the Algarve in Portugal, defending the rights of King Miguel to the Portuguese throne.

He was accused of several crimes, which made him famous by then, although recent studies suggest Remechido have not committed such actions.


He was the son of Joaquim José dos Reis and wife Clara Maria do Carmo da Rocha, both born in Estômbar, in the municipality of Lagoa,[1] and died before a firing squad at the Campo da Trinidade (site of the present school hall of the Tomás Cabreira Secondary School) in Faro on 2 August 1838.

He served as a supporter of Miguel of Portugal under General Tomás Cabreira at the Battle of Sant’Ana, during the Liberal Wars. After the defeat of Miguel in 1834, Remechido found himself savagely persecuted, and took refuge in the mountains of the Algarve where, supported by the mountain people and resorting to guerrilla tactics, he systematically thrashed the government forces.

In order to discover his whereabouts, the government forces publicly interrogate his wife with physical punishments, and when she would not betray him, killed his 14-year-old son, two actions which made him resolve never to surrender and to punish those who had wronged him. He was, however, captured and brought for judgement before the Council of War. Even in his last days he was the victim of injustice: although Queen Maria II of Portugal granted him a pardon, for political and personal reasons the Council of War nevertheless sent him to his death before a firing squad.

Marriage and issue[edit]

He was married in São Bartolomeu de Messines, in the municipality of Silves, on 26 July 1818 to Maria Clara Machado de Bastos, born in Paderne, in the municipality of Albufeira, daughter of Manuel Baptista Machado and wife Inês Inácia de Bastos, and had issue:

  • Manuel Joaquim da Graça Remexido (1820 - Faro, 11 December 1839)
  • José Manuel dos Reis
  • João Raimundo de Sousa Reis (c. 1820 - Silves), married firstly to ... and had issue, and married secondly to ..., and had issue:
    • Maria de Sousa Reis Remexido, married to João Vitorino Mealha, and had issue (among others paternal grandparents of the first wife of Manuel Tito de Morais)
    • Casimira de Sousa Reis Remexido, married to Casimiro dos Santos Velhinho, and had issue
  • Maria Marciana
  • Maria do Rosário
  • Maria da Soledade
  • Maria Marta


External links[edit]