Renal cyst

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Renal cyst
Simple renal cyst.jpg
A simple renal cyst.
SpecialtyUrology Edit this on Wikidata
Renal ultrasonography of a simple renal cyst with posterior enhancement in an adult kidney. Measurement of kidney length on the ultrasound image is illustrated by a dashed line between two "+" marks.

A renal cyst or kidney cyst, is a fluid collection in or on the kidney. There are several types based on the Bosniak classification. The majority are benign, simple cysts that can be monitored and not intervened upon. However, some are cancerous or are suspicious for cancer and are commonly removed in a surgical procedure called nephrectomy.

Numerous renal cysts are seen in the cystic kidney diseases, which include polycystic kidney disease and medullary sponge kidney.

Epidemiology[edit]

Up to 27 percent of individuals greater than 50 years of age may have simple renal cysts that cause no symptoms.[1]

Bosniak classification[edit]

Renal cysts are classified by malignant risk using the Bosniak Classification System. The system was created by Dr. Morton Bosniak, a faculty member at the New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City.[2]

The Bosniak classification categorizes renal cysts into five groups.[3]

Category I

Benign simple cyst with thin wall without septa, calcifications, or solid components. It does not enhance with contrast, and has a density of 0–20 Hounsfield units[4] (about equal to that of water).

Category II

Benign cyst with a few thin septa, which may contain fine calcifications or a small segment of mildly thickened calcification. This includes homogenous, high-attenuation (60–70 Hounsfield units[4]) lesions less than 3 cm with sharp margins but without enhancement. Hyperdense cysts must be exophytic with at least 75 percent of its wall outside the kidney to allow for appropriate assessment of margins, otherwise they are categorized as IIF.[5]
A Bosniak category IIF cyst. This one is 3 cm wide, with calcifications within its wall, seen as very radiodense (white in this presentation) areas in its margins. There is also a septation which is calcified. Yet, the cyst does not show enhancement (uptake of contrast).

Category IIF
This category includes renal cysts with multiple thin septa, a septum thicker than hairline, slightly thick wall, or with calcification, which may be thick. It also includes intrarenal cysts larger than 3 centimetres (1.2 inches) if there is no contrast enhancement.[6]

Category IIF cysts have a 5-10% risk of being kidney cancer, and therefore follow-up is recommended. However, there is no consensus recommendation on the appropriate interval of follow up.[6]

Category III

Indeterminate cystic masses with thickened irregular septa with enhancement. 50 percent of these lesions are ultimately found to be malignant.

Category IV

Malignant cystic masses with all the characteristics of category III lesions but also with enhancing soft tissue components independent of but adjacent to the septa. 100 percent of these lesions are malignant.
Bosniak category
I II IIF III IV
Attenuation[4] 0–20 HU 60–70 Hounsfield units
Walls[4] Thin and smooth Small and fine calcifications Nodular or irregular calcifications Thick, heterogeneous. Gross calcifications with enhancement
Solid components[4] No Yes

Ignore-Follow-Excise[edit]

This system is more directly focused on the most appropriate management. These alternatives are broadly to ignore the cyst, schedule follow-up or perform a surgical excision of it. When a cyst shows discrepancy in severity across categories, it is the most worrisome feature that is used in deciding about management. There is no established rule regarding the follow-up frequency, but one possibility is after 6 months, which can later be doubled if unchanged.[7]

Recommended management[7]
Ignore Follow Excise
Calcification
  • Small, smooth and liquid (moves to lowest point when changing position)
Thick, nodular
If radiodensity > 20 HU without radiocontrast
  • Sharp margin,< 3cm, not completely intrarenal and homogenous
  • Must also be clearly cystic if seen on ultrasound
  • totally intrarenal
  • >3 cm
Septations Thin and smooth Slightly greater than hairline
  • thick
  • irregular
  • nodular
Enhancement (increase with radiocontrast) < 10 HU 10-15 HU > 15 HU
Multilocular If infection All others
Nodularity[7] Very small and nonenhancing All others
Wall thickening[7] If infection All others

Workup[edit]

Advanced polycystic kidney disease with multiple cysts.[8]

The complex cyst can be further evaluated with doppler ultrasonography, and for Bosniak classification and follow-up of complex cysts, either contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or contrast CT is used.[8]

Peripelvic versus parapelvic cysts[edit]

Parapelvic cysts originate from around the kidney at the adjacent renal parenchyma, and plunge into the renal sinus. Peripelvic cysts are contained entirely within the renal sinus, possibly related to dilated lymphatic channels. When viewed on CT in absence of contrast, they can mimic hydronephrosis.[9] If symptomatic, they can be laparoscopically decorticated - removal of the outer layer or cortex.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tada S, Yamagishi J, Kobayashi H, Hata Y, Kobari T (July 1983). "The incidence of simple renal cyst by computed tomography". Clinical Radiology. 34 (4): 437–9. PMID 6872451.
  2. ^ http://urology.med.nyu.edu/conditions-we-treat/renal-cysts
  3. ^ Curry NS, Cochran ST, Bissada NK (August 2000). "Cystic renal masses: accurate Bosniak classification requires adequate renal CT". American Journal of Roentgenology. 175 (2): 339–42. doi:10.2214/ajr.175.2.1750339. PMID 10915671.
  4. ^ a b c d e Muglia, Valdair F.; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos (2014). "Classificação de Bosniak para cistos renais complexos: histórico e análise crítica". Radiologia Brasileira. 47 (6): 368–373. doi:10.1590/0100-3984.2013.1797. ISSN 0100-3984.
  5. ^ De Miranda, C. M.; Maranhão, C. P.; Dos Santos, C. J.; Padilha, I. G.; De Farias Lde, P; Da Rocha, M. S. (2014). "Bosniak classification of renal cystic lesions according to multidetector computed tomography findings". Radiologia Brasileira. 47 (2): 115–21. doi:10.1590/S0100-39842014000200015. PMC 4337166. PMID 25741060.
  6. ^ a b "Bosniak classification of renal cystic disease". GPnotebook. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  7. ^ a b c d David S. Hartman, MD and Ileana Chesaru, MD. "Kidney - Cystic masses". Radiology Assistant. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
  8. ^ a b Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael; Ewertsen, Caroline (2015). "Ultrasonography of the Kidney: A Pictorial Review". Diagnostics. 6 (1): 2. doi:10.3390/diagnostics6010002. ISSN 2075-4418. (CC-BY 4.0)
  9. ^ Zinn, H. L.; Becker, J. A. (1997). "Peripelvic cysts simulating hydronephrosis". Abdominal Imaging. 22 (3): 346–7. PMID 9107666.
  10. ^ Shiraishi, K; Eguchi, S; Mohri, J; Kamiryo, Y (2006). "Laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cysts: 10-year experience from one institution". BJU International. 98 (2): 405–8. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06249.x. PMID 16879687.

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources